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A Brief Overview

What is a Spreadsheet?

A spreadsheet is a document that is entirely made up of rows and columns. It is used to list and analyze data.

Editing and formatting ± Excel works much like the tables in MS Word

Creating Charts and Graphs ± You can create colorful charts and graphs from the data in your worksheet. Excel will automatically update the chart to display any changes you make in your data.

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Formulas and functions ± Excel allows you to perform calculations and analyze data. Common calculations include: finding the sum, average or total number of items in a list =sum(B6:B23) =AVERAGE(F4:F8) =count(B2:B25)

**The Excel Window
**

Active Cell F3 Fill handle

Menu bar Tool bar Formula Bar Column labels ROW 3

Row labels

COLUMN F

gridlines

Worksheet tabs

The intersection of a column and a row is called a cell. The letters and numbers of the columns and rows (called labels) are displayed in gray buttons across the top and left side of the worksheet.The Active Cell The worksheet is a grid of columns (designated by letters) and rows (designated by numbers). Each cell on the spreadsheet has a cell address that is the column letter and the row number. Cells can contain either text. . numbers. The active cell is indicated by a dark outline. or mathematical formulas. and the column letter and row number in the headers are raised.

while pressing Tab moves you to the next cell to the right. the characters appear simultaneously in the Formula Bar and cell. . Then type the data in either the cell or Formula Bar and press Enter or Tab. The characters do not actually go into the cell until you press Enter or Tab. first click the cell in which you want to enter your information. Pressing Enter moves you to the next cell down. your mouse pointer becomes a plus icon To enter data into a cell. When working with cells.Entering Data When you enter data.

and non-numeric characters.Resize a Column In a cell. spaces. Clicking the cell. text that does not fit in the cell is hidden. To increase column width. To make the column width fit the contents of its widest cell. double-click the boundary on the right side of the column . drag the right side of the column header with the doubleheaded pointer. If the entered text exceeds the column width it will overlap the boundary into the next column when that column is blank. however. If the next column already contains data. text can be any combination of numbers. reveals its entire contents in the Formula Bar.

From the INSERT menu choose row or column. To delete: Select either the row or column you wish to delete and press the del key or choose delete from the EDIT menu. If you want to insert more than one. Or select a row beneath where you want to insert a new one. You can also access all of these commands from the context menu RIGHT CLICK!! .Insert/delete a row or column To insert: Select a column to the right of where you want to insert a new one. select more than one column or row.

Move or Copy Data Drag and drop to move selected data Grab any edge with your cursor and drag You can copy and paste by selecting cells right click to cut or copy or just the very first one Select either the exact number of cells to paste into right click to paste .

you must SELECT (highlight) the items to be formatted. Click and drag to include them To select several cells which are not adjacent.Format Your Worksheet Formatting your spreadsheet is very similar to formatting in Word. just click on them To select adjacent cells. Many of the same commands work in both. To select individual cells. Remember that before you do any formatting. hold down the Ctrl key and click on each cell to include. Select a column Select a row To select the entire worksheet click upper left corner .

You should be able to experiment with the tools found on each of the tabs. .Formatting Dialog Box This dialog box is very similar to what you learned about in MS Word.

rows or entire spreadsheet before you choose the format for you numbers or dates. columns. .Change Number Format One of the tabs in the format dialog box is new. It is the FORMAT NUMBER tab. this section makes it easy to use the right type of number for the job! Remember to select the cells. Because Excel is all about numbers and calculations.

the contents only will be deleted. . Choose Edit Clear If you select a cell and press the delete key.Clearing Cells Cells can be cleared of just the contents or just the formatting or both.

16. if you click and drag to fill down a column or across a row. months . if you Put 4 and 8 in two cells Select them Click and drag the fill handle Excel will continue the pattern with 12.Fill ACTIVE CELL down. When you hold your mouse over the top of it.fill series of dates.20. Excel will fill in a SERIES. days of the week.etc. Excel can also auto. it will copy that number or text to each of the other cells. It will complete the pattern. If you have two cells selected. times. For example. across. If you have just one cell selected. series FILL HANDLE In the lower right hand corner of the active cell is Excel s fill handle . your cursor will turn to a crosshair.

the calculation executes immediately and the formula itself is visible in the formula bar. See the example below to view the formula for calculating the sub total for a number of textbooks. The formula multiplies the quantity and price of each textbook and adds the subtotal for each book.Formulas Formulas are entered in the worksheet cell and must begin with an equal sign "=". The formula then includes the addresses of the cells whose values will be manipulated with appropriate operands placed in between. After the formula is typed into the cell. .

Operator AND. OR. The following table lists the operators.Formula Operators There are four basic Mathematical Operators when writing a formula. As you begin to write your formulas. keep in mind that information in parenthesis ( ) is always performed first while everything outside the parenthesis is performed left to right. These operators are used to tell the formula what action to perform. NOT + or ^ * or / +& = <> <= >= Operation Logic Test: AND. its symbol. OR. Operation Symbol + * / Symbol Name Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division Plus Sign Dash or hyphen Asterisk Forward slash The next table lists the order of operation for each mathematical operator. NOT Positive or Negative Value Exponentiation Multiplication or Division Addition or Subtraction Text Concatenation Logic Test Equal to Not Equal To Less than or Equal to Greater than or Equal to Order of Calculation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 7 7 7 7 .

Next type the word SUM followed by an open parenthesis. When you have the correct cells selected. type =SUM(B3:B5). you could type the formula "=D1+D2+D3+D4+D5+D6+D7+D8+D9+D10". If you do not want to use the mouse. all functions begin with the = sign. type in the references of the cells you want to sum. release the mouse button. For example. Using the mouse.if you wanted to add the values of cells D1 through D10. You must now tell Excel which cells to sum. A shorter way would be to use the SUM function and simply type "=SUM(D1:D10)". To build a SUM( ) function. click and drag over the range of cells you wish to add. Excel interprets B3:B5 as the range of cells from B3 to B5. type a closing parenthesis and press the <Enter> key.Functions Built-in Excel Functions can be a faster way of doing mathematical operations than formulas. Function SUM AVERAGE MAX MIN SQRT TODAY Example =SUM(A1:A100) =AVERAGE(B1:B10) =MAX(C1:C100) =MIN(D1:D100) =SQRT(D10) =TODAY() Description finds the sum of cells A1 through A100 finds the average of cells B1 through B10 returns the highest number from cells C1 through C100 returns the lowest number from cells D1 through D100 finds the square root of the value in cell D10 returns the current date (leave the parentheses empty) SUM( ) function The SUM( ) function is probably the most common function in Excel. A dotted outline will appear around the cells and the cell range will be displayed in the formula bar. . Example. to add cells B3 through B5. begin by typing the = sign. It adds a range of numbers.

Insert Function Excel has hundreds of prewritten formulas which make it easy to do complex procedures with numbers. This action will display a list of related functions. you could type the function name in the Search for a function box and click OK. Click Go. Click the Insert Function button on the formula bar. Type a brief description of what you want to do in the Search for a function box. In this example. type a description of what you want to do. dates. text. The Insert Function dialog box opens In the Search for a function box. you could type "mortgage payment" or some other keywords. If you'd like help on how to enter the arguments. . which you can then browse through. Tips You can also select a function category in the Or select a category box. and more. times.

press the <Enter> key to complete the function. If the range is not correct. . automatically creates a SUM( ) function.AutoSum AutoSum button In Excel. When you click the AutoSum button Excel creates a sum function for the column of numbers directly above or the row of numbers to the left. which resembles the Greek letter Sigma (shown above). Excel pastes the SUM( ) function and the range to sum into the formula bar. simply select the proper range with your mouse on the worksheet. the standard toolbar has a button that simplifies adding a column or row of numbers. When you have the correct range entered. The AutoSum button.

The function in cell C2 would be "=SUM(A2:B2)".Autofilling Functions Autofill can also be used to copy functions. The autofill feature will automatically update the row numbers as shown below if the cells are reference relatively . This function can then be copied to the remaining cells of column C by activating cell C2 and dragging the handle down to fill in the remaining cells. In the example below. column A and column B each contain lists of numbers and column C contains the sums of columns A and B for each row.

regardless of where the formula is copied. type $ before each part of the cell address. When you copy a formula containing relative references. Absolute references always refer to the same cell. the references are adjusted to reflect the new location. To create an absolute reference. Relative references are the default. The difference between absolute and relative cell references becomes apparent when you copy formulas from one cell to another. .Cell Reference There are two basic types of cell references in Excel: relative and absolute.

hold down the Ctrl key and press the tilde ~ .Relative / Absolute Relative Absolute This shows the formulas used to create the order form below. We used the fill handle which usually gives us the relative reference. For the sales tax calculation we needed to use the absolute reference in cell C9 To toggle between seeing the formulas and seeing the results.

Select the cells you want to merge and click the icon on the toolbar .Merge cells A shortcut to merge cells and center data is the icon on the formatting toolbar.

the sum of those numbers automatically display in the auto Calc space. .The Auto Calculate Space Select any cells with numbers in them.

Printing Tips To only print a small part of your spreadsheet ±Highlight the area you want to print ±From the FILE menu ±choose PRINT AREA ±Set print area .

checking the fit to button will shrink your document proportionally to fit.Page Set Up Tips Two handy items in the PAGE SETUP dialog box (under the FILE menu) Fit to ___ pages Excel will fit your document into the number of pages you specify. If you are working on a chart or diagram that is just a bit over the size for a page. Print your document without those pesky grey gridlines by unchecking the button on the Sheet tab of the page setup dialog box. .

Charts are often used to make large quantities of data more easily understandable. and recognizable on first view. Buffalo Seminary / School Districts 70 60 50 40 Buffalo Seminary / School Districts 70 30 20 60 50 10 40 0 Amhe st Buffalo Seminary / School Districts Buffalo Cla ence East Au o a Kenton O cha d Pa k illiamsville othe 70 20 60 50 Amhe st Buffalo Cla ence East Au o a Kenton O cha d Pa k illiamsville othe 40 Buffalo Seminary / School Districts 30 20 Amhe st Buffalo ¤ 10 Cla ence 0 Amhe st ¢ East Au o a Buffalo Cla ence East Au o a Kenton O cha d Pa k illiamsville othe Kenton O cha d Pa k illiamsville ¤ ¤ ¤ ¥ Sem girls come from all over Western New York ¤ othe ¤ ¤ ¤ ¡ ¢ ¡ £ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ 30 10 0 .Charts A chart is a graphic representation of data. Charts represent data in different ways depending on the type of data that is presented.

Click the Chart Wizard button on the Standard toolbar. .Chart Wizard Select all the cells containing the data you want to chart.

you can click the Custom Types tab to access a list of specialized chart types. . You can change the range if necessary just click in your worksheet and drag to select the appropriate cells.The Chart Wizard will present a selection of chart types. If none of these options suits your needs. Click Next. each of which includes several subtypes. and the Chart Wizard will present a screen verifying the range of data you want to include in your chart.

Here you can specify whether to insert the chart on its own chart sheet or embed it on a worksheet. . type a new sheet name in the As New Sheet: text box. and the Chart Wizard will present options that govern which elements are included in your chart. Click Next once more to advance to the Chart Wizard s final screen. For instance. Excel will create your new chart. (The current sheet is the default. you can click the Titles tab and enter a title for the chart and for the chart axes. If you select the first option. just use the As Object In: drop-down list to choose the sheet where you want the chart to appear. If you select the second option.) After you make a selection.Click Next again. click Finish.

Average Temperat res 90 80 70 60 farenheit 50 Buffalo New York City 40 30 20 10 0 month § ¦ Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep O t N v Dec .

which appear whenever a chart or chart sheet is selected. include options that correspond to the choices the Wizard offers. The format dialog box should be familiar to you by now! farenheit 90 80 70 60 50 Buffalo New York City 40 30 20 10 0 month ¨ Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct N v Dec . you can still modify any specification made while running the Chart Wizard.After you¶ve created a chart. You can also click the Chart Wizard button to run the wizard again and revise their original choices. Average Temperat res You can right click to format any item on your chart. The Chart menu and the Chart toolbar.

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