You are on page 1of 22

Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted seeds, commonly called

coffee beans, of the coffee plant. They are seeds of coffee cherries that grow
on trees in over 70 countries. Green (unroasted) coffee is one of the most
traded agricultural commodities in the world. Due to its caffeine content,
coffee can have a stimulating effect in humans. Today, coffee is one of the
most popular beverages worldwide.
The energizing effect of the coffee bean plant is thought to have been
discovered in Yemen in Arabia and in the northeast region of Ethiopia, and
the cultivation of coffee first expanded in the Arab world. The earliest
credible evidence of coffee drinking appears in the middle of the fifteenth
century, in the Sufi monasteries of Yemen in southern Arabia. From the
Muslim world, coffee spread to Italy, then to the rest of Europe, to
Indonesia, and to the Americas. Coffee has played an important role in
many societies throughout history. In Africa and Yemen, it was used in
religious ceremonies.
reparing green coffee ~
Coffee berries and their seeds undergo several processes before they become the
familiar roasted coffee. First, coffee berries are picked, generally by hand. Then
they are sorted by ripeness and color and the flesh of the berry is removed,
usually by machine, and the seeds usually called beans are fermented to remove
the slimy layer of mucilage still present on the bean. When the fermentation is
finished, the beans are washed with large quantities of fresh water to remove
the fermentation residue, which generates massive amounts of coffee
wastewater. Finally, the seeds are dried. In this method, the pulped and
fermented coffee is spread thinly on raised beds, which allows the air to pass on
all sides of the coffee, and then the coffee is mixed by hand. In this method the
drying that takes place is more uniform, and fermentation is less likely. Most
African coffee is dried in this manner and certain coffee farms around the world
are starting to use this traditional method. Next, the coffee is sorted, and
labeled as green coffee.
The actual roasting process
The next step in the process is the roasting of the green coffee. Coffee is usually sold in a roasted
state, and with rare exceptions all coffee is roasted before it is consumed. It can be sold roasted
by the supplier, or it can be home roasted.The roasting process influences the taste of the beverage
by changing the coffee bean both physically and chemically. The bean decreases in weight as
moisture is lost and increases in volume, causing it to become less dense. The actual roasting
begins when the temperature inside the bean reaches approximately 200 °C (392 °F), though
different varieties of beans differ in moisture and density and therefore roast at different rates.
During roasting, caramelization occurs as intense heat breaks down starches in the bean,
changing them to simple sugars that begin to brown, changing the color of the bean. Sucrose is
rapidly lost during the roasting process and may disappear entirely in darker roasts. During
roasting, aromatic oils, acids, and caffeine weaken, changing the flavor; at 205 °C (401 °F),
other oils start to develop.
Grading the roasted beans
Depending on the color of the roasted beans as perceived by the human eye, they will be labeled as
light, medium light, medium, medium dark, dark, or very dark. A more accurate method of
discerning the degree of roast involves measuring the reflected light from roasted beans
illuminated with a light source in the near infrared spectrum. This elaborate light meter uses a
process known as spectroscopy to return a number that consistently indicates the roasted coffee's
relative degree of roast or flavor development. Such devices are routinely used for quality
assurance by coffee-roasting busine
(oast characteristics
Darker roasts are generally smoother because they have less fiber content and a more sugary
flavor. Lighter roasts have more caffeine and a stronger flavor from aromatic oils and acids
otherwise destroyed by longer roasting times. A small amount of chaff is produced during
roasting from the skin left on the bean after processing. Chaff is usually removed from the beans
by air movement, though a small amount is added to dark roast coffees to soak up oils on the
beans.
Decaffeination
Decaffeination may also be part of the processing that coffee seeds undergo. Seeds are
decaffeinated when they are still green. Many methods can remove caffeine from coffee, but all
involve either soaking the green beans in hot water (often wrongly called the "Swiss water"
process) or steaming them, then using a solvent to dissolve caffeine-containing oils.
Decaffeination is often done by processing companies, and the extracted caffeine is usually sold
to the pharmaceutical industry.
Storage
Once roasted, coffee beans must be stored properly to preserve the fresh taste of the bean. Ideally,
the container must be airtight and kept in a cool, dry & dark place. In order of importance: air,
moisture, heat, and light are the environmental factors responsible for deteriorating flavor in
coffee beans.
Immatured coffee beans coffee beans after drying

Coffee beans after roasting coffee after grinding


Cappuccino......... [cap-uh-CHEE-no]
A shot of espresso with the remainder
being 50% steamed milk and 50% milk foam/froth. An alternative description is 1/3 espresso, 1/3
steamed milk, 1/3 foamed milk. But again, this depends very much on the maker. Many places use
more steamed milk and less froth. "Cappuccino is essentially a latte topped with milk FOAM."
Another contributor states "The foam should follow the milk to the cup naturally. [if] It is added with
a spoon then [it] is _no_good."

CaffÈ Latte 

Espresso with steamed milk and in some shops, a small cap of foam. It has less foam than a cappuccino.
Definitions blur easily here.
" 'Latte' gets you a _glass_ with a shot of espresso and lots of milk and some foam - half way between a
flat white and a cap. Seems to have originated as the breakfast drink of Sydney commuters. Has become
infinitely fashionable due to the need for brass glass holders, which only the fashionable coffee houses
have (the rest of us wrap the glass in a napkin)"
Wine is a product made from fruits like grapes, berries etc by drying them
and later fermenting them. When the grapes ferment the sugar in the
grapes convert to alcohol. They are available in various colors and textures
depending upon the elements present in them. For example, the wine
exhibits a reddish color when the seeds and the skin of the grapes are
present during the fermentation process. When it is fermented without any
quantity of non-juicy parts they turn pinkish.
The three main categories in wine are fortified wine, sparkling wine or
table wine. It is known as a fortified wine when a little brandy is added
to enrich the alcoholic content. It is termed as still or sparkling depending
upon the CO2 quantity. Table wine is available in a very natural form and
is not like the other wine
Types of Wine
(ed Wine: - (ed wines are made from the
juice and skins of red grapes with the color
coming from the pigments in the skins.
White Wine: -There are many styles of
white wines, as white wines have many
grape varieties.
Fortified Wine: - Fortified wines are the
result of a spirit - generally brandy spirit
being added to a table wine. This results in
the fortified wine having higher alcohol
content.
Sparkling Wine: -Sparkling wines are made
from both red and white grapes. The
difference between a still and sparkling
wine is the presence of bubbles when the
wine is poured into a glass.
°    
    
   

      

 
  
          
       
  
     
  


     
 

°  


         
  
  °    
   
   
 


     °  

 
         
        
    
     
      
  
       
 
 
   
     °
   
    

   
  
  !
   
       

        
    
 

"             
  
 
     
 #           

   #      
  " 
            
    
         
Next, is the settling. Settling involves the yeast cells or any other type of material flowing near the top
of the wine. Once it is at the top, it is then filtered with all sediments being gathered on the filter.
Aging is next, which is where the wine is tightly packed away in special contains that won't allow any
contact with air for months - sometimes even years. Once the wine has been aged, it is transferred into
smaller bottlers then shipped out and sold.

When the wine is bottled, it is done in a way that makes it easy to distinguish the several types of
wine. Colored bottles are preferred, as they will greatly reduce the risk of oxidation, damage, and
several other possible risks. The bottles are also labeled according to their manufacturer and brand as
well, which makes it easy for you to select the wine you are interested in.

Once you have bought a bottle of wine, you should always make sure you store it in the right place. The
most appropriate places to store wine is the basement, underground cellars, or anywhere else that is
damp and cool. No matter where you store your wine at, you should always make sure that
temperature stays around 5 degrees F.

Never store the wine in an area where the temperature fluctuates, as it can harm the wine. A humidity
level of around % is also important, in order to keep the cork moist. If the temperature is too low, it
can also harm the wine. When you buy your wine, you should always make sure that you store it in the
right location. Wine that is properly stored and taken care of can be truly amazing once you drink it -
making it more than worth the time and effort.