# MAE 3241: AERODYNAMICS AND FLIGHT MECHANICS

Summary of Incompressible Flow Over Airfoils Summary of Thin Airfoil Theory Example Airfoil Calculation Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department Florida Institute of Technology D. R. Kirk

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KEY EQUATIONS FOR cl, EL=0, cm,c/4, and xcp
cl ! T

2 A0  A1 1 dz d !  ´ .

cos U 0  1 U 0 T 0 dx T ! .

c 4 » c« T xcp ! ¬1  .A2  A1 4 T E L !0 cm .

A1  A2 ¼ 4 ­ cl ½  Within these expression we need to evaluate A0. and dz/dx 2 . A2. A1.

A1. and A2 COEFFICIENTS 0 E 1 dz ´ dx dU0 T 0 T T 0 E 1 dz ´ dx dU 0 T 0 T T n 2 dz ´ dx cos nU 0 dU 0 T 0 1 2 dz ´ dx cosU 0 dU 0 T 0 2 dz ´ dx cos 2U 0 dU 0 T 0 3 T 2 .A0.

CENTER OF PRESSURE AND AERODYNAMIC CENTER  Center of Pressure: It is that point on an airfoil (or body) about which the aerodynamic moment is zero ± Thin Airfoil Theory: c xcp !  Symmetric Airfoil: 4  Cambered Airfoil: » c« T xcp ! ¬1  .

! 4     4 . !  Symmetric Airfoil: 4  Cambered Airfoil: c x .C .C .A1  A2 ¼ 4 ­ cl ½  Aerodynamic Center: It is that point on an airfoil (or body) about which the aerodynamically generated moment is independent of angle of attack ± Thin Airfoil Theory: c x .

C. > 0.25 NACA 64212 xA.25 c 5 .C.ACTUAL LOCATION OF AERODYNAMIC CENTER x/c=0.25 NACA 23012 xA.25c x/c=0. < 0.

EXAMPLE OF LEADING EDGE STALL  NACA 4412 Airfoil (12% thickness)   Linear increase in cl until stall At E just below 15º streamlines are highly curved (large lift) and still attached to upper surface of airfoil At E just above 15º massive flow-field separation occurs over top surface of airfoil significant loss of lift Called Leading Edge Stall Characteristic of relatively thin airfoils with thickness between about 10 and 16 percent chord 6    .

EXAMPLE OF TRAILING EDGE STALL  NACA 4421 (21% thickness)  Progressive and gradual movement of separation from trailing edge toward leading edge as E is increased  Called Trailing Edge Stall 7 .

THIN AIRFOIL STALL  Example: Flat Plate with 2% thickness (like a NACA 0002)  Flow separates off leading edge even at low E (E ~ 3º)  Initially small regions of separated flow called separation bubble  As a increased reattachment point moves further downstream until total separation 8 .

³soft stall´ High cl. early stalling Thickness has major effect on cl.NACA 4412 VERSUS NACA 4421  Both NACA 4412 and NACA 4421 have same shape of mean camber line Thin airfoil theory predict that linear lift slope and EL=0 should be the same for both Leading edge stall shows rapid drop of lift curve near maximum lift Trailing edge stall shows gradual bending-over of lift curve at maximum lift.max 9       .max for airfoils with leading edge stall Flat plate stall exhibits poorest behavior.

OPTIMUM AIRFOIL THICKNESS     Some thickness vital to achieving high maximum lift coefficient Amount of thickness will influence type of stalling behavior Expect an optimum Example: NACA 63-2XX.max 10 . NACA 63-212 looks about optimum NACA 63-212 cl.

AIRFOIL THICKNESS 11 .

AIRFOIL THICKNESS: WWI AIRPLANES English Sopwith Camel Thin wing. lower maximum CL Bracing wires required ± high drag German Fokker Dr-1 Higher maximum CL Internal wing structure Higher rates of climb Improved maneuverability 12 .

08c Larger leading edge radius to flatted cp Bottom surface is cusped near trailing edge Discourages flow separation over top Higher maximum lift coefficient At cl~1 L/D > 50% than NACA 2412 13 .MODERN LOW-SPEED AIRFOILS NACA 2412 (1933) Leading edge radius = 0.02c NASA LS(1)-0417 (1970) Whitcomb [GA(w)-1] (Supercritical Airfoil) Leading edge radius = 0.

MODERN AIRFOIL SHAPES Boeing 737 Root Mid-Span Tip http://www.nasg.phtml 14 .com/afdb/list-airfoil-e.

will produce lift at some E  Production of lift itself is not that difficult  L/D ratio ± Production of lift with minimum drag ± Measure of aerodynamic efficiency 3 of wing or airplane 1 1 1 L C 2 2 2 ¨W 2 .OTHER CONSIDERATIONS  Note that all airfoils we have seen. even flat plate.

max ± Stalling speed of aircraft (take-off.2 V g S © final Winitial ¸ E! ¹ ± Important impact on performance ª º SFC C D range.max ± Effective airfoil shape produces high value of cl. turn rate) ¢ ¨ Winitial L C R! ln© SFC C D © W final ª ¡ ¸ ¹ ¹ º R! V2 g n2 1 ¢ dU V g n2 1 ! ! [| dt R V ¢ 15 . CL. endurance  Maximum lift coefficient. landing) ± Improved maneuverability (turn radius.

max 16 .HIGH LIFT DEVICES: SLATS AND FLAPS L ! qg SC L ! Vg ! 1 V gVg2 SC L 2 2L V g SC L stall ! 2W V g SC L .

HIGH LIFT DEVICES: FLAPS  Flaps shift lift curve  Act as effective increase in camber of airfoil 17 .

AIRFOIL DATA: NACA 1408 WING SECTION Flap extended Flap retracted 18 .

but do not shift the lift curve (same EL=0) 19 .HIGH LIFT DEVICES: SLATS  Allows for a secondary flow between gap between slat and airfoil leading edge  Secondary flow modifies pressure distribution on top surface delaying separation  Slats increase stalling angle of attack.

5 20 .EXAMPLE: BOEING 727 cl ~ 4.

EXAMPLE CALCULATION  GOAL: Find values of cl. and cm. EL=0.c/4 for a NACA 2412 Airfoil ± Maximum thickness 12 % of chord ± Maximum chamber of 2% of chord located 40% downstream of the leading edge of the chord line  Check Out: http://www.de/trapp/programming/java/profiles/ NACA 2412 Root Airfoil: NACA 2412 Tip Airfoil: NACA 0012 21 .pagendarm.

4  z/c  1) ¬ ªcº ªcº ¼ ­ ½ 22 .125¬0.EQUATIONS DESCRIBING MEAN CAMBER LINE: z = z(x) « ¨ x ¸ ¨ x ¸ 2 »  Equation describes the shape of the mean z¸ ¨ © ¹ ! 0.4) ¨z¸ © ¹ ª c º aft « ¨ x ¸ ¨ x ¸ 2 »  Equation describes the shape of the mean camber line aft of the maximum camber ! 0.8© ¹  © ¹ ¼ camber line forward of the maximum ª c º fore ¬ ªcº ªcº ¼ ­ ½ camber position (applies for 0  z/c  0.2© ¹  © ¹ ¼ position (applies for 0.0555¬0.