training | Compact Disc | Internet


³cultivation of mind should be the ultimate aim of human existence´


Learning does not occur by co-incidence. Systematic method of accruing knowledge. Training aid is an equipment or object. Learning aids. For enhancing the speed and quality of learning.



Individuals preferences. Different sensory organs to learn. Barriers to trainers and trainees. Classification of learning aids. Appropriate selection of training aids.




Place the white board centrally at a place visible to all trainees in the training hall. Fix a couple of tube lights horizontally atop the board for enhanced visibility of the content. Write small points, not exceeding 5-6 words per line . Use capital letters since curved writing cannot be understood easily Use thick tip markers for proper visibility Use dark colour markers to enhance visibility and avoid light colours Use appropriate size of fonts for visibility depending upon the distance between the board and the last row of the trainee¶s seating. seek feedback from the trainees for visibility and clarity.



Take one sheet at a time while writing. Don¶t fix them to wall before writing as the ink can deface the wall colours at the time of writing. Highlight important points. Number the sheets serially for identification on the top right corner of the sheet Add title to each chart Use different colours for different points



Print logo and address of the training institute on top. Print the material legibly. Use ideally 11 or 12 size universally accepted fonts like times new roman or Arial. No more than four types of fonts used in any page. Use good quality A4 size paper Use simple language capable of being understood by most of the trainees Provide adequate space all around the paper sheet for noting down the points by trainees. Give activities at the end of each section to help trainees recall and use the learning. Provide references at the end of the material to help trainees


Simple electrical equipment. Requires: big clip fixed to wall or a stand,card boards and markers It¶s a visual media to be used indoors. Trainer capabilities- should not be blind Advantages : 1. does not require computer hardware and software. 2. No specialized training for handling 3. Easily available at educational institutions 4. Data can be retrived. 5. Lower maintainance cost 

Disadvantages: 1. cannot be used in all sessions 2. Static 3. No use if trainee is blind Basic points for preparing OHP sheets:


3. 4.

number sheets for easy sequencing, use capital letters use waterproof transparency writing pens for best results. Use dark colors, use brief points, not lengthy sentences


Prepared using PowerPoint or lotus smart suite Indoor visual media Requirements:

2. 3. 4. 5.

A desktop or laptop computer with required software loaded An LCD projector White screen Laser pointer Electricity with UPS backup 

Easy to prepare and use as they are based on menu driven software. Easy to carry and store. Can be changed and modified any number of times Pictures, movies, animations, graphs, charts etc can be used. Audios can also be used. Overall comfort level in terms of preparation, presentation and communication is much better than any other modes. 

Verbal interaction is very less. Difficult to keep trainees attentive in the darkness A presentation for more than 30 minutes can cause boredom.



Consists of CD¶s and DVD¶s Indoor visual media A video has a dynamic or moving content which has the advantage of incorporating motion picture as well as sound Lively and interesting to watch Can be used for teaching knowledge, developing skills or changing attitudes Very useful for disabled trainees 

Hardware required:
Screen and projector for movie roles Video cassette player Television for showing cassettes Computer with suitable software LCD projector Screen for CD/DVD show 

Basic rules for using videos are :
use videos for teaching a skill or conveying a message related to the topic of training and not for entertainment purposes to waste trainees time Introduce the purpose and content at the beginning and debrief at the end of the show on what was said or done in the video and the resultant training Seek trainees views after the presentation. No more than 20 minutes at a stretch give an activity or discussion thereafter. Have them prepared by professionals who are trained to do the job. 

Expensive equipments Higher development cost. requires electricity Cannot be modified easily



Audios involving sound, speech, song, dialogue or an emotional content can be used in training. A Compact Disc (CD) with MP3 technology Audio has certain special advantages over other media. For example, it is easy to teach Hindustani music using audio cassettes than through other modes or it is useful to train students for TOEFL examination. Even for blind trainees. 

Audios can be used:
For understanding tests and listening abilities. For briefing and debriefing For reference

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The golden rules for using audio media are as under:
Consider in given situation Test for validity and quality Don¶t have more than 20 minutes of audio Clarify the doubts/questions Debrief the audience

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Communication through satellite connectivity. Trainees placed in different geographical locations can be connected ± conference call Video conferencing facility Contemporary work-styles 

Cannot replace the face to face interaction Cost of video conferencing is prohibitive at the moment Delicate technology

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Internet is a system of linked computer networks, facilitates- data communication, files transfer, e-mail, etc. World Wide Web (www) supports specially formatted documents in hyper text markup language (html). Internet requires a computer with software, a modem, broadband connection. It supports graphics, audio and video files. Helps in searching any information across the world. Learners use e-mail and chat shows Webinars is becoming popular.    

Intranet is a privately owned communication net work of an organization. Intranet contains many Internet features with limited access and safeguards. Can be used for conveying any learning content ± power point presentation, movie or circular to all persons within the company. Even a training session can be held without bringing the trainees to a common training room.


Important learning aid Required for application of software, for operation of LCD Projectors, for storage devices like CDs or DVDs. Access to the internets and intranets Used for learning computer application skills, software engineering skills.


Basic and important aids of learning. To note down points for future reference For practicing a particular skill Ex ± Tallying an a/c, learning alphabets, drawing a plan/ graph, etc..,


Used during off the job training programmes When programmes are trainee controlled and exploratory.

Activity sheet for trainees.
Name of the Trainer : Did this trainer make eye contact with you during the session? Never made Seldom made Adequate Too much Stared at me

How did you feel when the trainer made eye contact with you? Avoided him Felt shy Became attentive Felt embarrassed Felt intimidated

Give below your suggestions to this trainer for improving his eye contact skills with the trainees. 

Simulations are devices that can replicate the conditions and experience of an actual job. 

They are quite advantageous for learning. flight simulators Flight simulators are used for airline pilot training. 

Simulator is used for training on control of nuclear power plant. 

They are very expensive. 

In case of on the job training (ojt) or near the job training (njt) equipments actually used for manufacturing process. 

Using equipments on the job training may involve safety , quality and productivity risks. 

Therefore Njt can be held near the manufacturing site. 

A prop is something people can hear , see or touch. Any physical products used in the classroom for explaining a concept or providing a demonstration can be called a prop. Eg :laptop Likewise a chart, a map can be called a prop. Props are cheap and easily available. They can be used on the job or off the job. 


BY 09/CM/105 09/CM/107 09/CM/108 09/CM/118 09/CM/130 09/CM/134

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