GOOD MORNING

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM SARASIVATHY EDDIAH KETUA JURURAWAT PENGAJAR .

Uterus 3. Internal genitalia External Genitalia Consists of the vulva. Vagina 2. Internal Genitalia Consists of the: 1.THE FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM The Female Reproductive Organs are divided into: 1. Two Fallopian tube 4. Two Ovaries . External genitalia 2.

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Labia Majora 3. . Vestibular glands/Bartholin¶s gland 8. Vestibule 5.EXTERNAL GENITALIA Vulva consists of: 1. Clitoris 6. Perineum The vulva protects the internal structures of the female reproductive system. Labia minora 4. Hymen 7. Mons pubis/Mons veneris 2.

EXTERNAL GENITALIA .

‡ Covered by skin. ‡ Hair grows on the Mons pubis at puberty and becomes less on reaching menopause (45-55 years) .STRUCTURES OF THE VULVA MONS PUBIS ‡ Is a mound of fatty tissue that covers the symphysis pubis.

‡ Starts at the Mons veneris and joins at the skin of the perineum.LABIA MAJORA ‡ Two large folds of fatty tissue and skin. . ‡ Contains numerous sebaceous glands and fibrous tissue.

EXTERNAL GENITALIA .

‡ Contains numerous sebaceous and sweat glands to smoothen the surface. ‡ Blood and nerve supply is very abundant.LABIA MINORA ‡ Two small folds of skin. . lies between the labia majora. ‡ Pink in colour.

2. Upper fold is known as prepuce. ‡ Both the labia minora and the labia majora join at the perineum and is known as fourchette. Lower fold is known as frenulum.LABIA MINORA Superior part of the labia minora is divided into: 1. .

EXTERNAL GENITALIA .

‡ Blood and nerve supply is very abundant. ‡ It is attached to the symphysis pubis by a set of ligaments known as the suspensory ligaments. ‡ 1cm long. .CLITORIS ‡ Small structure which lies between the prepuce and the frenulum. ‡ Contains sensory nerve endings and erectile tissues same as in the penis in the male.

EXTERNAL GENITALIA .

VESTIBULE ‡ Cleft between the labia minora is known as the vestibule.6cm below the clitoris and contains two ducts known as skema¶s tubule. ‡ Contains 2 openings for the urethra and the vagina. ‡ Urethra lies 1. .

VESTIBULE ‡ The vaginal opening lies two-thirds below the clitoris. ‡ Covered by the hymen. . ‡ The vestibular glands known as the Bartholin¶s gland lie one on each side near the vaginal opening. ‡ They secrete mucus that keeps the vagina moist especially during sexual activity.

. ‡ Lined by stratified squamous epithelium on both surfaces. ‡ Hymen is made up of elastic tissue. ‡ Allows flow of menstrual flow. ‡ Partially occludes the openings of the vagina.HYMEN ‡ Thin layer of mucous membrane.

. ‡ They secrete mucus that keeps the vagina moist especially during sexual activity. ‡ Blocked Bartholin¶s gland cause Bartholin cyst. ‡ Have ducts.VESTIBULAR GLANDS/BARTHOLIN¶S GLAND ‡ Lie one on each side near the vaginal opening. ‡ Size of a small pea.

EXTERNAL GENITALIA .

PERINEUM
‡ Area extending from the base of the labia minora to the anal canal. ‡ Triangular in shape. ‡ Made up of connective tissue, muscles and fat and covered by skin. ‡ Gives attachment to the muscles of the pelvic floor.

EXTERNAL GENITALIA

BLOOD SUPPLY
Arterial supply

‡ Is by the internal pudendal arteries that branches from the internal iliac arteries and external pudendal arteries that branches from the femoral arteries. Venous drainage ‡ Forms a large plexus which drains into the internal iliac veins.

LYMPH AND NERVE SUPPLY Lymph drainage ‡ Is through the superficial inguinal nodes. . Nerve supply ‡ Is by branches of the pudendal nerves.

INTERNAL GENITALIA Vagina ‡ Fibromuscular canal/tube lined with stratified squamous epithelium. ‡ Anterior wall is 7. ‡ Forms a canal from the vulva to the cervix. ‡ Inferior part opens as the vaginal opening. .5cm long and the posterior wall is 9cm long. ‡ Lies in between the bladder in front and the rectum behind. ‡ Lies in the true pelvis.

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3.INTERNAL GENITALIA ‡ Superior part runs obliquely upwards to meet the neck of cervix at an angle of 90 degrees and backwards at an angle of 45 degrees.Two lateral fornix at the side of the cervix.Anterior fornix in front of the cervix.Posterior fornix behind the cervix. 2. ‡ There are 4 fornix where the vagina meets the cervix: 1. .

Outer covering of elastic and areolar tissue. Middle layer of smooth muscle. . The function of the rugae is to stretch the vaginal wall during child birth.STRUCTURE OF THE VAGINAL WALL ‡ The vaginal wall is pink in colour. It has abundant blood and nerve supply. Inner layer of stratified squamous epithelium that forms ridges or rugae. 2. 3. ‡ The vagina has three layers: 1.

.STRUCTURE OF THE VAGINAL WALL ‡ Vagina has no secretory glands but the surface is kept moist by cervical secretions. ‡ The vaginal wall is rich in glycogen. ‡ This bacteria secretes lactic acid. ‡ Between puberty and menopause. ‡ This acidity inhibits the growth of microorganisms and reduces infection. Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria (Doderlien¶s bacillus) are normally present here. which maintains the pH of the vagina at 4.9 and 3.5.

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Venous drainage ‡ A venous plexus drains into the internal iliac veins.BLOOD SUPPLY Arterial supply ‡ Is by the arterial plexus derived from the uterine and vaginal arteries. . which are branches of the internal iliac arteries.

LYMPH AND NERVE SUPPLY Lymph drainage ‡ Is through the superficial and deep iliac glands. Nerve supply ‡ Is by the parasympathetic fibres from the sacral outflow and the sympathetic fibres from the lumbar outflow. .

FUNCTION OF THE VAGINA 1. . Birth canal. 3. Female sexual organ and receives seminal cells during coitus. 2. Allows the flow of menstruatuion.

‡ Weighs about 30-40grams. in front of the bladder and the rectum behind. ‡ Divided into the fundus.5cm long. .5cm thick. ‡ Lies in the true pelvis. ‡ Position is anteverted and anteflexed. ‡ About 7. body and the cervix.INTERNAL GENITALIA UTERUS ‡ Hollow muscular pear shaped organ. 5cm wide and 2.

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.FUNDUS ‡ Dome-shaped part of the uterus. ‡ Two fallopian tubes are situated on each end of the fundus. ‡ The angle where the fallopian tubes meet the fundus is known as the cornua.

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‡ The constricted region between the body and the cervix is the isthmus.BODY ‡ This is the main part and forms 2/3 of the uterus. ‡ Terminates in the narrow cervix. . ‡ Cavity forms a triangle.

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CERVIX ‡ Forms the lower 1/3 of the uterus. ‡ It is 2. . the cervical canal.5cm long and 1.5cm thick. opens into the vagina. ‡ This is the junction between the uterus and the vagina. ‡ The interior of the cervix.

while the external os communicates with the vagina. ‡ The canal between the two os is known as the cervical canal.CERVIX ‡ It has two openings known as the internal os and the external os. ‡ Internal os communicates with the uterus. .

‡ The Epithelial layer in the innermost lining of the cervix is made up of folds and is known as arbor vitae. . This layer helps to propel the sperm upwards.CERVIX ‡ There are 4 fornix where the vagina meets the cervix.

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Ovary. Posteriorly ± Rectum and the pouch of Douglas 3. Superiorly ± Small intestine 5.ANATOMICAL RELATIONSHIP OF THE UTERUS WITH THE OTHER ORGANS 1. Round Ligament 4. Lateral ± Fallopian tube. Inferiorly ± Vagina . Anteriorly ± Bladder 2. Broad Ligament.

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MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE OF THE UTERUS The walls of the uterus are composed of three layers of tissue: ‡ Endometrium ‡ Myometrium ‡ Perimetrium .

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‡ The endometrium is divided functionally into 2 layers. . ‡ These glands secrete alkaline secretions and glycogen.ENDOMETRIUM ‡ Consists of columnar epithelium containing a large number of mucussecreting tubular glands.

Endometrium ‡ The functional layer or the superficial layer is shed during menstruation. ‡ The basal layer is the layer from which a fresh functional layer is regenerated during each cycle. ‡ The thickness and vascularity of the endometrium changes regularly according to the stages of the menstrual cycle. .

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‡ Mass of smooth muscle interlaced with areolar tissue. ‡ Allows the dilatation of the cervix during labour.MYOMETRIUM ‡ Thickest layer of the uterine wall. Inner layer ‡ Contains circular muscle fibres arranged around the cornua and lower part of the uterus. blood vessel and nerves. Arranged in 3 layers of muscle fibres: 1. .

‡ They interveave around the blood vessels to control bleeding. the muscles fibres become more shorter and thicker due to retraction. 3. ‡ During the 3rd stage of labour.MYOMETRIUM 2. . ‡ They contract and retract to push the baby out. Middle layer ‡ Contains oblique and longitudinal muscle fibres arranged around the blood vessels. Outer layer ‡ Contains longitudinal and oblique muscle fibres. ‡ Help in the 1st and 2nd stage of labour.

‡ This forms the Vesico-uterine pouch. ‡ Anteriorly it extends over the fundus and the body where it is folded on the upper surface of the urinary bladder. .PERIMETRIUM ‡ Outer layer of peritoneum.

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PERIMETRIUM ‡ Posteriorly it extends over the fundus. ‡ Laterally only the fundus is covered. . ‡ The peritoneum forms a double fold with the uterine tubes in the upper free border called the broad ligament. the body and the cervix. ‡ The broad ligament attaches the uterus to the sides of the pelvis. then it continues on to the rectum to form the Recto-uterine pouch or pouch of Douglas.

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‡ It is made up of folds and is known as arbor vitae. ‡ The cervical glands only secrete alkaline secretions. ‡ It does not shed during the menstrual cycle. .CERVIX MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE ‡ The endometrium layer in the cervix is thinner than in the uterus. ‡ It has more collagen fibres than muscle fibres. This layer helps to propel the sperm upwards. ‡ 2/3 of the upper part of the cervix is made up of columnar epithelium.

‡ The site where this layer meets the layer of squamous columnar epithelium is the site where Cancer of the cervix always occurs. .CERVIX MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE ‡ The thickness of this alkaline secretions change according to the menstrual cycle but becomes more thick during pregnancy and is known as the operculum (plug). ‡ This plug prevents ascending infection from the vagina to the uterus. ‡ 1/3 of the lower part of the cervical canal is lined with stratified squamous epithelium tissue.

SUPPORTS OF THE UTERUS ‡ The uterus is supported in the pelvic cavity by organs. ‡ Lateral ends are attached to the sides of the pelvis. . These supporting ligaments are: Two Broad ligaments ‡ Formed by a double fold of peritoneum. muscles of the pelvic floor and ligaments that suspend it from the walls of the pelvis. ‡ One on each side of the uterus. ‡ Hang down the uterine tube as though draped over them.

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‡ Pass to the sides of the pelvis. the through the inguinal canal to end by fusing with the labia majora.SUPPORTS OF THE UTERUS Two Round ligaments ‡ Bands of fibrous tissues. ‡ Lie between the two broad ligaments. ‡ One on each side of the uterus. ‡ Maintains the uterus in the anteverted and anteflexed position. .

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.SUPPORTS OF THE UTERUS Two Uterosacral ligaments ‡ Originate from the posterior walls of the cervix and vagina and extend backwards. one on each side of the rectum to the sacrum.

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. ‡ Extend one from each side of the cervix and vagina to the side walls of the pelvis. The Pubocervical fascia ‡ Extends forwards from the transverse cervical or cardinal ligaments and attached to the posterior surface of the pubic bone.SUPPORTS OF THE UTERUS Two Transverse cervical ligaments ‡ Also known as the cardinal ligaments.

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LIGAMENTS OF THE UTERUS .

Menstruation 2. Contract to expel the baby. 3. Site for fertilization and embedding of the egg.FUNCTION OF THE UTERUS 1. . 5. 4. Control bleeding after birth of baby. To protect the fetus during pregnancy.

BLOOD SUPPLY Arterial blood supply to the uterus ‡ Uterine and ovarian arteries. Venous supply ‡ Uterine and ovarian veins. .

BLOOD SUPPLY .

.LYMPH DRAINAGE AND NERVE SUPPLY Lymph drainage ‡ Internal iliac nodes ‡ Aortic lymph nodes Nerve supply ‡ Sympathetic and parasympathetic.

ampulla and the infundibulum. ‡ Divided into the interstitial. ‡ Narrow at the cornua but widens slowly like a trumpet towards the ovary. . ‡ Lie in the upper boarder of the broad ligament. isthmus. ‡ Attached at the cornua of the uterus with the lumen opening into the uterine cavity.FALLOPIAN TUBES ‡ Narrow muscular tube.

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‡ 2. Isthmus ‡ Narrow and short.5cm in length from the uterus and 1cm from the interstitial. . ‡ The diameter of the lumen is 1mm.FALLOPIAN TUBES Interstitial ‡ The narrowest part of the fallopian tubes.

.FALLOPIAN TUBES Ampulla ‡ 5cm in length from the isthmus. wider and long. ‡ Broader. ‡ Fertilization occurs here.

5cm in length. ‡ The longest of the fimbriae is known as the ovarian fimbria as it is in close association to the ovaries. . ‡ End of each tube has finger-like projections called fimbriae. ‡ 2.FALLOPIAN TUBES Indifundibulum ‡ The end point of the fallopian tube. ‡ Function of the fimbriae is to catch the ovum during ovulation.

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‡ Function to sweep the ovum. .STRUCTURE OF THE FALLOPIAN TUBE Consists of three layers of tissue: 1. ‡ Consists of mucus secreting goblet cells that also supply nutrition. ‡ Has a mid-layer of connective tissue that is very vascular. Innermost layer ‡ Lined by ciliated epithelium.

LINING OF FALLOPIAN TUBE .

STRUCTURE OF THE FALLOPIAN TUBE 2. Middle layer ‡ Consists of smooth muscles. ‡ Peristaltic movement helps to propel the ovum towards the uterus. ‡ Consists of 2 layers: inner layer of circular muscle fibres and outer layer of longitudinal muscle fibres.

STRUCTURE OF THE FALLOPIAN TUBE 3. Outer layer ‡ Peritoneal covering. ‡ Draped over the tubes.

ANATOMICAL ASSOCIATION OF THE FALLOPIAN TUBE
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Anterior, posterior and superior ± peritoneal cavity and the intestines. Laterally ± side wall of the pelvis. Inferior ± broad ligament. Medial ± Uterus

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Fertilization of ovum takes place in the ampulla of the fallopian tube. 2. . Propels the ovum to the uterine cavity by peristaltic and ciliary movement.FUNCTION OF THE FALLOPIAN TUBE 1.

LYMPH AND NERVE SUPPLY TO THE FALLOPIAN TUBES Blood supply ‡ Uterine and ovarian arteries. Lymph drainage ‡ Lumbar nodes Nerve supply ‡ Ovarian plexus . Venous supply ‡ Uterine and ovarian veins.BLOOD.

‡ Two ovaries which lie on either side of the uterus near the infundibulum. 2cm broad.OVARY ‡ Are the female gonads or glands. 1cm thick and weigh 5-8 grams. ‡ Attached to the upper part of the uterus by the ovarian ligament and to the posterior part of the broad ligament by the mesovarium. ‡ Lies in the true pelvis. ‡ Are 3cm long. ‡ Have irregular borders. .

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‡ To the broad ligament below the fallopian tube by the mesosalphinx.ATTACHMENT OF THE OVARY ‡ To the upper part of the uterus by the ovarian ligament. ‡ To the posterior part of the broad ligament by the mesovarium. . ‡ To the fallopian tube by the fimbriae. ‡ To the sides by the infundibular ligaments.

‡ Provides attachment and nutrition to the cortex. . ‡ Consists of fibrous tissue. Medulla ‡ Lies in the centre. nerves and lymphatic vessels pass to the ovary through the mesovarium. blood vessels and nerves.STRUCTURE OF THE OVARY Consists of the medulla and the cortex. ‡ Blood vessels.

STRUCTURE OF THE OVARY Cortex ‡ Outer layer. ‡ Consists of connective tissue or stroma covered by germinal epithelium. ‡ Surrounds the medulla. each of which contains an ovum. . ‡ Contains ovarian follicles.

OVARY IN DIFFERENT STAGES ‡ A women is born with 350-400 thousands of ovarian follicles but only around 400 mature and can be fertilized. ‡ Before puberty. one ovarian follicle matures and is known as the graffian follicle. every 28 days. ‡ During puberty. the immature follicles are known as primordial follicles. .

‡ The matured follicle ruptures and releases its ovum. ‡ This process is called ovulation. ‡ The empty graffian follicle that is empty is known as the corpus luteum.OVARY IN DIFFERENT STAGES ‡ This occurs under the influence of the Follicular Stimulating Hormone from the anterior pituitary gland. ‡ Hormone oestrogen is produced during the process when the follicle matures. .

‡ It then produces the hormone human chorionic gonadotrophin (hcg). . ‡ HCG stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone for the first three months of pregnancy. ‡ The corpus luteum functions for 11-14 days if the ovum is fertilized.OVARY IN DIFFERENT STAGES ‡ The corpus luteum produces the hormone progesterone under the influence of the Luteinising Hormone. Menstruation then takes place. ‡ The corpus luteum degenerates if fertilization does not take place and is then known as corpus albicans.

DEVELOPMENT OF OVARIAN FOLLICLE .

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. Nerve supply ‡ Sympathetic and Parasympathetic nerve. . Venous supply ‡ Ovarian veins.BLOOD AND NERVE SUPPLY TO THE OVARY Blood supply ‡ Ovarian arteries.

2.FUNCTION OF THE OVARY 1. Produce the hormones oestrogen and progesterone . Produce ovum.

SUMMARY OF FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS HYPOTHALAMUS Releases Gonadotrophins Anterior Pituitary Glands Follicular Stimulating Hormone Ovarian Follicle Oestrogen Luteinising Hormone Corpus Luteum Progesterone .

SUMMARY OF THE STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE OVUM AND THE ASSOCIATED HORMONES .

‡ A number of physical and psychological changes occur: ‡ Uterus. fallopian tubes and ovaries reach maturity. ‡ The age of puberty varies between 10 and 14 years. ‡ This is called menarche. ‡ This occurs due to influence of the Follicular Stimulating Hormones and Luteinising Hormone from the Anterior Pituitary Glands.PUBERTY ‡ Age at which the internal reproductive organs reach maturity. .

Increase in the rate of growth in height. Pubic and axillary hair begins to grow. . Widening of the pelvis. Breasts develop and enlarge. Increase in the amount of subcutaneous fat.PUBERTY ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Menstrual cycle and ovulation begins.

‡ Occurs between the ages of 45-55 years.DEFINITION OF MENSTRUATION ‡ Flow of blood due from the vagina to the breakdown of the endometrium layer of the uterus. . ‡ The average length of the menstrual cycle is about 28 day. Definition of menopause ‡ Stage when cessation of menstruation and ovulation occurs. lasting usually about 4 days.

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3. 4. 2.PHASES OF THE MENSTRUAL CYCLE 1. Menstrual phase Regenerative phase Proliferative phase Secretory phase .

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‡ Shed as menstruation for 5-7 days.MENSTRUAL PHASE ‡ When the ovum is not fertilized. the corpus luteum starts to degenerate. ‡ The breakdown of the functional layer of the endometrium occurs. ‡ The level of progesterone decreases. .

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‡ Stimulated by the hormone oestrogen. ‡ Takes about 4 days. . ‡ The endometrim is regenerated.REGENERATIVE PHASE ‡ Starts 3 days after menstruation.

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PROLIFERATIVE PHASE
‡ Starts on the 5th day after menstruation. ‡ The endometrium continues to regenerate and becomes thick. ‡ Regeneration occurs from the basal layer until it is 3.5mm thick. ‡ Influence by hormone oestrogen.

SECRETORY PHASE
‡ Influence by the hormone progesterone. ‡ The endometrium becomes more thick and oedematous. ‡ The secretory glands produce increased amounts of watery mucus. ‡ Blood vessels become more torturous. ‡ Endometrium becomes very vascular and soft to receive the ovum if fertilization occurs. ‡ This phase last for 14 days.

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Endometrial glands 2. Blood from broken capillaries 4. Unfertilised ovum .CONTENTS OF MENSTRUATION Contains secretions from: 1. Endometrial cells 3.

‡ Also exists in the male in a rudimentary form. .BREASTS OR MAMMARY GLANDS ‡ Accessory glands of the female reproductive system. ‡ Female breasts are small and immature until puberty.

FEMALE BREAST .

‡ Hormone oxytocin from the posterior pituitary gland stimulates the release of milk. . ‡ These hormones influence further growth during pregnancy.BREASTS OR MAMMARY GLANDS ‡ Develop after puberty under influence of oestrogen and progesterone. ‡ Hormone prolactin from the anterior pituitary gland stimulates the production of milk.

FEMALE BREAST .

. ‡ Size depends on the amount of adipose tissue and not on the glandular tissue. ‡ Lies horizontally at the 2nd till the 6th ribs at the lateral part of the sternum.LOCATION AND SIZE OF THE BREAST ‡ Lies in front of the pectoris major muscle. ‡ Attached by the fascia of the pectoris muscle. ‡ Function does not depend on size.

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‡ Each breast consists of about 20-30 lobes of glandular tissue. ‡ The lobules consist of a cluster of alveoli which open into small ducts. ‡ These ducts unite to form large excretory ducts called lactiferous ducts. fibrous and fatty tissue.STRUCTURE OF THE BREAST ‡ Consists of glandular. ‡ The lactiferous ducts converge towards the centre of the breast. . ‡ The alveoli are lined by acini cells which produce milk.

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‡ From the lactiferous sinus. a narrow duct opens to the surface at the nipple to form the ampulla. ‡ The breasts are held in place by the suspensory ligaments or the Cooper¶s ligaments. ‡ Ampulla is the store for milk. .STRUCTURE OF THE BREAST ‡ Here they form dilatations or reservoirs for milk called lactiferous sinus. ‡ Fat covers the surface of the glands and between the lobes. ‡ Fibrous tissue supports the glandular tissue and ducts.

‡ Made up of dense connective tissue and smooth muscle fibres.STRUCTURE OF THE BREAST Nipple ‡ Small conical eminence at the centre of the breast. ‡ Surrounded by a pigmented area called areola. .

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‡ These help to lubricate the nipple during lactation . ‡ On the surface of the areola are numerous sebaceous glands called Milk Montgomery¶s tubercles.NIPPLE ‡ Also contains a lot of blood vessels and sensitive nerve endings.

mammary and intercostals arteries. 5th and 6th thoracic nerve containing sympathetic nerve fibres.BLOOD. Venous supply ‡ Axillary and mammary veins. Lymphatic drainage ‡ Axillary lymph vessels and nodes ‡ May also drain through the internal mammary nodes if the superficial route is blocked. LYMPH AND NERVE SUPPLY Arterial blood supply to the breast ‡ Axillary. Nerve supply ‡ From the branches from the 4th. .

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Secretion of milk . Produce milk. Production of milk . Physiology of milk production Consists of three stages: 1. Flow of milk 3.FUNCTION OF THE BREAST 1.lactation 2.

‡ As it collects in the alveoli. it is slowly pushed towards the lactiferous ducts. ‡ Milk flows to the alveoli.PRODUCTION OF MILK .LACTATION ‡ High levels of oestrogen prevents the secretion of prolactin. ‡ Prolactin reacts on the acini cells to produce milk. ‡ The anterior pituitary gland stimulates the secretion of hormone prolactin. ‡ Level of oestrogen falls after delivery. .

.FLOW OF MILK ‡ Milk release is controlled by oxytocin secreted by the posterior pituitary gland. ‡ This expels the milk from the alveoli to the ampulla. ‡ Oxytocin causes the smooth muscles in the breast to contract.

.SECRETION OF MILK ‡ When the baby suckles the breasts. ‡ Milk stored under the areola in the ampulla is the pushed into the baby¶s mouth. it compresses on the ampulla.

. ‡ An impulse is send to the anterior pituitary gland in the hypothalamus.NEURO HORMONAL REFLEX ‡ The suckling of the child stimulates the many touch receptors around the mother¶s nipple. ‡ Prolactin reacts on the acini cells to produce milk. ‡ The anterior pituitary gland stimulates the secretion of hormone prolactin.

‡ The oxytocin stimulates the smooth muscles to contract and release of milk. ‡ The posterior pituitary gland releases oxytocin into the blood.NEURO HORMONAL REFLEX ‡ When the alveoli are full of milk and the level of prolactin in the blood is high. another impulse is send to the posterior pituitary gland in the hypothalamus. .

CANCER BREAST .

MASTECTOMY .

FETUS IN UTERO .

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