# 10.1 Types of Levers 10.2 Moment of a Force 10.

3 Innovative Efforts in the design of Machines

Devices that are classed as simple machines are: The lever The pulley The wedge The screw The inclined and plane The wheel and axel .  A machine is a device that helps us to overcome a load with less effort or force.

 A lever is an example of a simple machine which turns about a fixed point called the fulcrum (F) when a force. is applied to overcome a resisting force called the load (L). . called the effort (E).

Using a lever to overcome a large load with a small effort .

. The various devices that use the principle of levers.

   Load (L): the boulder to be lift Effort (E): the force used by the man to lift the boulder Fulcrum (F): the point about which the stick turns .

Fulcrum is between the effort and the load -Effort moves a longer distance but the load moves a shorter distance .Fulcrum near to the load .First Class Lever .

Second Class Lever .Load is between the fulcrum and the effort -Effort moves a longer distance but the load moves a shorter distance .

Third Class Lever .Effort is between the fulcrum and the load -Effort moves a shorter distance but the load moves a longer distance .

The Principle of Levers Load (N) x Distance of the = Force or x Distance of the load from the effort (N) force from the fulcrum (m) fulcrum (m) Load x load arm = Effort x effort arm .

2 N .Example 1 What effort is required to keep the lever in a horizontal position? Load x load arm = Effort x effort arm 2 N x 30 cm = effort x (80 ± 30) cm Effort = 2 x 30 N 50 = 1.

Example 2 Calculate the weight of the load. Load x load arm = Effort x effort arm Load x (100 ± 60) cm = 4 N x 100 cm Load = 4 x 100 N 40 = 10 N .

Example 3 At what distance from the fulcrum must the effort act to maintain the lever in a horizontal position? Load x load arm = Effort x effort arm 9 N x 80 cm = 12 N x Y cm Y = 9 x 80 N 12 = 60 cm .

.  When a force is applied to an object. Moment of a force depends on:  The force (F) applied  The perpendicular distance (d) from the pivot to the force (F). it can turn the object about a certain point called the fulcrum or pivot. This turning effect of a force is called the moment of a force.

the greater is the moment of the force . the greater is the moment of the force The longer the distance.Moment of a force = Force x Perpendicular distance from (Nm) (N) the pivot to the force (m) = Fxd  Unit for the moment of a force: Newton-meter (Nm) The greater the force used.

6 m and 1. Moment of the force of the father (clockwise) = 600 N x 0. at 0. .6 m = 360 Nm clockwise Moment of the force of the son (anti-clockwise) = 300 N x 1.Example A father weighing 600 N and his son weighing 300 N. so the father will be moving up while the son is going down.3 m respectively. Explain the movements of the father and his son. Calculate the moment of each force about the pivot and state whether it is clockwise or anticlockwise. away from the pivot of a sea-saw.3 m = 390 Nm anti-clockwise The moment of the force of the son is greater.

. The great pyramids of Egypt and the Great Wall of China were built using simple tools such as levers. wedges and inclined planes. rollers.

 Today we have invented. .  Trains travelling at high speeds on land  Ships and submarines travelling on the sea and under the sea  Supersonic planes flying through the air  Spaces exploring outer space and landing astronauts on the moon. designed and built complex machines.

Two boys are on sea-saw. State the principle of moment. Where must the other boy weighing 40 kg sit? . 2. Name two devices that make use of second class levers. 3. One boy weighing 60 kg sits 2 m from the fulcrum.1.