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Active Filters

Active Filters

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Basic filter responses Filter response characteristic-Butterworth, Chebychev, Bessel Active low pass filter Active high pass filter Active band pass filter Active band stop filter Filter response measurement

Active filters

Passing signals with certain selected frequencies while rejecting signals with other frequencies. Provides controllable cutoff frequencies and controllable gain. 4 basic categories : low-pass, high-pass, bandpass and band-stop.

Basic Filter Response Passband ± range of frequencies allowed to pass through with minimum attenuation ( < -3 dB) Cutoff frequency ± the end of the passband (point where response drops -3 dB) Stopband ± the end of the response. .

Basic Filter Response .

Basic Filter Response How close a tuned amplifier comes to having the characteristics of an ideal circuit depends on the quality (Q) of the circuit. The Q of a tuned amplifier is a figure of merit that equals the ratio of its geometric center frequency to its bandwidth. By formula: .

Active filter frequency-response curves .

a one-pole filter contains one RC circuit. The number of poles in a filter determines its ultimate roll-off rate. a two-pole filter contains two RC circuits. The order of an active filter indicates the number of poles it contains. .Active filter frequency-response Each RC circuit is referred to as a pole. Thus. and so on.

Exact response depends on type of filter and number of poles. Roll-off rate with steeper transition region is good for better filtering of unwanted frequencies.Low-Pass Filter Actual filter responses depend on the number of poles (number of RC circuits contained in the filter). .

Low-Pass Filter 1 fc ! 2T RC Basic LPF circuit .

The same formula is used for the critical frequency for both low and high pass filters.High-Pass Filter A high-pass filter effectively blocks below fc and allowing only the frequencies above fc to pass. .

Band-Pass Filter Allows frequencies between a lower critical frequency (fc1) and an upper critical frequency (fc2) to pass while effectively blocking all others. BW = f c 2 f c1 Centre frequency: fo ! f c1 f c 2 Quality factor (Q) of band-pass filter. fo Q ! BW or 1 Q! DF . Higher Q means narrower bandwidth and better selectivity. Narrow-band (Q >10) and wideband (Q <10).

bandelimination filter. Frequencies above and below fc1 and fc2 are passed while effectively blocking the frequencies between. Also known as band-reject. .Band-stop Filter Opposite of a band-pass.

Chebyshev or Bessel characteristics.Filter response characteristics Each type of filter response can be modified through circuit components values to have either Butterworth. . Identified shape by of response curve.

Phase response is non-linear and phase shift (time delay) varies nonlinearly with frequency.Butterworth Very flat amplitude response in the passband and roll-off rate -20 dB/decade. Normally used when all frequencies in passband must have the same gain. .

Overshoot or ripples can be seen in the passband of the frequency response.Chebyshev Very rapid dB/decade). roll-off rate (greater than -20 Filters can be designed with fewer poles and less complex circuitry. .

Bessel Very linear phase characteristic (the phase shift increases linearly with frequency). . Almost no overshoot on the output and normally used for filtering pulse waveforms without distorting the shape of the input waveform.

high-pass. . Chebyshev or Bessel).Damping Factor Damping Factor (DF) of an active filter circuit determines which response characteristics the filter exhibits (Butterworth. The filter can be a low-pass. band-pass or a band-stop type.

R1/R2 . The negative feedback ultimately determines the type of filter response is produced.Filter Response Characteristics The output signal is fed back into the filter circuit with negative feedback determined by the combination of R1 and R2. DF = 2 . The equation below defines the damping factor.

One-pole has -20 dB roll-off .Three-pole has -60 dB and so on Single . .Two-pole has -40 dB . The numbers of poles determine the roll-off rate.Cut-off frequency and Roll-off rate pole (first-order) are the same for low and high-pass filters.

Cut-off frequency and Roll-off rate To obtain a filter with three poles (third-order) or more. . Example: i) Third order filter cascade a second order and a first order filters ii) Fourth order filter cascade two second order filters. one-pole or two-pole filters are cascaded.

Filter Response Characteristics For 3-pole filter. cascade 2-pole LP and 1-pole LP (-60 dB/dec) For 4-pole filter. cascade 2-pole LP and 2-pole LP (-80 dB/dec) .

. damping factors. Butterworth characteristic is the most widely used because of its maximum flat response. and feedback resistor ratios for up to sixth-order Butterworth filters. Table above shows roll-off rates.

Select R feedback for Butterworth response.Example Determine the capacitance values required to produce an fc=2680 Hz if all Rs are 1. .8 kOHM.

Refer Table: (1st stage) DF=1.solution Both stages must have the same fc = 2680 Hz.22 k.033 uF For Butterworth response.152R2=274 . R3=1.Example . R1=0.848 and R1/R2=0.152 Assuming R2=R4=1. Refer Table: (2nd stage) DF=0.765 and R3/R4=1.235R4=2. C = ½ Rf = 0.033 uF T CA1=CA2=CB1=CB2=0.8k. Assuming equal-value capacitors.235 Assuming R1=270 . fc = ½ T RC Therefore. .

Acl ( NI ) R1 ! 1 R2 .Active Low-pass filters ± One pole Non-inverting amplifier with closed-loop voltage gain in the pass band set by the values or R1 and R2.

Sallen-Key Low-pass filter ± Two pole Cut-off frequency 1 fc ! 2T R A RB C AC B If RA = RB = R and CA = CB = C. then 1 fc ! 2TRC .

Cascaded Low-pass filter ± Three & Four-pole .

Active High-pass filter ± One pole The negative feedback circuit is as same as the low-pass filter with -20 dB/decade roll-off. .

Sallen-Key High-pass filter ±Two pole The positions of the resistors and capacitors are opposite to those in low-pass configuration. .

.Cascading High-pass filter Six-pole high-pass filter consisting of 3 Sallen-Key Two-pole stages (can achieved -120 dB/decade rolloff).

Active Band-Pass filterCascaded Low-Pass & High-Pass Filter Band-pass filter formed by cascading a two-pole high-pass and a two-pole low-pass filter (does not matter in which order the filters are cascaded). .

Cut-off Frequency High-pass filter Low-pass filter f c1 ! 2T 1 R A1 RB1C A1C B1 1 RA 2 RB 2C A 2C B 2 fc2 ! 2T Centre frequency fo ! f C1 f C 2 .

feedback Band-pass filter Maximum gain (Ao) at centre frequency 1 fo ! 2T C R1 R3 R1 R2 R3 and R2 AO ! 2R1 .Multiple.

.

Active Band-stop filter Multiple-feedback band-stop Statevariable band-stop .

Problem 1 Calculate the bandwidth of the filter .

Problem 2 Perform the complete analysis of the amplifier .

The End««« .

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