A system or method in which many or all of the processes of production, movement, and inspection of parts and materials are automatically performed or controlled by self-operating machinery, electronic devices, etc.

Outline Definition of automation Types of automation Manufacturing versus service automation Models of production Why automate When to and when not to automate .

The fundamental constituents of any automated process are .

It is a technology dealing with the application of Mechatronics Computers Automation is broadly classified into Manufacturing automation service automation Examples: Robots. Automated inspection systems. logistics support tools. CAD/CAM systems. Security systems. CNC machine tools. Material handling systems .

Types of Automation Fixed automation Programmable automation Flexible automation .

Fixed Automation Sequence of processing (or assembly) operations is fixed by the equipment configuration Typical features: Suited to high production quantities High initial investment for custom-engineered equipment customHigh production rates Relatively inflexible in accommodating product variety .

Programmable Automation Capability to change the sequence of operations through reprogramming to accommodate different product configurations Typical features: High investment in programmable equipment Lower production rates than fixed automation Flexibility to deal with variations and changes in product configuration Most suitable for batch production Physical setup and part program must be changed between jobs (batches) .

Flexible Automation System is capable of changing over from one job to the next with little lost time between jobs Typical features: High investment for custom-engineered system customContinuous production of variable mixes of products Medium production rates Flexibility to deal with soft product variety .

long setup time .Types of Automation Automation When to consider High demand volume. products with different options Advantages maximum Efficiency low unit cost flexibility to deal with changes in product low unit cost for large batches flexibility to deal with design variations customized products Disadvantage s large initial investment inflexibility new product Requires. short product life cycles Fixed: GE 1. long product life cycles Batch production. high unit cost. varying demand. relative to fixed Automation large initial investment high unit cost relative to fixed or programmable automation Fixed Programmable Flexible Low production rates.5 billion light bulbs per year Programmable: CNC machines used in batch production Flexible: Honda (113 motorcycle models in 18 months) .

Production Volume and Variety High Programmable automation Flexible automation Product Variety Medium Fixed automation Low Manual operation Low Medium High Production volume .

The greater the relative cost of equipment.Flexible versus Fixed Automation Capital intensity: the mix of equipment and human skills . the greater the degree of automation Resource Flexibility: the ease with which the equipment and employees can handle a wide variety of resources completely manual FIXED AUTOMATION FLEXIBLE AUTOMATION RESOURCE FLEXIBILITY completely automated CAPITAL INTENSITY . the higher the capital intensity The higher the capital intensity.

specialized manufacture of identical products fixed automation . skilled workers Batch production medium lot sizes produced at regular intervals at a rate that exceeds the demand general purpose equipment designed for a higher production rate Mass production manufacture of products in large lot sizes continuous.Types of Production Job shop production specific orders from customers generally characterized by low volumes general purpose equipment.

molds) screws. injection molding machines. presses.) with the use of special tools (dies. nails Flow production manufacture of complex products such as automotive engine blocks. chemical plants and food processing factories . cars. razors continuous products in refineries.Types of Mass Production Quantity production Manufacture of single parts on standard machines (lathes. Milling machines. bulbs. which have to flow through a sequence of operations on material handling devices . nuts. etc.

Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing Integrated approach The same database is used for CAD. CAM. Process planning. quality control Examples windshield camshaft .

8.Reasons for Automating 1. 2. 7. To increase labor productivity To reduce labor cost To mitigate the effects of labor shortages To reduce or remove routine manual and clerical tasks To improve worker safety To improve product quality To reduce manufacturing lead time To accomplish what cannot be done manually To avoid the high cost of not automating . 6. 9. 4. 5. 3.

27 1.S. Taiwan s manufacturing labor cost quadrupled from 1974 to 1984 Korea s manufacturing labor cost doubled from 1979 to 1984.17 1.Cost of labor Japan s labor costs are 5% more than the U.66 19.23 0.20 13.25 .08 1.34 17.K.52 13. and over 50% higher than the U.88 23.59 7.01 6.40 0. Country Germany Japan France USA UK Malaysia South Korea China India 1985 9.35 1995 31.34 7.25 0.6 6. West Germany imports cheap labor to augment domestic labor.19 0. and quadrupled again between 1984 and 1996.

Reasons for Automation Shortage of labor The ratio of the number of workers to the number of retirees in the U. High cost of labor may not always make sense to establish plants in countries with low labor costs Increased productivity value of output per person per hour increases Lower costs reduced scrap rate lower in-process inventory superior quality superior quality shorter (compact) lines Reducing manufacturing lead time respond quickly to the consumers needs rapid response to changes in design . Main reason in Japan. is expected to be 2 to 1 in 2000.S.

Manufacturing versus service industry More like a More like a service organization manufacturing Organization Physical. durable product Intangible perishable product Output can be inventoried Output cannot be inventoried Low customer contact High customer contact Long response time Short response time Regional national or international Local markets Markets Large facilities Small facilities Capital intensive Labor intensive Quality can be easily measured Quality may not be easily measurable Examples Software (often 3-5 times the cost of the equipment) Specialized materials Design of parts/machinery/processes .

g. better products better image better labor relations Safety New process technologies require automation E.. robot controlled thermal spray torch for coating engine blocks with steel with atomized steel particles Potential for mass customization .Reasons for Automation Competition lower prices.

Reasons for not automating Labor resistance Cost of upgraded labor Chrysler Detroit plant .$250 hours/person/year Initial investment Management of process improvements Intellectual assets versus technological assets Appropriate use of technology A systems approach to automation is important l Equipment incompatibilities .1 million hours of retraining GM Wilmington assembly plant .