is any substance or mixture of substances intended for 
preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating pests 

Pests includes insects, rodents, weeds, and a host of other unwanted organisms


I. II.

Accidental / suicidal poisoning Occupational 

Manufacturing, application, harvesting


Bystanders General public 

Who consume food

containing pesticide residues

Route of exposure  Oral ± suicidal intents. or of accidental ingestion ± Food. water  Dermal Occupational  Inhalation 4 .

Classification of pesticides  Insecticides  Herbicides  Fungicides  rodenticides  Acaricides  Molluscides  Miticides  larvicides  pediculocides 5 .

Organophosphates (OP) 2. Biologicals 6. Carbamates 3. Metals/Elementals 7. Insect Growth Regulators (IGR) 6 . Pyrethroids 5. Organochlorine 4.Insecticides 1.

OPs and Carbamates Parathion Carbaryl 7 .

8 .

9 .

OPs and Carbamates OP Parathion AzinphosAzinphos-methyl Diclorvos Naled Fenamiphos Methidathion OxydemetonOxydemetonmethyl malathion Carbamates Propoxur Methomyl Carbofuran Aldicarb Carbaryl Fenoxycarb Thiodicarb 10 Oxamyl .

More than half of the insecticides used are OPs. have high acute toxicity. with 11 .OPs and Carbamates hundreds of OP compounds have been made and commercialized worldwide in a variety of formulations. with oral LD50 values in rat often below 50 mg/kg acute dermal toxicity is also high. OPs generally are more easily absorbed through the skin than carbamates.

carbamates do so reversibly. Oxons of OPs tend to be more toxic (malathion (malathion vs maloxon) maloxon) AChE. inhibition of AChE by OPs causes accumulation of acetylcholine at 12 . ± a major neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous systems.Ops & Carbamate Mechnism  Both inhibit   acetylcholinesterase (AChE). AChE).  Hence. whose physiological role is hydrolyzing acetylcholine. AChE.

13 .

Oximes in the therapy of OP poisoning 14 .

by cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) leading to the formation of an oxon 15 .Biotransformation  only compounds with a P=O moiety are effective inhibitors of AChE  Compounds contain a P=S. liver. a metabolic bioactivation is necessary for their biological activity  an oxidative desulfuration mediated in the liver. P=S.

Biotransformation Paraoxonase 16 .

Toxicity varies. Symptoms in 17 .

Organochlorine DDT Dieldrin 18 .

slow degredation. chlorinated ethane derivatives. aldrin. 3.Organochlorine 1. mirex and Hexachlorocyclohexanes: lindane. Hexachlorocyclohexanes: lindane. . heptachlor. chemical stability degredation. dieldrin. 2. endrin. DDT Cyclodienes: chlordane. lipophilicity. chlordecone  environmental persistence and high lipophilicity. dieldrin. Cyclodienes: aldrin. endrin. and toxaphene. have been banned in most countries in the 19 past thirty years. toxaphene.

20 .

Remaining OCs usually rapidly metabolized and excreted. 21 .Organochlorine dichloro diphenyl trichloroethane dienochlor chlorobenzilate mirex Red = cancelled chlordane heptachlor benzene hexachloride lindane toxaphene endrin methoxychlor chlorodecone dieldrin endosulfan dicofol Most OCs which tended to lipid storage have been cancelled.

22 .

23 . convulsions. death. scabicide. vomiting. pediculocide in lotion and shampoos DDT is very poorly absorbed through skin. diazepam or phenobarbital may be beneficial Lindane. tremor. dizziness. paresthesia. nausea.Poisoning Headache. Lindan: Used as an insecticide. the cyclodienes and endosulfan can be dermally absorbed. coma.

  Inhibits Ca++ ATPase Inhibits Na+. CYP3A) (CYP2 CYP3  interferes with the sodium channels in the axonal membrane  slowdown the closing of sodium channels once they have opened. and are potent inducers of cytochromes P450 (CYP2B. ATPase.Mechanism of Toxic Action  the primary target for DDT toxicity Acute poisoning: CNS Chronic exposure: liver  cause hepatic cell hypertrophy and necrosis.  this action would not contribute to its neurotoxic effect 24 . K+-ATPase.

Pyrethroids Pyrethrins were first developed as insecticides from extracts of the flower heads of Chrisanthenum cinerariaefolium. Bifenthrin Cypermethrin Esfenvalerat e Flucythrinate Fluvalinate Resmethrin Tetramethrin Allethrin Cyfluthrin Dimethrin Cismethrin Deltamethrin Fenvalerate Permethrin Tralomethrin 25 . whose insecticidal potential was appreciated in ancient China and Persia.

26 .

as well as the rate of inactivation (closing) of the sodium channel. 27 . They have much success in the past thirty years high insecticidal potency. were developed. and low tendency to induce insect resistance. the pyrethroids. now account for more than 25% of the global insecticide market 25% Mechanism: disruption of the voltage-gated sodium channels slow the activation (opening). leading to a stable hyperexcitable state. relatively low mammalian toxicity. lack of environmental persistence.Pyrethroids pyrethrins were decomposed rapidly by light so synthetic analogs.

choreoatetosis.  High doses can cause incoordination.Pyrethroids I. vomiting and convulsions. tremor.  there are relatively few reports of human poisonings 28 . in tropical countries in soaked bed nets to prevent mosquito bites  Dermal and inhalation toxicity relatively low. salivation. Used in medicine for the topical treatment of scabies and head lice III. choreoatetosis. Used in the house and in agriculture II. incoordination. Ingestion route more problematic.

29 .

Fungicides 1. Others 30 . Thiocarbamates 3. Phthalates 5. EBDC 4. Metals/Elements 6. Substituted benzenes 2.

Convulsants 31 . Metals/Inorganics Metals/Inorganics 4. Coumarins 2. Indandiones 3.Rodenticides 1.

Herbicides 1. Others 32 . Phosphonates 7. Triazines 5. Nitro-phenolic/cresolic Nitro3. Chlorophenoxy 2. Thiocarbamates 6. Dipyridyls 4.

or of tracers followed by video imaging Biological monitoring Analysis of body fluids and excreta. for parent compound or metabolites. of biosensors.To assay exposure  the use of absorbent cloth or paper patches. usually urine. can provide both a quantitative and a qualitative measurement of absorbed dose.   biochemical parameters measurements of plasma or erythrocyte cholinesterases  Indication of both exposure and of a biological effect 33 .

Question???? 34 .

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