HYDRO POWER PLANT

General Plant Details
‡ In 1878, the world's first house to be powered with hydroelectricity was Cragside in Northumberland, England. ‡ French engineer Bernard Forest de Bélidor published Architecture Hydraulique which described vertical- and horizontal-axis hydraulic machines ‡ Hydropower plants produce about 24 percent of the world's electricity ‡ The world's hydropower plants output a combined total of 675,000 megawatts ‡ The oldest Hydropower power plant in India is in Darjeeling District in West Bengal. It¶s installed capacity is 130KW and was commissioned in the year 1897 . ‡

World's Hydroelectric Capacity
Country
China Canada Brasil United States Russia Norway India Venezuela Japan Sweden

Annual hydroelectric production (TWh) 585.2 369.5 363.8 250.6 167.0 140.5 115.6 86.8 69.2 65.5

Installed capacity (GW) 196.79 88.974 69.080 79.511 45.000 27.528 33.600

Capacity factor 0.37 0.59 0.56 0.42 0.42 0.49 0.43

% of total capacit y 22.25 61.12 85.56 5.74 17.64 98.25 15.80 67.17

27.229 16.209

0.37 0.46

7.21 44.34

Plant Layout 
Dam  Intake  Turbine Francis Turbine, Pelton Turbine, Kaplan Turbine  Generators  Transformer  Power lines  Outflow

Generators
‡ Hoover Dam has a total of 17 generators, each of which can generate up to 133 megawatts ‡ Current of 16,500 volts moves from the generator to the transformer, where the current ramps up to 230,000 volts before being transmitted ‡ Usually 3 phase synchronous motor is used ‡ P = 3 VI cos O ‡ Pth = (wQH) KW ‡ 1000 ‡ Pactual = Pth X overall efficiency

Types of turbine
‡ Impulse Turbines ‡ These are used where a high head of water, combined with a low flow rate is available. The water is injected onto the turbine buckets or blades through nozzles arranged around the impeller. ‡ Types of Impulse Turbines ‡ Turbo Turbine, Pelton Wheel, Cross flow Turbine ‡ Reaction Turbines ‡ Types of Reaction Turbines ‡ Propeller Turbine, Francis Turbine, Kaplan Turbine ‡ Propeller Turbine ‡ form of a ships propeller, having between three to six blades. The blades and hub are completely submerged in the water which rotates the propeller.

Dam Types
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Poor rock and earth foundation ± Earth dam Narrow dam ± Arch dam Valley is wide, weak foundation ± Buttress dam Any valley width, good foundations ± Steel dam Any valley width, any foundations ± Timber dam Wide valley with gentle slopes ± Earth dam Rocky bed ± Solid gravity dam

Spillways
‡ Excess accumualtion of water endangers the stability of dam structures ‡ Solid gravity ‡ Trough spillway Water flows over the body ‡ Side channel spillway ‡ Saddle spillway ‡ Emergency spillway Water flows through the ‡ Shaft spillway body ‡ Siphon spillway

Conduits
‡ Channels which leads water to turbine and a tailrace which conducts water ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Canal Open Conduits Flume Tunnel Pipeline Closed Conduits Penstock Open conduits ± least expensive but cost increases as height increases ‡ Closed conduits ± Slope is too great for a canal

Penstocks
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Thickness of penstock = pd \ 2fn p = pressure (water hammer) d = internal diameter of penstock f = hoop stress n = joint efficiency

‡ Penstock materials ± RCC (18m head), wood, steel (any head) ‡ Buried penstocks (need cathodic protection) ‡ Exposed penstock (easy maintenance)

Surge Tanks 
Used to prevent water hammer  Serve as supply tank during high loads condition      Types ± Simple Inclined (to save space) Expansion chamber Restricted orifice Differential

Classification of Hydro Power Plant
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ According to head High (100m) Medium (80 ± 100m) Low (25 ± 80mm)

‡ According to nature of load ‡ Base load ‡ Peak load ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ According to quantity of water Run of river (without pond) Run of river (with pond) Storage Pump storage Mini ± macro plants

Impulse (Pelton) turbine 
Tangential flow turbine  For high heads and low discharge  Bucket shape used to guide the flow of water  Uses potential energy  Specific speed Ns = 10 ± 35  Can produce up to 200 megawatts

Reaction turbine (Francis)
‡ Uses both potential and kinetic energies ‡ Inward flow turbine ‡ Used for medium head and discharge ‡ Water flows in closed conduit unlike pelton wheel ‡ Runner is always full of water ‡ Can produce up to 800 megawatts

Kaplan turbine
‡ Used for low head and high discharge ‡ Blades are adjustable and can be rotated about pivot ‡ Can be used up to 400 megawatts

Life of Hydro Plant Components
COMPONENTS Reservoirs Dams Penstocks Building Generators Turbines Pumps AVERAGE LIFE (YEARS) 70 -80 100 50 40 25 5 20 -25

Plants in India
Station Srisaila Dam Sardar Sarovar Bhakra Dam Kalinadi Place Generator units Capacity (MW) 1,670 1,450 1,325 1,225 Andhra Pradesh 6 × 150, 7 × 110 Gujrat Himachal Pradesh Karnataka 6X200, 5X140 5 X 108, 5 X 157 2X50, 2x135, 4X150, 3X50, 3X40 10 X 103.5, 2X27.5, 4X60

Sharavathi

Karnataka

1,469

Nagarjunasagar Andhra Pradesh 1 X 110, 7 X 100.8, 5 X 30

965

‡ Advantages ‡ clean fuel source ‡ domestic source of energy ‡ renewable power source

‡ Disadvantages

REFERENCES
‡ Books ‡ Powerplant Engineering ± Rajput ‡ Website ‡ www.Ishan-international.com ‡ www.Brighthub.com

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.