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Bekapai Pipeline Analysis

Part One: BKP-SNP 12” Pipeline Depressurisation


Part Two: BK-BP1 New Pipeline Design

Tahrizi Andana/13007045
Chemical Engineering Programme of Study
Faculty of Industrial Technology
Bandung Institute of Technology
Outlines

Part One: BKP-SNP 12” Pipeline Depressurisation Study


Part Two: BK-BP1 New Pipeline Design Analysis

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Initial inventory (scf) and pressure (bar gauge) T
Part One: BKP – SNP 12” Pipeline Depressurisation
Study using Microsoft Excel and OLGA

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Background of Study: Depressurisation Certain pressure
(atmospheric)
Method to prevent overpressure by relieving gas inventory in pipeline to
the flare for gas combustion and disposal to the atmosphere

Initial inventory (scf) and pressure (bar gauge) T To Flare

Two most important factors of depressuring gas: flare capacity and time efficiency
both related to the gas outlet volumetric flow rate
Production
stopped advantage
Higher gas outlet Lower depress time Higher risk of flare
flow rate more efficient deterioration

disadvantage

Optimisation of depressurisation time and gas outlet rate needed to provide the
most advantageous depressurisation system

To implement? MODELING OF DEPRESSURISATION SYSTEM

using and

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Objectives and Methodology

Objectives for this present study are:


Learn how to make the depressurisation system model using manual calculation
through Microsoft Excel and another complex calculation through
Estimate the time required to depressurise Bekapai – Senipah 12” and 44 km pipeline
using hand calculation by Microsoft Excel and OLGA
Compare both calculation result to the depressurisation time empirical data

Several methods used in this study are:


Literature study by reading handbooks, articles, journals, and software manual
Basic calculation using Microsoft Excel as a hand calculation and OLGA software

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Excel Modeling

Two calculations are provided: orifice flow


model and valve flow model

Orifice Flow Model A


Orifice characteristics
ID = 4.5 in. = 114.3 mm
L
Cd = 0.84
G
Initial inventory (scf) and pressure (bar gauge) T O
R
Depress Cond.:
P initial=10.7 barg I
P final=1.0 barg
Gas characteristic: P increment=0.1 barg T
k=1.25
T=50 °C
MW=20.00 kg/kmol
H
Pc=47.50 bara
Tc=215.09 K M
Pipeline Char.:
OD=314.8 mm
ID=304.8 mm
L=44 km

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Valve Flow Model

Valve characteristics
Opening=7%-21% A
Cg=15000
Cf=34
Valve Diameter=4.5 in.
L
G
Initial inventory (scf) and pressure (bar gauge) T O
R
Depress Cond.:
P initial=10.7 barg
P final=1.0 barg
I
Gas characteristic: P increment=0.1 barg
k=1.25 T
T=50 °C
MW=20.00 kg/kmol H
Pc=47.5 bara
Tc=215.09 K
Pipeline Char.:
M
OD=314.8 mm
ID=304.8 mm
L=44 km

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OLGA Modeling
Case Description
Case 1: Settle pressure of gas in pipeline
At a certain time, gas production stream and
Senipah Node is closed  Observing the settle Pipe is divided into 100 segments
pressure
Case 2: Depressurisation of pipeline in Case 1 at
the downstream (Senipah).
Estimate time to depress initial pressure of gas
inventory on the 1st case to final pressure = 1 bar
gauge
Case 3: Depressurisation of pipeline due to the
stopped source production.
Estimate time to depress initial pressure to final
pressure of 1 bar gauge after the source production
is stopped
OLGA Model for Depressurisation
Known Data & Assumptions
Initial standard volumetric flow rate = 15 MMSCFD
Initial temperature = 50 °C (isothermal)
Pipeline length = 44000 m
Pipeline inside diameter = 12 in.
Pipeline thickness = 0.01 m
Pipeline roughness = 2.8e-5 m
Orifice valve diameter = 4.5 in.
Control valve gas sizing coefficient = 15000
Pressure on arrival steady-state = 9 bar gauge
Pressure final transient = 0 bar gauge (atmospheric)

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Main Finding: Excel vs. OLGA
Orifice
All casesFlow
are having same initial pressure of 10.7 bar gauge
Initial gas Time to reach 1 bar gauge Time to reach 1 bar gauge
standard outlet (min) using Excel (min) using OLGA
flow rate (MMscfd)

5 666.21 667.8
10 333.10 341.4
Orifice flow is
15 222.07 241.2
preferable due
to the least error
between Excel
Valve Flow
All cases are having same initial pressure of 10.7 bar gauge and OLGA
Initial gas Time to reach 1 bar gauge Time to reach 1 bar gauge
standard outlet (min) using Excel (min) using OLGA
flow rate (MMscfd)

5 674.68 569.4
10 338.05 359.4
15 226.11 242.4

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Empirical Data
July 13th at 16.00 – 22.25: pigging activity
Gas flow rate = 3.8 MMscfd; departure pressure = 14.5 barg;
arrival pressure = 3.5 barg

22.25 – 01.00: depressurisation activity


Final inventory = 1 barg, depress time = 2 h 35 min. (2.58 hrs)

By OLGA we obtain the actual departure pressure of 4.05 barg

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Excel vs. OLGA re-runs The sufficiently
Parameter Methods large error is
Excel OLGA
obtained from
both Excel and
Initial Q outlet at 4.0 MMscfd 5.1 MMscfd
OLGA results!
depress time = 2.58 h

Depress time at initial 2.72 hours 3.38 hours


Q outlet = 3.8 MMscfd For example, see re-
run curves below for
first parameter

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Recommendation

Excel
 Strength: simple and efficient
 Weakness: low in accuracy; too many assumptions used, such as zero pressure drop
 Highly recommended for the fast prediction
OLGA
 Strength: automatic, high in accuracy, and considering the pressure drop
 Weakness: inefficient (due to too many inputs to be entered)
 Highly recommended for the accurate and long-term prediction

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Part Two: BK – BP1 New Pipeline Design Analysis

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Background of Study: BK – BP1 New Pipeline
Arrival pressure = 8 barg
BK wells have been inactive
since two years ago

From BK wells To Production


Platform
sea surface

THEREFORE:
Many studies
are The products are transported by three A need to design the
performed to segments of pipeline new pipeline
revive the but the existing pipeline is unfit for Regarding:
wells service due to corrosion
Low wellhead pressure
(correlates ΔP and IPR)
Slugging effect and
handling
sea bed
Economy concern

Pipeline flow modeling is using OLGA to simulate the flow regime and pressure profile

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Objective
Estimate the proper BK – BP1 pipeline diameter

Methodology
Literature study  from Prodem and OLGA user manual

Empirical data study from:

• BK platform annual prediction and composition data

• Future pipeline technical data

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Pipeline Design Data
Pipelines : 3 (two risers and one inclined pipe)
Thickness : 9.52 mm
Coatings : 50 mm concrete and 2 mm polypropylene
Temperature : 29 °C (ambient); 50 °C (arrival)
Profile :

Downward riser Upward riser


height = 39 m height = 42 m

BK – BP1 distance = 1.9 km

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Scenarios
Annual prediction of well production rate data is divided into two prediction
scenario, as shown on table below:

Flow Year

Rates 2010 2011 2012 2013


1st 2nd 1st 2nd 1st 2nd 1st 2nd
Scenario Scenario Scenario Scenario Scenario Scenario Scenario Scenario

Oil (STBpd) 70.4 70.4 46.6 46.6 29.9 29.9 16.0 16.0

Gas (MMscfd) 1.3 4.1 1.3 4.1 1.3 2.4 1.3 1.3

Water (BWpd) 100 100 200 200 300 300 400 400

First scenario is predicting the gas rate would be equal year by year in a lower
value than the second scenario

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OLGA Results of First Scenario
Pipeline Types Departure Pressure per year (barg)
(by Diameter)
2010 2011 2012 2013

2 in.-pipeline 18.796 19.117 19.613 20.231

3 in.-pipeline 10.078 10.189 10.305 10.406

4 in.-pipeline 8.644 8.699 8.770 8.846

6 in.-pipeline Peak 10.1 Peak 10.2 Peak 10.2 Peak 11.0


(slugging)
Mid 8.2-8.72 Mid 8.3-9.1 Mid 8.4-9.25 Mid 8.6-9.4

Low 8.1 Low 8.1 Low 8.1 Low 8.1

8 in.-pipeline Peak 10.6 Peak 10.9 Peak 11.1 Peak 11.1


(slugging)
Mid 8.4-9.0 Mid 8.5-9.35 Mid 8.5-9.75 Mid 8.4-10

Low 8.05 Low 8.05 Low 8.05 Low 8.05

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OLGA Result of Second Scenario
Pipeline Types Departure Pressure per year (barg)
(by Diameter)
2010 2011 2012 2013

2 in.-pipeline 50.80 53.83 33.130 20.231

3 in.-pipeline 21.277 22.022 13.818 10.406

4 in.-pipeline 12.170 12.095 9.710 8.846

6 in.-pipeline 8.666 8.712 Peak 8.78 Peak 10.8


(various)
Mid 8.52 Mid 8.4-9.4

Low 8.4 Low 8.1

8 in.-pipeline 8.200 8.231 Peak 9.8 Peak 11.2


(various)
Mid 8.3-9.2 Mid 8.4-10

Low 8.05 Low 8.05

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Recommendation

The great design of BK – BP pipeline is in range of 4 – 8 in. but prefer in 6 or


8 inches if the existing slug catcher or vessels could handle all the slugs

Design would consider the pigging operation; 6 inches pipeline is preferable


because of the suitable pig size availability

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References

Emerson Process Management. 2001. Control Valve Handbook 3rd Edition. Iowa:
Fisher Control International, Inc.

Richardson, S.M. and Saville. 1991. Blowdown of Pipelines. Aberdeen: Society of


Petroleum Engineers

Parcol, S.p.A. Handbook for Control Valve Sizing. Italy

Datta, Arun. 2006. Process Engineering and Design Using Visual Basic. CRC Press,
Taylor & Francis Group

AVCO Brochure

BK-2-SS Chromatography Analysis

O’Keefe Control Co.

OLGA 5.2.1 User Manual

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Thank You

Exploration & Production


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