Curtain wall Curtain wall

? !s CUrTA!N WaLL? ? !s CUrTA!N WaLL?
³³Curtain wall Curtain wall is a term used to describe a is a term used to describe a
building facade which does not carry any dead building facade which does not carry any dead
load from the building other than its own dead load from the building other than its own dead
load. load.
³³These loads are transferred to the main building These loads are transferred to the main building
structure through connections at floors or structure through connections at floors or
columns of the building. columns of the building.
³³A curtain wall is designed to resist air and water A curtain wall is designed to resist air and water
infiltration, wind forces acting on the building, infiltration, wind forces acting on the building,
seismic forces, and its own dead load forces. seismic forces, and its own dead load forces.
? !s CUrTA!N WaLL? ? !s CUrTA!N WaLL?
³³Curtain walls are typically designed with Curtain walls are typically designed with
extruded aluminum members, although the extruded aluminum members, although the
first curtain walls were made of steel. The first curtain walls were made of steel. The
aluminum frame is typically in filled with aluminum frame is typically in filled with
glass, which provides an architecturally glass, which provides an architecturally
pleasing building, as well as benefits such pleasing building, as well as benefits such
as day lighting and environmental control. as day lighting and environmental control.
Other common in fills include: stone veneer, Other common in fills include: stone veneer,
metal panels, louvers, and operable metal panels, louvers, and operable
windows or vents. windows or vents.
? !s CUrTA!N WaLL? ? !s CUrTA!N WaLL?
³³Curtain walls are designed to span multiple Curtain walls are designed to span multiple
floors, and take into consideration design floors, and take into consideration design
requirements such as: thermal expansion requirements such as: thermal expansion
and contraction, building sway and and contraction, building sway and
movement, water diversion, and thermal movement, water diversion, and thermal
efficiency for cost efficiency for cost··effective heating, cooling, effective heating, cooling,
and lighting in the building. and lighting in the building.
CURTA!N WALL CURTA!N WALL
Curtain wall Curtain wall
³³The purposes of providing a curtain wall on a The purposes of providing a curtain wall on a
building are to provide the aesthetic character of building are to provide the aesthetic character of
the building skin and to protect the building the building skin and to protect the building
interior from the effects of natural phenomena interior from the effects of natural phenomena
including sunlight exposure, wind, rain, including sunlight exposure, wind, rain,
earthquake, and temperature. earthquake, and temperature.
³³various facing materials have been utilized in the various facing materials have been utilized in the
curtain wall construction such as glass, stone, curtain wall construction such as glass, stone,
aluminum plate, aluminum composite plate, steel aluminum plate, aluminum composite plate, steel
plate, and composite foam panel etc. plate, and composite foam panel etc.
istory istory ·· ··Nedieval curtain wall Nedieval curtain wall
³³Curtain wall is used to describe the set of walls Curtain wall is used to describe the set of walls
that surround and protect the interior (bailey) of a that surround and protect the interior (bailey) of a
medieval castle. medieval castle.
³³These walls are often connected by a series of These walls are often connected by a series of
towers or mural towers to add strength and towers or mural towers to add strength and
provide for better defense of the ground outside provide for better defense of the ground outside
the castle, and are connected like a curtain draped the castle, and are connected like a curtain draped
between these posts. between these posts.
³³Additional provisions and buildings were often Additional provisions and buildings were often
enclosed by such a construction, designed to help enclosed by such a construction, designed to help
a garrison last longer during a siege by enemy a garrison last longer during a siege by enemy
forces. forces.
istory istory ·· ··Nodern curtain wall Nodern curtain wall
³³Prior to the mid Prior to the mid··20th Century, buildings were 20th Century, buildings were
constructed with the exterior walls of the building constructed with the exterior walls of the building
supporting the load of the entire structure. supporting the load of the entire structure.
³³ With the advent of the structural concept of shear With the advent of the structural concept of shear
walls and building cores, the exterior walls of walls and building cores, the exterior walls of
buildings no longer had to support high dead loads buildings no longer had to support high dead loads
and could be designed as much lighter and more and could be designed as much lighter and more
open than the brick and steel facades of the past. open than the brick and steel facades of the past.
³³This gave way to increased use of glass as an This gave way to increased use of glass as an
exterior facade, and the modern day curtain wall exterior facade, and the modern day curtain wall
was born. was born.
³³The first curtain walls were made with steel The first curtain walls were made with steel
mullions, and the plate glass was attached to the mullions, and the plate glass was attached to the
mullions with asbestos or fiberglass modified mullions with asbestos or fiberglass modified
glazing compound. glazing compound.
³³The first curtain wall installed in New York City The first curtain wall installed in New York City
was this type of construction. was this type of construction.
³³Earlier modernist examples are the Bauhaus in Earlier modernist examples are the Bauhaus in
Dessau and the allidie Building in San Francisco. Dessau and the allidie Building in San Francisco.
³³The 1370's began the widespread use of The 1370's began the widespread use of
aluminum extrusions for mullions. Aluminum offers aluminum extrusions for mullions. Aluminum offers
the unique advantage of being able to be easily the unique advantage of being able to be easily
extruded into nearly any shape required for design extruded into nearly any shape required for design
and aesthetic purposes. Today, the design and aesthetic purposes. Today, the design
complexity and shapes available are nearly complexity and shapes available are nearly
limitless. Custom shapes can be designed and limitless. Custom shapes can be designed and
manufactured with relative ease. manufactured with relative ease.
Stick systems Stick systems
³³The vast majority of curtain walls are The vast majority of curtain walls are
installed long pieces (referred to as installed long pieces (referred to as sticks sticks) )
between floors vertically and between between floors vertically and between
vertical members horizontally. Framing vertical members horizontally. Framing
members may be fabricated in a shop members may be fabricated in a shop
environment, but all installation and glazing environment, but all installation and glazing
is typically performed at the jobsite. is typically performed at the jobsite.
Stick system Stick system
Unitized systems Unitized systems
³³Unitized curtain walls entail factory fabrication and Unitized curtain walls entail factory fabrication and
assembly of panels and may include factory assembly of panels and may include factory
glazing. glazing.
³³ These completed units are hung on the building These completed units are hung on the building
structure to form the building enclosure. Unitized structure to form the building enclosure. Unitized
curtain wall has the advantages of: speed, lower curtain wall has the advantages of: speed, lower
field installation costs, and quality control within field installation costs, and quality control within
an interior climate controlled environment. The an interior climate controlled environment. The
economic benefits are typically realized on large economic benefits are typically realized on large
projects or in areas of high field labor rates. projects or in areas of high field labor rates.
Unitized Unitized
Unit mulli Unit mullion on system system
³³This system is a compromise between the stick This system is a compromise between the stick
and unitized systems. and unitized systems.
³³Pre Pre··assembled units assembled units- -pre pre··glazed or glazed on glazed or glazed on··
site site- -are installed behind one are installed behind one·· or two or two··story story
individual mullions. individual mullions.
³³The system offers some of the factory quality The system offers some of the factory quality
control of the unitized system, a little less cost, control of the unitized system, a little less cost,
and a shorter lead time because there is less and a shorter lead time because there is less
customization than with a fully unitized system. customization than with a fully unitized system.
³³Field labor time and erection costs are more in line Field labor time and erection costs are more in line
with the stick system. with the stick system.
Column cover and spandrel Column cover and spandrel
systems systems
³³ These systems are relatively new and are becoming These systems are relatively new and are becoming
increasingly popular because they offer some aesthetic increasingly popular because they offer some aesthetic
options. options.
³³ These units can be pre These units can be pre·· or site or site··assembled with infill vision assembled with infill vision
glass and spandrel panels between the columns, and with glass and spandrel panels between the columns, and with
column covers. column covers.
³³ The vision glass units can be entirely pre The vision glass units can be entirely pre··assembled or assembled or
assembled on assembled on··site. The systems allow for the structural site. The systems allow for the structural
framework of the building to be expressed in the facade framework of the building to be expressed in the facade
and visually integrated with the fenestration. and visually integrated with the fenestration.
³³ Since these systems are customized, lead times are longer Since these systems are customized, lead times are longer
and framing construction tolerances more critical because and framing construction tolerances more critical because
the units are manufactured to fit precisely within the the units are manufactured to fit precisely within the
column bays. column bays.
Point Point··loaded structural glazing loaded structural glazing
systems systems
³³Point Point··loaded structural glazing systems are loaded structural glazing systems are
structural structural··quality, laminated and tempered or quality, laminated and tempered or
heat heat··strengthened glass supported with strengthened glass supported with
proprietary hardware embedded at fixing points proprietary hardware embedded at fixing points
laminated into the glass, eliminating the visible laminated into the glass, eliminating the visible
metal framework of conventional systems. metal framework of conventional systems.
³³The variety of available support systems The variety of available support systems
available available- -including tension cables, trusses, and including tension cables, trusses, and
glass mullions glass mullions- -provide considerable freedom and provide considerable freedom and
aesthetic options within varying degrees of aesthetic options within varying degrees of
transparency, stiffness, and cost. transparency, stiffness, and cost.
Rain screen principle Rain screen principle
³³A common feature in curtain wall technology, the A common feature in curtain wall technology, the
rain screen principle theorizes that equilibrium of rain screen principle theorizes that equilibrium of
air pressure between the outside and inside of the air pressure between the outside and inside of the
"rain screen" prevents water penetration into the "rain screen" prevents water penetration into the
building itself. building itself.
³³For example the glass is captured between an For example the glass is captured between an
inner and an outer gasket in a space called the inner and an outer gasket in a space called the
glazing rebate. The glazing rebate is ventilated to glazing rebate. The glazing rebate is ventilated to
the exterior so that the pressure on the inner and the exterior so that the pressure on the inner and
outer sides of the exterior gasket is the same. outer sides of the exterior gasket is the same.
When the pressure is equal across this gasket When the pressure is equal across this gasket
water cannot be drawn through joints or defects in water cannot be drawn through joints or defects in
the gasket. the gasket.
Design Design
³³Curtain wall systems must be designed to Curtain wall systems must be designed to
handle all loads imposed on it as well as handle all loads imposed on it as well as
keep air and water from penetrating the keep air and water from penetrating the
building envelope. building envelope.
6ads 6ads
³³The loads imposed on the curtain wall are The loads imposed on the curtain wall are
transferred to the building structure through transferred to the building structure through
the anchors which attach the mullions to the the anchors which attach the mullions to the
building. The building structure needs to be building. The building structure needs to be
designed and account for these loads. designed and account for these loads.
Dead load Dead load
³³Dead load Dead load is defined as the weight of structural is defined as the weight of structural
elements and the permanent features on the elements and the permanent features on the
structure. !n the case of curtain walls, this load is structure. !n the case of curtain walls, this load is
made up of the weight of the mullions, anchors, made up of the weight of the mullions, anchors,
and other structural components of the curtain and other structural components of the curtain
wall, as well as the weight of the infill material. wall, as well as the weight of the infill material.
Additional dead loads imposed on the curtain wall, Additional dead loads imposed on the curtain wall,
such as sunshades, must be accounted for in the such as sunshades, must be accounted for in the
design of the curtain wall components and design of the curtain wall components and
anchors. anchors.
Wind load Wind load
³³ Wind load Wind load acting on the building is the result of wind acting on the building is the result of wind
blowing on the building. This wind pressure must be blowing on the building. This wind pressure must be
resisted by the curtain wall system since it envelopes and resisted by the curtain wall system since it envelopes and
protects the building. protects the building.
³³ Wind loads vary greatly throughout the world, with the Wind loads vary greatly throughout the world, with the
largest wind loads being near the coast in hurricane largest wind loads being near the coast in hurricane··prone prone
regions. Building codes are used to determine the required regions. Building codes are used to determine the required
design wind loads for a specific project location. design wind loads for a specific project location.
³³ Often, a wind tunnel study is performed on large or Often, a wind tunnel study is performed on large or
unusually shaped buildings. A scale model of the building unusually shaped buildings. A scale model of the building
and the surrounding vicinity is built and placed in a wind and the surrounding vicinity is built and placed in a wind
tunnel to determine the wind pressures acting on the tunnel to determine the wind pressures acting on the
structure in question. structure in question.
³³ These studies take into account vortex shedding around These studies take into account vortex shedding around
corners and the effects of surrounding buildings. corners and the effects of surrounding buildings.
Seismic load Seismic load
³³Seismic loads Seismic loads need to be addressed in the design need to be addressed in the design
of curtain wall components and anchors. !n most of curtain wall components and anchors. !n most
situations, the curtain wall is able to naturally situations, the curtain wall is able to naturally
withstand seismic and wind induced building sway withstand seismic and wind induced building sway
because of the space provided between the because of the space provided between the
glazing infill and the mullion. glazing infill and the mullion.
³³!n tests, standard curtain wall systems are able to !n tests, standard curtain wall systems are able to
withstand three inches (7S mm) of relative floor withstand three inches (7S mm) of relative floor
movement without glass breakage or water movement without glass breakage or water
leakage. Anchor design needs to be reviewed, leakage. Anchor design needs to be reviewed,
however, since a large floor however, since a large floor··to to··floor displacement floor displacement
can place high forces on anchors. can place high forces on anchors.
Snow load Snow load
³³Snow loads Snow loads and live loads are not typically and live loads are not typically
an issue in curtain walls, since curtain walls an issue in curtain walls, since curtain walls
are designed to be vertical or slightly are designed to be vertical or slightly
inclined. !f the slope of a wall exceeds 20 inclined. !f the slope of a wall exceeds 20
degrees or so, these loads may need to be degrees or so, these loads may need to be
considered. considered.
Thermal load Thermal load
³³ Thermal loads Thermal loads are induced in a curtain wall system are induced in a curtain wall system
because aluminum has a relatively high coefficient of because aluminum has a relatively high coefficient of
thermal expansion. thermal expansion.
³³ This means that over the span of a couple of floors, the This means that over the span of a couple of floors, the
curtain wall will expand and contract some distance, curtain wall will expand and contract some distance,
relative to its length and the temperature differential. This relative to its length and the temperature differential. This
expansion and contraction is accounted for by cutting expansion and contraction is accounted for by cutting
horizontal mullions slightly short and allowing a space horizontal mullions slightly short and allowing a space
between the horizontal and vertical mullions. between the horizontal and vertical mullions.
³³ !n unitized curtain wall, a gap is left between units, which !n unitized curtain wall, a gap is left between units, which
is sealed from air and water penetration by wiper gaskets. is sealed from air and water penetration by wiper gaskets.
vertically, anchors carrying wind load only (not dead load) vertically, anchors carrying wind load only (not dead load)
are slotted to account for movement. !ncidentally, this slot are slotted to account for movement. !ncidentally, this slot
also accounts for live load deflection and creep in the floor also accounts for live load deflection and creep in the floor
slabs of the building structure. slabs of the building structure.
Blast load Blast load
³³Accidental explosions and terrorist threats have Accidental explosions and terrorist threats have
brought on increased concern for the fragility of a brought on increased concern for the fragility of a
curtain wall system in relation to blast loads. The curtain wall system in relation to blast loads. The
bombing of the Alfred P. Nurrah Federal Building bombing of the Alfred P. Nurrah Federal Building
in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, has spawned much in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, has spawned much
of the current research and mandates in regards of the current research and mandates in regards
to building response to blast loads. Currently, all to building response to blast loads. Currently, all
new federal buildings in the U.S., and all U.S. new federal buildings in the U.S., and all U.S.
embassies built on foreign soil, must have some embassies built on foreign soil, must have some
provision for resistance to bomb blasts. provision for resistance to bomb blasts.
Blast load Blast load
³³Since the curtain wall is at the exterior of the Since the curtain wall is at the exterior of the
building, it becomes the first line of defense in a building, it becomes the first line of defense in a
bomb attack. As such, blast resistant curtain walls bomb attack. As such, blast resistant curtain walls
must be designed to withstand such forces without must be designed to withstand such forces without
compromising the interior of the building to compromising the interior of the building to
protect its occupants. Since blast loads are very protect its occupants. Since blast loads are very
high loads with short durations, the curtain wall high loads with short durations, the curtain wall
response should be analyzed in a dynamic load response should be analyzed in a dynamic load
analysis, with full analysis, with full··scale mock scale mock··up testing performed up testing performed
prior to design completion and installation. prior to design completion and installation.
Blast load Blast load
³³Blast resistant glazing consists of laminated Blast resistant glazing consists of laminated
glass, which is meant to break but not glass, which is meant to break but not
separate from the mullions. Similar separate from the mullions. Similar
technology is used in hurricane technology is used in hurricane··prone areas prone areas
for the protection from wind for the protection from wind··borne debris. borne debris.
!nfiltration !nfiltration
³³Air infiltration Air infiltration is the air which passes is the air which passes
through the curtain wall from the exterior to through the curtain wall from the exterior to
the interior of the building. The air is the interior of the building. The air is
infiltrated through the gaskets, through infiltrated through the gaskets, through
imperfect joinery between the horizontal imperfect joinery between the horizontal
and vertical mullions, through weep holes, and vertical mullions, through weep holes,
and through imperfect sealing. and through imperfect sealing.
!nfiltration !nfiltration
³³The American Architectural Nanufacturers The American Architectural Nanufacturers
Association (AANA) is the governing body in Association (AANA) is the governing body in
the U.S. which sets the acceptable levels of the U.S. which sets the acceptable levels of
air infiltration through a curtain wall. This air infiltration through a curtain wall. This
limit is expressed (in America) in cubic feet limit is expressed (in America) in cubic feet
per minute per square foot of wall area at a per minute per square foot of wall area at a
given test pressure. (Currently, most given test pressure. (Currently, most
standards cite less than 0.6 CFN/sq ft as standards cite less than 0.6 CFN/sq ft as
acceptable). acceptable).
!nfiltration !nfiltration
³³Water penetration Water penetration is defined as any water passing is defined as any water passing
from the exterior of the building through to the from the exterior of the building through to the
interior of the curtain wall system. Sometimes, interior of the curtain wall system. Sometimes,
depending on the building specifications, a small depending on the building specifications, a small
amount of controlled water on the interior is amount of controlled water on the interior is
deemed acceptable. deemed acceptable.
³³ To test the ability of a curtain wall to withstand To test the ability of a curtain wall to withstand
water penetration, a water rack is placed in front a water penetration, a water rack is placed in front a
mock mock··up of the wall with a positive air pressure up of the wall with a positive air pressure
applied to the wall. This represents a wind driven applied to the wall. This represents a wind driven
heavy rain on the wall. Field tests are also heavy rain on the wall. Field tests are also
performed on installed curtain walls, in which a performed on installed curtain walls, in which a
water hose is sprayed on the wall for a specified water hose is sprayed on the wall for a specified
time. time.
Deflection Deflection
³³One of the disadvantages of using aluminum for One of the disadvantages of using aluminum for
mullions is that its modulus of elasticity is about mullions is that its modulus of elasticity is about
one one··third that of steel. This translates to three third that of steel. This translates to three
times more deflection in an aluminum mullion times more deflection in an aluminum mullion
compared to the same steel section. Building compared to the same steel section. Building
specifications set deflection limits for perpendicular specifications set deflection limits for perpendicular
(wind (wind··induced) and in induced) and in··plane (dead load plane (dead load··induced) induced)
deflections. !t is important to note that these deflections. !t is important to note that these
deflection limits are not imposed due to strength deflection limits are not imposed due to strength
capacities of the mullions. capacities of the mullions.
Deflection Deflection
³³Deflection in mullions is controlled by different Deflection in mullions is controlled by different
shapes and depths of curtain wall members. The shapes and depths of curtain wall members. The
depth of a given curtain wall system is usually depth of a given curtain wall system is usually
controlled by the area moment of inertia required controlled by the area moment of inertia required
to keep deflection limits under the specification. to keep deflection limits under the specification.
³³Another way to limit deflections in a given section Another way to limit deflections in a given section
is to add steel reinforcement to the inside tube of is to add steel reinforcement to the inside tube of
the mullion. Since steel deflects at 1/3 the rate of the mullion. Since steel deflects at 1/3 the rate of
aluminum, the steel will absorb much of the aluminum, the steel will absorb much of the
system's deflection at a lower cost or smaller system's deflection at a lower cost or smaller
depth. depth.
Stress Stress
³³ Contrary to popular belief, stress is not related to Contrary to popular belief, stress is not related to
deflection, it is a separate criterion in curtain wall design deflection, it is a separate criterion in curtain wall design
and analysis. and analysis.
³³ For example, the advantage of some curtain wall designs is For example, the advantage of some curtain wall designs is
the ability to span more than one floor (commonly known the ability to span more than one floor (commonly known
as twin as twin··span or multi span or multi··span, as opposed to single or simple span, as opposed to single or simple
span). span).
³³ Nultiple floor spans significantly reduce the required area Nultiple floor spans significantly reduce the required area
moment of inertia for a mullion. The stresses in the moment of inertia for a mullion. The stresses in the
mullion, however, are significantly increased in a multiple mullion, however, are significantly increased in a multiple
span, giving way for a higher required section modulus (S, span, giving way for a higher required section modulus (S,
expressed in cubic inches) in the mullion. expressed in cubic inches) in the mullion.
Stress Stress
³³As mentioned above, the deflection of As mentioned above, the deflection of
aluminum is three times greater than an aluminum is three times greater than an
equivalent steel shape under the same load. equivalent steel shape under the same load.
owever, the allowable stress in that same owever, the allowable stress in that same
aluminum member may be roughly aluminum member may be roughly
equivalent to or higher than its steel equivalent to or higher than its steel
counterpart. This means that aluminum counterpart. This means that aluminum
mullions can be as strong as or stronger mullions can be as strong as or stronger
than steel members. than steel members.
Thermal criteria Thermal criteria
³³Relative to other building components, Relative to other building components,
aluminum has a high heat transfer aluminum has a high heat transfer
coefficient, meaning that aluminum is a very coefficient, meaning that aluminum is a very
good conductor of heat. This translates into good conductor of heat. This translates into
high heat loss through aluminum curtain high heat loss through aluminum curtain
wall mullions. There are several ways to wall mullions. There are several ways to
compensate for this heat loss, the most compensate for this heat loss, the most
common way being the addition of thermal common way being the addition of thermal
breaks. breaks.
Thermal criteria Thermal criteria
³³Thermal breaks Thermal breaks are barriers between are barriers between
exterior metal and interior metal, usually exterior metal and interior metal, usually
made of polyvinyl chloride (PvC). These made of polyvinyl chloride (PvC). These
breaks provide a significant decrease in the breaks provide a significant decrease in the
thermal conductivity of the curtain wall. thermal conductivity of the curtain wall.
owever, since the thermal break interrupts owever, since the thermal break interrupts
the aluminum mullion, the overall moment the aluminum mullion, the overall moment
of inertia of the mullion is reduced and must of inertia of the mullion is reduced and must
be accounted for in the structural analysis of be accounted for in the structural analysis of
the system. the system.
Thermal criteria Thermal criteria
³³Thermal conductivity of the curtain wall system is Thermal conductivity of the curtain wall system is
important because of heat loss through the wall, important because of heat loss through the wall,
which affects the heating and cooling costs of the which affects the heating and cooling costs of the
building. On a poorly performing curtain wall, building. On a poorly performing curtain wall,
condensation may form on the interior of the condensation may form on the interior of the
mullions. This could cause damage to adjacent mullions. This could cause damage to adjacent
interior trim and walls. interior trim and walls.
³³Rigid insulation is provided in spandrel areas to Rigid insulation is provided in spandrel areas to
provide a higher R provide a higher R··value at these locations. value at these locations.
!nfills !nfills
³³!nfill !nfill refers to the large panels that are refers to the large panels that are
inserted into the curtain wall between inserted into the curtain wall between
mullions. !nfills are typically glass but may mullions. !nfills are typically glass but may
be made up of nearly any exterior building be made up of nearly any exterior building
element. element.
³³Regardless of the material, infills are Regardless of the material, infills are
typically referred to as typically referred to as glazing glazing, and the , and the
installer of the infill is referred to as a installer of the infill is referred to as a
glazier glazier. .
lass lass
³³ By far the most common glazing type, glass can be of an By far the most common glazing type, glass can be of an
almost infinite combination of color, thickness, and opacity. almost infinite combination of color, thickness, and opacity.
³³ For commercial construction, the two most common For commercial construction, the two most common
thicknesses are 1/4 inch (6 mm) monolithic and 1 inch (2S thicknesses are 1/4 inch (6 mm) monolithic and 1 inch (2S
mm) insulating glass. Presently, 1/4 inch glass is typically mm) insulating glass. Presently, 1/4 inch glass is typically
used only in spandrel areas, while insulating glass is used used only in spandrel areas, while insulating glass is used
for the rest of the building for the rest of the building
³³ The 1 inch insulation glass is typically made up of two 1/4 The 1 inch insulation glass is typically made up of two 1/4··
inch lites of glass with a 1/2 inch (12 mm) airspace. inch lites of glass with a 1/2 inch (12 mm) airspace.
³³ The air inside is usually atmospheric air, but some inert The air inside is usually atmospheric air, but some inert
gases, such as argon, may be used to offer better thermal gases, such as argon, may be used to offer better thermal
transmittance values. transmittance values.
lass lass
³³ lass may be used which is transparent, translucent, or lass may be used which is transparent, translucent, or
opaque, or in varying degrees thereof. opaque, or in varying degrees thereof. Transparent Transparent glass glass
usually refers to usually refers to vision vision glass in a curtain wall. Spandrel or glass in a curtain wall. Spandrel or
vision glass may also contain translucent glass, which vision glass may also contain translucent glass, which
could be for security or aesthetic purposes. could be for security or aesthetic purposes.
³³ Opaque Opaque glass is used in areas to hide a column or spandrel glass is used in areas to hide a column or spandrel
beam or shear wall behind the curtain wall. Another beam or shear wall behind the curtain wall. Another
method of hiding spandrel areas is through method of hiding spandrel areas is through shadow box shadow box
construction (providing a dark enclosed space behind the construction (providing a dark enclosed space behind the
transparent or translucent glass). Shadow box construction transparent or translucent glass). Shadow box construction
creates a perception of depth behind the glass that is creates a perception of depth behind the glass that is
sometimes desired. sometimes desired.
Standard float glass Standard float glass
³³This is the basic industry standard and has This is the basic industry standard and has
replaced standard glass in most commercial replaced standard glass in most commercial
construction. construction.
³³Typical monolithic thicknesses of the standard Typical monolithic thicknesses of the standard
float glass used in commercial construction ranges float glass used in commercial construction ranges
from about 2.4 from about 2.4··mm to 2S mm (3/32 in. to 1 in.). mm to 2S mm (3/32 in. to 1 in.).
³³lass thickness is primarily a function of the lass thickness is primarily a function of the
various loads imposed by the building and outside various loads imposed by the building and outside
forces, such as wind. Obviously, the thicker the forces, such as wind. Obviously, the thicker the
glass, the more structurally capable it is for glass, the more structurally capable it is for
carrying loads. carrying loads.
'47rd glass '47rd glass
³³ This glass is typically used when better impact resistance, This glass is typically used when better impact resistance,
increased bending strength for wind loads, and shatter increased bending strength for wind loads, and shatter
control for life safety are required. control for life safety are required.
³³ Tempered glass shatters into very small pieces instead of Tempered glass shatters into very small pieces instead of
large shards, providing a greater degree of safety for large shards, providing a greater degree of safety for
occupants where there is a higher probability of glass occupants where there is a higher probability of glass
breakage. breakage.
³³ As such, any cutting, drilling, or edging required in the As such, any cutting, drilling, or edging required in the
manufacturing process must be done prior to tempering, manufacturing process must be done prior to tempering,
else the glass will shatter. Although minimized in recent else the glass will shatter. Although minimized in recent
years, tempered glass still exhibits some visual distortion. years, tempered glass still exhibits some visual distortion.
³³ Since tempered glass is relatively costly, selective use is Since tempered glass is relatively costly, selective use is
recommended. recommended.
at at· ·strngthnd glass strngthnd glass
³³This glass is stronger than standard annealed float This glass is stronger than standard annealed float
glass but not as strong as tempered glass. glass but not as strong as tempered glass.
³³!t is a good compromise when there is a possibility !t is a good compromise when there is a possibility
of breakage but life safety is not an issue. When of breakage but life safety is not an issue. When
shattered, the shards of heat shattered, the shards of heat··strengthened glass strengthened glass
are larger than those of tempered glass, though are larger than those of tempered glass, though
not as sharp as shards from annealed glass. not as sharp as shards from annealed glass.
³³eat eat··strengthened glass exhibits less distortion strengthened glass exhibits less distortion
and is less costly than tempered glass, making it and is less costly than tempered glass, making it
appropriate for windows that are difficult to access appropriate for windows that are difficult to access
and maintain were they to break, and have and maintain were they to break, and have
minimal life safety issues. minimal life safety issues.
a4inatd glass a4inatd glass
³³Laminated glass is an effective solution for the Laminated glass is an effective solution for the
many safety and security requirements becoming many safety and security requirements becoming
prevalent in architectural design. prevalent in architectural design.
³³!n the manufacturing process, a vinyl, !n the manufacturing process, a vinyl,
polycarbonate, or cured resin interlayer is bonded polycarbonate, or cured resin interlayer is bonded
to one or more layers of glass to form a monolith. to one or more layers of glass to form a monolith.
³³This interlayer holds the pieces together when the This interlayer holds the pieces together when the
glass is broken and keeps the glass from glass is broken and keeps the glass from
shattering. shattering.
a4inatd glass a4inatd glass
³³This glass can be assembled in combination with This glass can be assembled in combination with
any other type of glass. any other type of glass.
³³For example, combining laminated and tempered For example, combining laminated and tempered
glass in a single pane produces a very strong, glass in a single pane produces a very strong,
secure lite. This combination provides an secure lite. This combination provides an
unsurpassed level of security from breakage, and unsurpassed level of security from breakage, and
is typically specified for overhead applications and is typically specified for overhead applications and
areas vulnerable to impact damage, such as storm areas vulnerable to impact damage, such as storm
debris, bullets, or a bomb blast. debris, bullets, or a bomb blast.
³³Laminated glass also deadens sound impact, as in Laminated glass also deadens sound impact, as in
airports or near highways, but is very costly due to airports or near highways, but is very costly due to
the additional manufacturing required. the additional manufacturing required.
Laminated lass Laminated lass
Showing safety - if the glass breaks!
Other glasses Other glasses
³³Tinted and reflective glasses block portions of Tinted and reflective glasses block portions of
solar light transmittance, and are typically used to solar light transmittance, and are typically used to
control the amount of light entering a building or control the amount of light entering a building or
for aesthetic reasons. for aesthetic reasons.
³³Spandrel glass is tinted, reflective Spandrel glass is tinted, reflective··coated, or film coated, or film··
coated, and is typically used for aesthetic reasons coated, and is typically used for aesthetic reasons
in the fenestration. Solid insulated metal panels in the fenestration. Solid insulated metal panels
are often used in lieu of glass lites. are often used in lieu of glass lites.
³³!nsulating glass units (!Us) are manufactured !nsulating glass units (!Us) are manufactured
with a powdered gas or air with a powdered gas or air··filled space between filled space between
two or more panes of glass to provide energy two or more panes of glass to provide energy
efficiency. efficiency.
Stone veneer Stone veneer
³³Thin blocks (3 to 4 inches (7S Thin blocks (3 to 4 inches (7S··100 mm)) of stone 100 mm)) of stone
can be inset within a curtain wall system to can be inset within a curtain wall system to
provide architectural flavor. provide architectural flavor.
³³The type of stone used is limited only by the The type of stone used is limited only by the
strength of the stone and the ability to strength of the stone and the ability to
manufacture it in the proper shape and size. manufacture it in the proper shape and size.
Common stone types used are: Arriscraft(calcium Common stone types used are: Arriscraft(calcium
silicate), granite, marble, travertine, and silicate), granite, marble, travertine, and
limestone. limestone.
³³The stone may come in several different finishes, The stone may come in several different finishes,
which adds many more options for architects and which adds many more options for architects and
building owners. building owners.
Panels Panels
³³Netal panels can take various forms Netal panels can take various forms
including aluminum plate, thin composite including aluminum plate, thin composite
panels consisting of two thin aluminum panels consisting of two thin aluminum
sheets sandwiching a thin plastic interlayer, sheets sandwiching a thin plastic interlayer,
and panels consisting of metal sheets and panels consisting of metal sheets
bonded to rigid insulation, with or without bonded to rigid insulation, with or without
an inner metal sheet to create a sandwich an inner metal sheet to create a sandwich
panel. Other opaque panel materials include panel. Other opaque panel materials include
FRP (fiber FRP (fiber··reinforced plastic) and stainless reinforced plastic) and stainless
steel. steel.
Louvers Louvers
³³A louver is provided in an area where A louver is provided in an area where
mechanical equipment located inside the mechanical equipment located inside the
building requires ventilation or fresh air to building requires ventilation or fresh air to
operate. Curtain wall systems can be operate. Curtain wall systems can be
adapted to accept most types of louver adapted to accept most types of louver
systems to maintain the same architectural systems to maintain the same architectural
site lines and style while providing the site lines and style while providing the
necessary functionality. necessary functionality.
Windows and vents Windows and vents
³³Nost curtain wall glazing is fixed, meaning Nost curtain wall glazing is fixed, meaning
there is no access to the exterior of the there is no access to the exterior of the
building except through doors. owever, building except through doors. owever,
windows or vents can be glazed into the windows or vents can be glazed into the
curtain wall system as well, to provide curtain wall system as well, to provide
required ventilation or operable windows. required ventilation or operable windows.
Nearly any window type can be made to fit Nearly any window type can be made to fit
into a curtain wall system. into a curtain wall system.
Fire safety Fire safety
³³Fire safing and smoke seal at gaps between the Fire safing and smoke seal at gaps between the
floors and the back of the curtain wall are floors and the back of the curtain wall are
essential to slow the passage of fire and essential to slow the passage of fire and
combustion gases between floors. Spandrel areas combustion gases between floors. Spandrel areas
must have non must have non··combustible insulation at the combustible insulation at the
interior face of the curtain wall. Some building interior face of the curtain wall. Some building
codes require the mullion to be wrapped in heat codes require the mullion to be wrapped in heat··
retarding insulation near the ceiling to prevent the retarding insulation near the ceiling to prevent the
mullions from melting and spreading the fire to mullions from melting and spreading the fire to
the floor above. the floor above.
Fire safety Fire safety
³³Fireman knock Fireman knock··out glazing panels are often out glazing panels are often
required for venting and emergency access required for venting and emergency access
from the exterior. Knock from the exterior. Knock··out panels are out panels are
generally fully tempered glass to allow full generally fully tempered glass to allow full
fracturing of the panel into small pieces and fracturing of the panel into small pieces and
relatively safe removal from the opening. relatively safe removal from the opening.
Naintenance and repair Naintenance and repair
³³Curtain walls and perimeter sealants require Curtain walls and perimeter sealants require
maintenance to maximize service life. maintenance to maximize service life.
Perimeter sealants, properly designed and Perimeter sealants, properly designed and
installed, have a typical service life of 10 to installed, have a typical service life of 10 to
1S years. Removal and replacement of 1S years. Removal and replacement of
perimeter sealants require meticulous perimeter sealants require meticulous
surface preparation and proper detailing. surface preparation and proper detailing.
Naintenance and repair Naintenance and repair
³³Aluminum frames are generally painted or Aluminum frames are generally painted or
anodized. Factory applied fluoropolymer anodized. Factory applied fluoropolymer
thermoset coatings have good resistance to thermoset coatings have good resistance to
environmental degradation and require only environmental degradation and require only
periodic cleaning. Recoating with an air periodic cleaning. Recoating with an air··dry dry
fluoropolymer coating is possible but fluoropolymer coating is possible but
requires special surface preparation and is requires special surface preparation and is
not as durable as the baked not as durable as the baked··on original on original
coating. coating.
Naintenance and repair Naintenance and repair
³³Anodized aluminum frames cannot be "re Anodized aluminum frames cannot be "re··
anodized" in place, but can be cleaned and anodized" in place, but can be cleaned and
protected by proprietary clear coatings to protected by proprietary clear coatings to
improve appearance and durability. improve appearance and durability.
³³Exposed glazing seals and gaskets require Exposed glazing seals and gaskets require
inspection and maintenance to minimize inspection and maintenance to minimize
water penetration, and to limit exposure of water penetration, and to limit exposure of
frame seals and insulating glass seals to frame seals and insulating glass seals to
wetting. wetting.
Thanks 4 tolerating Thanks 4 tolerating
³³Signing off...... PRANYA Signing off...... PRANYA

:9'!.
³ 9;.5.33 

:.;94:1;61:09/. /315. .1016:56;0.99.51.1 36.1964;/3156;9;.5;:651.1 36.1  ³ ':36.1:.9;9.5:991;6;4.5/315 :;90;9;9606550;65:.;3669:69 06345:6;/315  ³ 09;.5.33:1:51;69::;.9.51.;9 53;9.;65 51690:.0;565;/315  ::40690: .51;:651.136.1690:

:9'!.
³ 9;.5.33:.9;70.331:51; 

;911.345444/9: .3;6; 9:;09;.5.33:94.16:;3 ' .34549.4:;70.335331; 3.:: 07961:.5.90;0;9.33 73.:5/315 .:33.:/5;::0 .:1.3;5.51596545;.3065;963  ";9064465533:5031:;6559  4;.37.53: 369: .51679./3 516:695;:

0.37.51.:.9.6065:19..33:.919:65.651:5 98945.91:51.....3 0506906:.65/315:.94.73 3669: .51 4645.25.51065.543.5:65 .94.6:7.5..:9'!.::0. ³ 9.51.

.5 06635  0506906:..0.

513. ./315 .55.

%'! .

.0.479.47.969964.33 ³ '7976::679615.315.53.3 73.6796.:: :.96:.2 ./5.8.:...76:9 51 9.5. /315.73...00.:3.0./315:25./315 5. 50315:53..375645.3:.90.5..:65.51.345473.9.65  .0 .5..5106476:.9.33065:.345406476:.3365.09.9.96 .67961.65:0.51. ..9.054.5  .9  ³ .0.. :. ..6.9.. 09.9.

:.69.

.

69. :.

.

637 .:.506550.3 ..:76:.95.3  ³ ':.3796:65:.906550.5 5036:1/:0.51.51 796169/.09.33 ³ 9.969 /..96.5.0.:..915:6.6.:9:6 .3659195.33::1.5.33:.5.:.0.69:6949.51/315:96..:1 .1/.309.132. 41..065:.:..61:09/.65 1:51..99:653.90.519.5.: ³ 11.3.96516.11:..65.69:.:/54 690:  ..51796.:99651.6. 1.3 6.30.33: .71 /.

69.:.

.

:.69.

.

6..33 ³ #969.41. 619509.5.

6.41.5..9 /315:9 #969.

:.51/315069: .3.6.1:6.5.1.0.:403.5..09.306507.9 .1.6:7769.510631/1:51.:.90.33:6.33:6 /315:563659.51469 675.36.969./315 :7769...1.51.  ³ ':.9./902.461951.5.:.:1:63.::.:/695 .1 ..33:.1: .9.136..16...5 .6:.51:.5.33 .7. 065:.9 ³ .90. .90..969.9:.15.6509..969.

... .5.5/1:51.:.93./3.51:.7:0.::.79891691:5 .5..1:79.93 34.6/5.473:.73.3:: :.64:.07976:: '61.09.3.91.:.5.01.³ '9:..3313155&.5../3...51.::4611 3.51 4.50647651  ³ '9:..:/:....93.5:.51.51.50:06  ³ ':/.5.. .9:65:6943365: 345469: .09..93946195:.95.:3 .:.6/.58.1:5 06473.1..7:..76065:.: .3315!692.0.335:.9.65.3454.. 43365:..3.33:94.:.:5 ::.:.65 ³ .6:69/93.1:6 .9115.59.1.6.3 43365: .90..

.

02::.5 9.45 44/9:4.513.335:.70../..::.::./90.:67 596545. .15.5 :..609.4: ³ '...33 9.&.33:.33796941.69..02:  9991.5.4.53669:9.6...51/.6/:.6.02: /.:.33136570: 9991.0.0.65.33.33.344/9:6965.. /.9 5:.

4 .02::.&.

.

.

.

969034.065.6694.33. ' 065640/5..31653.69..0.5.5.5.518..33.:6:71369 315:.9565.109.4: ³ 5.96331596545.:.9.1::.55.::4/367./699..1.514.9.:.70.65.:6313.0.51 .1 09.5031./3155036:9 5.9.../90.: .:.15.065.9 7960.5 .5.3.339...6506:.3.33:5.963.90.:695.5 ³ ':06473./315 :.:.69 3...53:.

.

5.1 .

0647964:/.43365::.:.5.02 .1::.4:  ³ #9.515.4:.4 ³ ':::.5.

::4/315.:79..

3.165.1693.

#9.

::4/315..:79.

165.3.1693.

:.95:.331/5165...

69.6.

331/5165...:.69 :.95:.

6. 69.

/69.5190.93..1::.  .343365:  ³ '::.4/0.4.469::646..9:3:: 0:. 511.:.5.. 065.335.:.4  .9636..698..9469535 .6506:.:69.3.64.51.:.5.4 ..02::.0.3.1.65.33::06:.1::.4 ³ 313.

.51:7.:.65:  ³ ':5.69:64.:0.4:.4: ':::.:537673.993.5/79.35..9/0645 509.9/0.:.51.0 67.5193 ::.6345069.

. 69:.

.533:65 ':5.::4/31.:0.5/79.

. 69:.

51937.5/5.::5.53:/.:0.51. 06345069:  ³ ':653. 3.9379.::.06345: .5.51:7.

:0.::4/3169 ':653.5/5..9379.::5.

.::4/3165.

:.33669.3 . '::.:.::4/3165.4:.90.9.

9.46926;/315;6/79::15;.0.1 .51:.335;9.;1;;5:;9.;65  ³ &50;:::;4:.90:;641 3.1;4:.93659 .519.45065:;90;65;639.50:46909;0.3/0.: ;5;:.94.5.0;91;6;790:3;5; 06345/.: 
³

#65;

#65.

11:.5 ::.33.36.4: ³ #65.90.9.

90.9 #65.5::.4:.11:.9.36.33.

9.3.90. :.

9.3. :.90.

.479169 .51.45.1.3. 3.8.

.

91.5.9::: ./39164.6.51 .5:7.513.94/111.067./3: ..95.3.:::7769.39..:.3.5:: .51 3..45.3.6.9.:: 345.::43365:7961065:19..5106:. 79679.4: .65..3::.::../350315.9519:6 .15.5:650.1.:.:/3 4..9./3 3.: 3..469260655.5.65:.  ..5765./3:7769.9.950 :.::43365: .3.4:  ³ '.

.5..4  5..559.:6910.33.59/. 9.:7.5:095795.56.979::9/.9../19. .5...1.:2.83/946 . /315.:.:3  ³ 69.331.473. 3..79::9:8.51 6.91/.3.096::.:2.:.7.6.. .5.3.:5 .9:1:6..90.:::0...5.69:.:2.9509.969.3..5:095795073..51.:1.%.5:095795073 ³ 064465.5 559. '3.:5.79::965.:.975.05636 .6.6 ..556.9665.:2.655.59/.00.9.515:16..969:6..5.:. 9.

.

:33.513./1:51..33::.1:476:165.9.4:4:.5. /3155367 ...51.9.:5 ³ 9.: 27.996475.6 .3336..5.

.

51.1: ³ '36.5069:0.6/ 1:51.6.5.1:476:165.90.6.43365:.6.:36...5:991.33.9 .0065..09. /315 '/315:.9..1: ..69.951:.9./315:.0.96 .90.

09.9.90..1: 4..5 .5.30647655.516.136.6.::5:...176.0065.136.90.1695.5..33  :0.43365: .0.3  11.5069:  ./.9.65.31.5334..9:65.9:.09..794.1 ³ . :.33 .6.51.51 .1 :151.:609..:.:.90..136.6:.:6.:36.5069: . 1:56..9 5.33: .9.1: 4:.09.:33.3 345.:.1:476:165.330647655.5..55.:.

5990.651 /36565.3.4:50.:./ 9::.9:.1 .9:3.6931 .5136.5.5./315  ³ 5136.0. 3.5367:.5136.09.1/.1:.06.99...565.:.9./315 ':5179::94:.33::.966..1:/55.51 796..0.1 5136./315:.

9:.06.7965 3.1:/55.:.5990.5136.9.5.

9:1.015.6.33:.0065..9651 06959:.1:.:99651505.346136.:7007960. :.69.0.61.51.65 ³ ".945..:115.5179::9:.553:.565.0.958:.71/315: :0.9891 1:55136.51 .:6:996515/315: ³ .969 5:./315 .51. 965: 315061:.5173.90.945.5 ..25.51.1:69.1:796941653.61.553.360.:/3.65  ³ '::.

119::15.2.330647655.4:.5069: 546:..:7.33:.1:5 609..9 3.51515101/315:..6/91  69 :50..079611/. 50691:551:.&:4036.. /0.9109..51.5.43365  ³ 5.5.1: 51.9.3.2. :.93669..09.33 .6/..5533.:...3669 4645.65.9.6./3.950: 44 693.65: .5.::/9..51.51.51.. 3.33::.3.69.5.: :.1 ³ &:4036.:6./3.6 .:.:.51::40.:.

6..

93669.3.36691:73.045. 69 :50.

.6.

5069: . 0.573.0690:65.

0.1:4...956.6/9.5.33: .33 ..51336.91:51.369:3..51.33: :5009.1:.:3676.1 ³ &5636.:36.1: .5.3301: 19:69:6 .3 50351 .&5636.70.5::509.6/ 065:191 .

.9.:35.9.343365::3.33::.336..5:65 ³ ':4.51..:641:. 09.694645.1653 56.0.3454.0./.55.136.5.'94.33337..3:69.1130.5:65..09.51.1 '94.5:.: 0 ::..:  9.9:36..65:.0065.975...37..94.30605.479.56.9195.4 /0.0.51065.:.3 ': 7..5.33 .51..0065.0.510975.3365..067363669: .51065.5.1  .1..7:3./:6.6.5. 5015.519.0065..93.::36.3.65/79.65..336.33 .1: .33 .69.9 ³ .9955136.951015.3:6.3669 :3..6.6965..6 .9..5069:0.109.0 /.31964.169/0.:69336. .50  93.5 6965.90./315:...:7.51.:7.:2.343365: ³ 55.9..:.1.

3 .19.9.33 &  4/.5140 6.6/3.6/3159:765:.1: ' /64/56..9.3315 5"23.36.5..:.3.9:.: .3736:65:.64.1: 995.51.:.:.:64 796:65699::..514.:106509569.3. & .65509.33::.65695:63 4:.90.. "23...9969:..:::/3.36.50.4593.91: .:.65. 09..6/3.:59. /96.::7. .6/64//3..64.51.0995.391#  99.33 519.1 ³ 0015.6.3/315:5.51.:.36.

9::.5.09.33: 4:...5.36.9696.33:..3..35615:5.33 9:765::631/.315..1:.3:: .:..:6007.99 36.6../315.5.5.:.5..19. /315 .09.9:.:69.51:0690:.5.1 ³ &50.65: ../064:..:.1 .0.6 796.5. /64/.:...5.: &50/3.6.9696..36.33.15.02 ::0 /3. 0647964:5.09.1:./1:51.4036.

:0.34602.

:.33.5.7.3:: .5796941 .

34602.:0.

515:.65.33..65 .. 7969.61:506473.

964..:: 0:4.9.2/.5.:63.5065::..43365: &43.5.45.36.:.5.3.1 3..6/9.56.9::.1 ³ 3.05636::15990.9 .3.. :7.:.

7965.9.: .5.05636::15990.

6596451.0.796. 69.

6596451./6951/9: 69.0.796.

.

51..969.96.:2.3 .9: 53./315 '.1.96763:  ..53..964790.96..65 ³ 953.5.33964.9696.:...09.96 4790.: .::: .907.65 :.6965.35  ..659/.519.9.9.5.0.343365: .6 .5..9.

: .51.590.5.79:8.99: ::60.09...91:0...5  :8.3 46:.0.6955/615 . & 0:.6.96.. 7945.:79::1 5490.9./333:6 .:.5.33 ': 34.953.007.007.79::9  995..33. 50/0..3::..9.65 ³ '490.3 ./3  .:.9. :.0.966..65   :.53.9.65..... 5.

9.:./315:700.02:73.:.4 &64.96. 5..5.:..975./3..5.:4.65 .9.33.007.96331.965.97.6065.33 .975.9696..6..33::.015965..51 . 4602.6../315.4:  1751565.::5 964.65 :151...../3 ³ '6.09..65: ..53.5..09.9696.65 ³ ..99..6.5..969: 141.465..9.

4602.

33109.76....51195 .3369..3:6 796941655:.33 31. .9..:701 ..:.979::9 .:.96:::79.9.76:.33: 50.165.33 ':979:5.5..4 .:..33.7731.6.565..

65 ³ "56.:.345469 43365::.1:./6..:.30.:6:5. 65...1.5.:4613:63.0..

:.9.6.5:3..6:..3 ':...9 65.91.

4:469130.3:0.65::.:697975103.6534.65 315 :700.5.345443365 0647.4:. .6.655.130.91.9 51..:.

51.

5101 .515.

1.136.73.5 1.

5101  .515.

1. 1.136.

.476:11.:4769..:6.5.43365:  ..65: .956. 0...95.:.656.0.6534.: 130.. 130.6:.7.

3130. .36906:.65543365::065.130.6.6534.339 17..5. ::..4::.30.9891 ../:69/406...634.5.6. :..:700..659.65 :.9.69:4.65.3344/9: ' 17.6 .4:130.6.627130.:.5117./6 .333.65:5.39569045.5:0...3454 .11:.5:1.9..:519.43365 &50:.:.65 ³ 30.509..33 065.33::.4645.9..7:.96331/.65  ³ 56.96331/195.:609.

93..1..9.331:5:: .:..9:: 65..9.67673.6:6409.:7.5.5469..5..:.5653669 06446532565 ./3..&.1.5.65.6 130.331:5 .965509..3::  ³ 69.5.5.6:7.473 .9:::56.51.09.9/3 :.9..

56943.:7..

:.5. .

:7..56943.

69.43365 ':.99891:0.3509.69.43.654613: &  79::150/050: 5.43365 ³ .733669:7.5  ³ 3.:7.9891.5.9.73 :7.9:50. 4645.6:5369:473 :7.:15..9:::5.5 5.5 .3910. 43365 69 .5.:6776:1.5::50.659.

:.5:.130.436./963 8.5.9.7519.:..9659 .4 .35..3454 43365:0.97.3454:.345444/94.35..9::5../3:.5/.9.651.6699.5 8.. ':4.3 065.:.965.5:.656 .&.9:: ³ :45...344/9: ..9.::.:69:..4:9.1  69 ./6 ...5.::.336.3:.

11.96.6 .3 /9.9..9..:.3343365: '9.656.9/3150647655.... ':.:  .345409.5:9 0605. 4.66.36::.5 ...'94./5.9 66106510.69.9.:5.:. 064465.:..5:3.94...6 06475:..696.3454. ³ %3.46:.36:: ..3454:.9:9.3.2:  ....309.55.

5. /.2: .9/.:50.:..306510.515.997..6..5. ³ '94.334645. 659.309.5 .9.3 :..3/9.25.345443365 .3.43365:9101.167635303691 # ': /9.33 4.94.2:7961.1695..5..0065.999:/.::.9694.90.09.514:.6. .9694.: .109..4  .9.69.:5.94.'94.33  69 :50.3/9.3.3::6 .

6 7961.5.. 5.94. 43365: ':06310..5193.306510.33  0.69465.5.96.33: ³ %15:3.51.9..6.:.9%..33  06515:./0.5.5..4.654.:1.65:796115:7..309.:6. /315 "5.6.36::.5.1..7669379694509. ³ '94.:..510663506:..969.4: 4769.:6.05..9.0.9696.33::.09.'94..

...3.9%.:360..65: 7961.

.

.1765.:3.9 3. 3.6.4.9 .969/315 345.913::6.::/. ³ %.. .9. 5:.53:.51..3.97.6.333.9 5:9.533: ³ 533 99:.51. /4..93.:.70.5.5 .9 .4..6.:3.5 43365: 533:.09.6.15.9.3396.5.339991.3 533:.70.33/.533:9991.70..339991.6.5 .

5.9..70.::::1 69.33 :16535:7.55.5 .334.:: .064/5.176.::0.6.5/6. ³ 69064490.5193.6.90.9...3065:.65606369 .0644653.46:.346:.:::.025:: .025:::.70.653.3 503.53.65 .9:.0.7 3.5167.: 35:3.53../315 ³ '505:3.950 44 46563.:: #9:5.064465 .0.3.:::.646:..5150  44 5:3.

176..6.70.653. '505:3.:::.334.

..0  ³ '.95:1::..3:  ³ .669/.::.46:790.50 44 .:63..5:4.9.:: :0./:1.50.9 /.965 4..:6459. .94. 503.33.9.9:7.3 .:.

5.95.:: &.90.::.3.. 3.65617.9519:.::.16/6065:.:: 3. :.61615:7.469:.3.::5.7907.96:.33 56.95.65 09.61.09.16/6 4.3.:: 0 0631/69:09.5:7.96 '9.09.3399:.8 3../51.5:305.1.0634569:7.5193 /.95.5.5:7.5:305..5193.9.8 695.61615:7./:10:.5:7.9.:.9.6:65 :653.: :64..5.6:65 3.90..9.9519:.9.::4.33/51.16/6 065:.925036:1:7.8 695.5:7.9.65 79615.5:305.519369 :..::::15. 69 67.::4.5193.:. .96 '9.3399:.96:.9.3:6065.0/51.95.69..9 4.69..9.3.:.33 &7.::.:: 67.4:1:91 ³ .07976::  ³ "7.9. .

0.:.. .:051:.: 973.9:.3.51.51.:: ³ '::.025:::6.064490.659.913.65  ³ '70.51.9136.:::15064490.3065:.3.346563.91 36.3 065:..91.51.51.5: 964...90../6.&.90..01:./.::546:.

/6. .65 964.44.644 5 .

³ 3.:51 "/6:3 .025:::794.96:36.99536.656./315.:69 0.516.::.1:476:1/./3.50. .93.029.90.9.:1 690: :0.:: .469:.1:  .330..7. 3.

/3.9:..645415905.69..963693:...9:5.0.306:..31:./1657969.. 4.69 6007.6..65  ³ &50.:::.9196:.95.9796/.3..9 3.957960::4:.:9.:::93.70.  ³ ::0 ..:1/515:.9: .1: .::33:.9.5 19335 691598915.:: /9.:: ':3.'47913..9:.:: 90644511  ³ .16 3. .47913.69:4.947.695136.9::.:::.47913.3370:5:.::64:.51:..5.9 065.5.33:15/.91: 79615.3 :30.:::.63..50  509.4795  3:.0..99891  ³ '47913.33/.2.50...

.

:.:: .95.513.

91:6.91.51.9659.3:./...55. 3.965.:56.76::/3.3136.:.::/.:. ³ ':3.91 ..::  ³ .2....56.:.::::.::..5:: 5 :.47913.6610647964:5.9:. 6/9..5:.

95.:.:..513.:: :.91 ..91:6.

6:6.47913.97.::.91:964.93.::..5.:: .313.::  ³ .6 56. ..99.55.

513.:3::1:.65 .69.:.::/.95.

.59..00:: .779679.5.5.514.6/9.33:.. 454...47913..:::  ..69516:..25.:: 4..51:3::06:.6.9103.51..3.2 . .

 690919:55.93.5..95  .46563.90..:::/9625.45.13.6694.35.::..95.51:09.:63.9:/6511 ..13.0.0.  ³ ':5.:/0645 79..93.9:63.5:.6.3.5127:.9/65.70:.5.:::.98945.9.665694693.4.::964 :.53  7630. 4.45..:: ³ . 3.31:5  ³ 5.50.6569...9631:.957960:: .

15::65147.11.763.:: ³ ':3. ..: 69. :0.3:61.579610:.:5 ..::1336:09.7730.51 .964/9.9.9.65:.  ³ .45..::0..:695.51 :.56. .13.65.: /.959891 ./64//3.65..9769.45.::  ³ 69.:537./3.:.1.:359.0.5..473 064/553.33:7016969.51.657961:.45..::4/315064/5.::5.694 1/9: /33.6 .5 5:97.34. .9. ':064/5.70.2.::.5/.0.4791 3.1.4..:906:.647.::.9:.1.31.0.13.965  :093.

3. .2: ...13..::/9.:: &65:.45.

1 930.963.3.65:6 :63./31569 69.5.70.50 ..63.95.::: ³ '5...1..:.93.51.".51930.93.51933.465.:65:  ³ &7.6 065...5:4.:::.33:1.09.:::/3602769.9.9.5.

1 6934..06.

51933.1 930.5. &7.:::..

.06.1 6934.

.0.:  ³ 5:3.:65: 5.14.96..33:169.5:15363.53: .53..65 &6315:3.5..91 .09.94.37.9..: : .:69.70.::3.:.51:.::5.76191..9. 06..1 .5:.

9.331:7.76191.0/..:69.5 .

.::.6694697.5:63.6796159 050  .

&.6559 ³ '5/3602: .650: .

44 6:.65 .

6. :.5.5/5:.69  ³ '..6 4..7.65..5.1653/.51:  64465:.:.11:4.9.0.90.65  ³ ':.9.0645:9.51 /315659:  .999:09.5. 9.9/3..7::1./3.33::.4.76:.51.4..09.33.9.0.5.65:69.51 34:.0.90.3195.5.654.5.5::  0.:.304 :30. 0.65:1:34.9..65. 0.79679:.6 7961.95.546967.

.564.506476:.56.5105.6..345473..6.53 "..87..37.55594.609.93.96:694: 50315.53: ³ .2.3:5031 %# /9.5..#.3:..510 7.65 .53:065::..9.53:065::. 7.53:0..3:.05.517.::.3454 :.: /6511.9 .5.573.69...534. ..:.:.967.6915:3.

.53:: /9.51:.:.0 .95690173.

3 . :.

9 40. /315989:5...:.3.50.38745.3379615..9.5.15:1.65699:.5. .9.0.69: ³ 369:796115.7.46:.4:.5.1.65.6 679.64.33::.3.51:.360.007.4:0.6.7:6369 ::.5/ . 50::..9.3 :..90.950.1.35:.4. 9..5.

9696.515.70.09.961669: 69  516:695.6569679.9:56.5/4.6. 09.00::. 5.55 .5:1 4.5516.4..6.6.5.33::.3.:0.: ³ 6:.:33 .93.1. /31507.516:...15...67961 98915./3516:  !.5/3.333.09.4 .5.6.5.33::..

5. 3669:.53669: &7.33.7.9 ::5..565.::.69.65.9:.6:36. ³ 9:.3...5..09.3..::/.51:462:.51.: 4:.5193../.9.51 064/:.7:/.026.5.

.565.064/:. 4:...65../35:3.

969. 5.6/9.43365.5.09.06.7715.33 &64/315 061:989..

43365.7715. 061:989.6/9.

3669.9155:3.9.15.035.655.51:79.6 .6795.5. 43365:96443.9. 9./6 ....

.9:. ³ 94.525602.

57.5 94.525602.3.53:.96.6.

00:: 964.5.514950.969 5602. 9891695..

969 5602.53:.7.6..9 964.

51 93.3333.3964.::.6.6755 .47913.7.535.956. 59.3:.0.33633 9..6:4.3370:.946.

51973.0797.5.5..9.6 794..51794.9 ³ 9.9:.70.: 7967931:51.9: %46.036: :9.50.3.51 5:.045..331 .51796791..3.:989 4.64.5.9:.3:9036.5.3.50.6 .35 .5197.3.4:903  #94.65...5.5.5..5.:9894.9:.33:.

946:.65.5197.51989653 7961003.0..50.319..5.06..5.959.5.50..5.337.6 596545..7731369676349 .4:.69.9.1.55 %06.5611 ...6619::.5.169 .5:.9 ³ 34549.

5..19 7961003.5..55 %06.9.

0797./3.5:76::/3/./. 989::70.9.:19.:.65.51: 56...21.. 36967634906.3:9.

3 56..21./.65695.:./3.:19.

.5 . 06.

556.5..5197.34549.5.9 ³ 5611./9.4:0.50.

/9.34549. 5611.4:0.556.

.53.76:96 9.4:.6454 .5611573.6 4796.6 .0 /.5.50.. .515:3.5 .975..5:.1/79679.51.634..77.65 .5/03.65..3:.:989 5:70.:::.51.903..9.51.51 796.50.5.0.0./3.5119.514.5:.3:.906.9. ³ 76:13.3:.:2.

639.52:.5 ³ &556#%! .'..

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful