This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Gas Turbine Rotating Blow Torch Designed to Run at the Ragged Edge of Self Destruction
Speedtronic Control System
Control System for Gas Turbine
turbine is controlled Speedtronic control system Control loops includes
Start-up Acceleration Speed Temperature Shutdown and Manual Control functions
Speedtronic Control loops
Major Control loops
Secondary control loops
Start-up Acceleration Speed and Manual FSR and Temperature Shutdown
Output of these control loops is fed to a minimum value gate Display circuit Fuel
Temperature Display Speed
Acceleration Rate Display Start Up Shut Down Manual
M I N
The control loop which controls FSR is displayed in operator friendly CRT.Speedtronic Control loops Fuel Stroke Reference (FSR) Command signal for fuel flow Controlling FSR Lowest of the six control loops Establishes the fuel input to turbine @ rate required by system which is in control Only ONE control loop will be in control at anytime. .
Starting device and Fuel control system Safe and successful start-up depends on proper functioning of GT equipment.Startup/Shutdown Sequence and Control Startup control brings the gas turbine Zero speed up to Operating speed. Allows proper fuel to establish Flame & Accelerate the turbine in such a manner as to minimize the Low cycle Fatigue of the hot gas path parts during the sequence Software Sequencing involves Command signals to Turbine Accessories. Software Sequencing ensures safe operation of Turbine .
M/s Speed detection .. 16% TNH) L14HA Accelerating Speed (Approx. but enables protective circuits and obtains permissive conditions before proceeding. Control Actual site specific control settings are generated by GEICS.USA. 0% TNH) L14HM Min Speed (Approx.Startup/Shutdown Sequence and Control Control logic circuitry is associated not only with actuating control devices.. settings play a vital role in determining the proper sequencing.95% TNH) . 50% TNH) L14HS Operating speed (Approx.by magnetic pickups L14HR Zero-Speed (Approx.
Consult your system designer for any queries.Startup/Shutdown Sequence and Control Actual settings of speed relays are listed in Control specification. machine specific control specification. . The control constants are programmed in <RST> processors EEPROM. Always ensure correct site specific.
Typical values for Frame-6 Fire 15. Fire.FSRSU Open loop control Fuel levels Uses preset levels of fuel command Various Zero.62% 11. Warm-up. Accelerate and Max.Start-up Control .62% 19.82% 100% Warm-up Accelerate Maximum Open Loop Control .
Start-up Control .FSRSU Startup control FSR (FSRSU) signal operates through the MIN value gate to ensure other control functions can limit FSR as required. FSRSU FSRACC FSRN FSRT FSRSYN FSRMAN FSR MIN FSR = FSRSU .
Control Software also sets the MAX and MIN limits for FSR for Manual Control FSR [ FSRMIN < FSRMAN < FSRMAX ] Speedtronic When Turbine Breaks away (starts to rotate) L14HR pick-up Starting clutch solenoid 20CS de-energizes Shuts down the hydraulic ratchet motor (88HR) .Start-up Control .FSRSU Speedtronic Control Start-up software generates Fuel command signal (FSR).
FSRACC is reduced. When actual acceleration is greater acceleration reference. speed. thus reduction in fuel supply to turbine. Difference between these two numbers is a measure of acceleration.Acceleration Control . which reduces FSR.FSRACC Acceleration control software compares the present value of Speed signal with the value at the last sample time. startup-acceleration reference is a function of turbine control takes over after Warm-up state. During Acceleration .
FSRACC Acceleration reference is a Control constant programmed in <RST> EEPROMS Typical 0.Acceleration Control .10 %/sec 0% 40% 50% 75% 95% 100% TNH .35 %/sec 0.
Acceleration Control .FSRACC FSRSU FSRACC FSRN FSRT FSRSYN FSRMAN FSR MIN FSR = FSRACC .
FSRN Speed Control System software controls the speed and load of the gas turbine generator in response to the actual turbine speed signal (TNH) and the called-for speed reference(TNR) TNH FSRN TNR .Speed Control .
follows 100.3%. Turbine .Speed/Load Control Speed/Load Reference: Speed control software will change FSR in proportion to the difference the actual turbine generator speed (TNH) and the called-for reference (TNR) Reference Speed (TNR) range 95% (min) to 107% (max) for a generator drive turbine Start-up speed reference is 100.3% TNH for synchronization This is preset when START signal is initiated.
Speed/Load Control Turbine Speed is held constant when Generator Breaker is closed onto Power grid Fuel flow in excess of the necessary to maintain FSNL will Speed control becomes Load control loop result in increased power produced by the generator. Thereby Speed Control: Isochronous Speed control Droop Speed Control .
Isochronous Speed Control TNH TNR FSRSU FSRACC FSRNI FSRN (or FSRNI) FSRT FSRSYN FSRMAN MIN FSR FSR = FSRN .
This proportionality is adjustable to the desired regulation or ‘Droop’ 104 % Droo p 104% settin g Speed Reference TNR 100 % Full Speed No Load FSR FSNL 100 % Setp oint 95% Min TNR Low Speed Stop FSR Rated FSR .Droop Speed Control Droop Control is a proportional control. Any change in actual speed (grid frequency) will cause a proportional change in unit load.
Cmd MANUAL SET POINT Speed Load Setpoint LOG SET POIINT Load Rate Preset . Command Preset Ememrgency Os SPEED CONTROL Speed Target MANUAL SETPOINT Power Speed Error LOG SETPOIINT Primary Os Mechanical Os Load Raise Load Lower Rate Load Ref.Speed/Load Control loop Raise Lower Rate Rate Speed Ref.
Speed Control Schematic SPEED CONTROL FSNL TNR SPEED REF. <RST> + - ERROR + SIGNAL + FSRN TNH SPEED DROOP <RST> RST> SPEED CHANGER LOAD SET POINT MAX. START-UP or SHUT DOWN . MIN. SELECT LOGIC TNR SPEED REF. LIMIT L83SD RATE L70R RAISE L83PRES PRESET LOGIC L70L LOWER MEDIAN SELECT PRESET OPERATING L83TNROP MIN.
FSRSYN Automatic synchronization software Algorithms programmed into <RST> controller and <P> software. . Isolation transformers are built into <P> core Sequencing and algorithms are programmed into <RST> EEPROM <RST> <P> hardware and software sends voted command to actual breaker closure.Synchronising . software drives the synch check and system permissive relays. Bus and Generator voltage are input signals to Protective core <P>.
Auto Synchronisation Speed Raise Speed Speed Matching Lower Speed Speed Raise Volts Generator Volts Voltage Matching Lower Volts System requency System Volts .
Synchronising Scheme <RST> AUTO SYNCH PERMISSIVE Gen Volts REF A A>B B AND L83AS Auto Synch Permissive <XYZ> AUTO SYNCH Line Volts REF A A>B B Calculated Phase within Limits Calculated slip within Limits Calculated Acceleration Calculated Breaker Lead Time AND L25 Breaker Close .
Control software/algorithms limit fuel flow to the turbine to maintain internal operating temperatures within design parameters of turbine hot gas path parts. TTXM TTREF FSRT . Highest temperature is in the flame zone of combustion chambers.FSRT Temp.Temperature Control .
Speedtronic limits this firing temperature.temperature of gas as it exits the first stage nozzle. Firing temperature is calculated by thermodynamic relation ships GT performance calculations.Firing Temperature Firing temperature . and site conditions as a function of Exhaust Temp(Tx) and CPD Exhaust temperature (Tx) fuel air C T Co ns tF Isothermal irin gT em p( Lin ea ri ze d ) ISO FIRING TEMP TC Compressor Discharge Pressure (CPD) .
Firing Temperature Firing temperature can also be approximated as a function of Tx and Fuel flow (FSR) and as a function of Tx and Generator MW output Line of constant firing temperature are used in control software to limit the gas turbine operating temp whereas the constant exhaust temperature limit protects the exhaust system during start-up. Exhaust temperature (Tx) TA TB TC Co ns tF Isothermal ir in gT em p( Lin ea ri ze d) TA > T B > T C Fuel Stroke Reference (FSR) .
Major function is – Exhaust temperature control. . Software is Programmed for Temperature control command Temperature control bias calculations Temperature reference selection.Exhaust Temp control software Series of application programs written to perform critical exhaust temperature control and monitoring.
Alarm will be generated <RST> Temp Control Ref CORNER To Comb. The software program converts the temp error to a FSRT . Monitor QUANTITY of TC’s Used REJECT LOW TC’s REJECT HIGH AND LOW AVERAGE REMAINING TTXM Temperature Control <RST> + + CPD SLOPE SLOPE MIN.Temperature Control Schematic <RST> TTXDR TTXDS TTXDT TTXD2 SORT HIGHEST TO LOWEST If ONE Controller should fail. TTXM is based on emaining controllers thermocouples. SELECT FSRMIN FSRMAX TTRXB FSR CORNER + - + TTXM GAIN + - + + MEDIAN SELECT FSRT ISOTHERMAL FSR The temp-control-command program in <RST> compares the exhaust temp control setpoint (calculated in the temp-control-bias program and stored in computer memory) TTRXB to the TTXM value to determine temp error. this rogram ignore the readings from the ailed Controller.
Isothermal setpoint (TTKn_I) . TTKn_K (FSR bias corner) and TTKn_M (FSR bias slope) are used with the FSR data to determine the FSR bias exhaust temperature setpoint. CPD bias. Exhaust Temp Control Setpoints TTKn_C (CPD bias corner) and TTKn_S (CPD bias slope) are used with the CPD data to determine the CPD bias exhaust temperature setpoint. Program also selects isothermal setpoint CPD FSR Final temp control Ref=MIN(FSR bias.Temperature Control Bias program DIGITAL INPUT DATA COMPUTER MEMORY TT Kn _B TT Kn _M Exhuast Temperature SELECTED TEMPERATURE REFERANCE TABLE TEMPERATURE CONTROL BIAS PROGRAM TTKn_I TTKn_C TTKn_K Isothermal COMPUTER MEMORY CP D FS R BI AS BI AS CONSTANT STORAGE Temperature Control Bias Temp control Bias program calculates the Exhaust temp control setpoint TTRXB based on CPD data stored in computer memory and constants from the selected temp-reference table. This Program also calculates another setpoint based on FSR and constants from another temperaturereference table.
A ramp function is provided in the program to limit the rate of setpoint change. Both Max (TTKRXR1) and Min (TTKRXR2) change in ramp rates (slopes) are programmed. During normal operation with Heavy fuels. FSR bias setpoint is compared with CPD bias setpoint and an alarm occurs when the FSR bias setpoint exceeds the CPD bias setpoint. .Temperature Control Bias Program This Program selects the minimum of the three set points. FSR bias. CPD bias setpoint is compared with the FSR bias setpoint by the program and an alarm occurs when the CPD setpoint exceeds the FSR bias setpoint. CPD bias. The output of this ramp function is the Exhaust temp. this selection results in a CPD bias control with an isothermal limit.control setpoint which is stored in the computer memory.5deg F.Typical rate change limit is 1. or isothermal setpoint for the final exhaust temperature control reference. FSR bias setpoint will be selected to minimize the turbine nozzle plugging on firing temperature. During normal operation with Gas or light Distillate fuels.
Temperature-control-select program determines the operational level for control set points based on Digital input information representing temperature control requirements. Constant Storage Temperature Reference Select Program . Typical digital signals are BASE SELECT.Temperature Reference Select Program Exhaust temperature control function selects control set points to allow GT operation at firing temperatures. Three digital input signals are decoded to select one set of constants which defines the control set points necessary to meet the demand. PEAK SELECT and HEAVY FUEL SELECT Digital Input Data Temperature Reference Select Selected Temperature Reference Table • When appropriate set of constants are selected they are stored in the selected-temperature-reference memory.
. FSR = FSR1 + FSR2 FSR1 = Called-for liquid fuel flow FSR2 = Called-for gas fuel flow Standard fuel systems are designed for operation with Liquid fuel and/or gas fuel.Fuel Control system Turbine fuel control system will change fuel flow to the combustors in response to the fuel stroke reference signal(FSR). FSR actually consists of two separate signals added together.
Servo Drive System .
A null-bias spring positions the servo so that actuator goes to the fail safe position when ALL power and/or control signal is lost. Servo valve contains three electrically isolated coils on the torque motor. thereby redundancy is ensured if one of the controller fails.Servo drive System The heart of Fuel Control System 3 coil Electro Hydraulic Servo Valve Servo valve is the interface between the electrical and mechanical systems Servo valve controls the direction and rate of motion of a hydraulic actuator based on the input current to the servo. Each coil is connected to one of the three controllers <RST>. .
3 and Speedtronic Control cards TCQC and TCQA Electrical Control components – – – – – – .Combined Selector valve False start drain valve .Fuel oil pressure relief valve Secondary fuel oil filter (High pressure) Flow dividers .Fuel lines & fuel nozzles Liquid fuel press sw (upstream) 63FL-2 Fuel oil stop valve limit sw 33FL Fuel pump clutch solenoid 20CF Liquid fuel pump bypass valve Servo valve 65FP Flow divider magnetic pickups 77FD-1.Fuel pump Fuel bypass valve .2.Liquid Fuel System Liquid Fuel system consists of Fuel handling components – – – – – – Primary fuel oil filter (low pressure) Fuel oil stop valve .
Liquid Fuel System P&ID FSR1 <RST> FQ1 FQROUT TNH L4 L20FLX TCQA TCQC <RST> <RST> TCQA Flow Divider 77FD-1 PR/A Typical Fuel Nozzles Combustion Chamber Conn.For Purge When Required AD By-pass Valve Asm 65FP 63FL-2 Diff Press Guage Fuel Stop Valve OF Main Fuel Pump 33FL OLTControl Oil Accessory Gear Drive OFV VR4 Atomizing Air 77FD-2 77FD-3 False Start Drain Valve Chamber OFD To Drain .
Net result is FQROUT.Software Control system checks the permissive L4 and L20FLX to allow FSR1 for closing the Bypass valve (closing bypass valve sends fuel to the combustors) These signals control the opening and closing of the fuel oil stop valve. Fuel pump clutch solenoid (20CF) is energised to drive the pump when the Stop valve opens. more critical speeds where air flow will be low.to make it a function of speed (an important parameter of Turbine) to ensure better resolution at the lower. TNH does not change Therefore FQROUT ~~ FSR . Fuel splitter algorithm ensures requisite FSR when FSR1 is active FSR1 is multiplied by TNH .Fuel oil Control .a digital liquid fuel flow command At Full speed.
Software Analog signal is converted to digital counts and is used in the controllers’ software to compare to certain limits as well as for display in CRT.Loss of LVDT position feedback valve closed The L60FFLH . L3LFT also initiates trip during start-up) .Servo Current is detected when stop valve is L3LFT .Fuel oil Control .Loss of flow divider feedback (L60FFLH persists for 2 sec and this fault initiates trip. checks performed by software program .Bypass valve is not fully open when the stop is closed L3LFBSC .Excessive fuel flow on start-up L3LFLT L3LFBSQ .
SRV is designed to maintain a predetermined pressure (P2) at the inlet of the GCV as a function of turbine speed P1 Fuel Supply SRV P 2 P3 GCV To Turbine .Fuel Gas System Fuel gas is controlled by Gas Speed ratio/stop valve (SRV) Gas Control Valve (GCV) (Both are servo controlled by signals from Speedtronic control panel and actuated by spring acting hydraulic cylinders moving against springloaded valve plugs) GCV controls the desired gas fuel flow in response to the FSR command signal.
Fuel gas press xducer(s) 96FG Gas fuel vent sol valve 20VG -LVDTs 96GC-1.Dump valves - Fuel handling components – – – – Gas manifold with ’pigtails’ to respective fuel nozzles Electrical control components – – – – Gas supply press sw 63FG .Speed Ratio/Stop Vlv assembly Control valve assembly Three pressure gauges .Fuel Gas System Gas Fuel System consists of Gas Strainer .2 & 96SR-1.2 Electro hydraulic servo vlv 90SR & 65GC Speedtronic control cards TBQB and TCQC .
2 TRIP Vh5-1 Dump Relay 90SR SERVO Hydraulic Supply 90GC SERVO LVDT’S 96GC-1.2 GAS MANIFOLD .Fuel Gas System P&ID FPRG POS2 FPG TCQC SPEED RATIO VALVE CONTROL POS1 FSR2 TCQC GAS CONTROL VALVE SERVO TCQC GAS CONTROL VALVE POSITION FEEDBACK TBQB 96FG-2A 96FG-2B 96FG-2C TRANSDUCERS 20 VG VENT Gas Control Valve COMBUSTION CHAMBER 63FG-3 Stop Ratio Valve GAS P2 LVDT’S 96SR-1.
-2 Servo Valve LVDT Position FSR .Gas Control Valve Gas Control Valve GCV position is proportional to FSR2 GCV will open only when permissive L4. Op-amp on TCQC converts error signal and sends to servo valve to drive GCV accordingly. – (Actuation of spring-loaded GCV is by a hydraulic cylinder controlled by an Electrohydraulic servo valve) Stroke of the valve is proportional to FSR OFFSET GAIN <RST> <RST> HI SEL FSR2 L4 L3GCV TBQC FSR2 goes through Fuel splitter algorithm. FSROUT GCV Analog I/O GCV Position Loop Calibration LVDT’S 96GC -1. TCQC converts FSROUT to an analog signal. L20FGX and L2TVX (purge complete) are true. GAS P2 GCV stem position is sensed by LVDTs and fed back to an op-amp on TCQC card to compare with FSROUT input signal at summing junction.
integral part of protection system TNH GAIN OFFSET + - <RST> <RST> (It serves as a pressure regulating valve to hold a desired fuel gas pressure ahead of GCV) FPRG FPG D A HI SEL L4 L3GCV Speed Ratio/Stop Vlv has Two control loops Position loop similar to GCV Pressure control loop • Fuel gas pressure P2 at the inlet of GCV is controlled by the pressure loop as a function of turbine speed (in proportion to the turbine speed TNH) to become Gas fuel press Ref FPRG • TCQC card converts FPRG to analog signalP2 (FPG) is compared to the FPRG and the error signal is in turn compared with the 96SR LVDT feedback to reposition the valve as in GCV loop POS2 SRV GAS 96FG-2A 96FG-2B 96FG-2C Op Cyl Posn Trip Oil 96SR-1. a posive voltage bias is placed on servo coils holding them in the “valve closed” position Servo Valve Hydraulic Oil SRV Pres Calibration P2 TNH P2 = (FPKGNG x TNH) + FPKGNO .Speed Ratio/Stop Valve It is dual function valve As a Stop Valve .2 LVDTs Dump Relay Analog I/O Module TBQB – During a trip or no-run condition.
GCV & SRV schematic GAS FUEL CONTROL VALVE GAS CONTROL FQROUT SERVO GAS CONTROL VALVE VALVE OUTPUT COMMAND OUTPUT GAS FUEL REFERENCE GAS CONTROL VALVE POSITION GAS RATIO VALVE CONTROL GAS REQUIRED PRESSURE SPEED CONTROL VALVE` OUTPUT SPEED RATIO VALVE SERVO COMMAND MIDVALVE GAS FUEL PRESSURE OUTPUT SPEED RATIO VALVE POSITION .
Software programming involves: Fuel splitter Fuel transfer.Duel Fuel Control Turbines designed to operate on both liquid and gaseous fuel systems are equipped with Control software accordingly. Mixed fuel operation Operation of liquid fuel nozzle purge when operating totally on gas fuel.Liquid to Gas Liquid fuel purge Fuel transfer-Gas to Liquid Mixed fuel operation logics and algorithms . Control software performs the following: – – – – Transfer of one fuel to other on command Allow time for filling lines with the type of fuel to which turbine operation is being transferred.
LIMIT MIN. <RST> FUEL SPLITTER FSR is multiplied by the liquid fuel fraction FX1 to produce FSR1signal FSR1 is then subtracted from the FSR signal to generate FSR2 signal A=B A=B L84TG Total Gas L84TL Total LIQ MAX.Fuel splitter .LIMIT L83FZ Permissives RAMP MEDIAN SELECT Rate L83FG Gas Select FSR = FSR1 + FSR2 L83FL Liquid Select FSR LIQ Ref FSR1 FSR2 GAS Ref .software FSR is splitter into two signals FSR1 & FSR2 to provide dual fuel operation.
FSR1 will remain at its initial value. After delay of 30 sec to bleed down the P2 pressure and fill the gas supply line. ST NU I FSR2 PURGE SELECT GAS SELECT MIX TIME . FSR2 will step-up to slightly greater than Zero value (0. ST NU I FSR2 Transfer from Full Gas to Full Liquid FSR1 PURGE SELECT DISTILLATE FSR1 TIME Transfer from Full Liquid to Full Gas. Fuel transfer completes in 30 sec. Gas to Liquid Fuel transfer from Liquid to Gas GT running on Liquid (FSR1) and GAS transfer selected.5%). ST NU I FSR2 PURGE SELECT GAS FSR1 TIME Transfer from Full Liquid to Mixture. The presence of a high pressure than that required by the SRV would cause slow response in initiating gas flow.Fuel Transfer .Liquid to Gas. the software program ramps the fuel commands FSR2 to increase and FSR1 to decrease at a programmed rate through median select gate. This opens the GCV slightly to bleed down the inter valve volume.
gas fuel distribution and gas nozzle flow velocities.Fuel Control System Liquid fuel Purge fuel Operation To prevent the coking of the liquid fuel nozzles Mixed Gas Turbine can be operated on both GAS & LIQ in any proportion when operator choses to be on MIX mode. % of gas flow must be increased as load is decreased to maintain the minimum pressure ratio across the fuel nozzle. Limits of fuel mixture are required to ensure proper combustion. .
and thus the stresses in the compressor. IGV modulates during IGV modulation maintains ..Modulated Inlet Guide Vane System IGV system Bang-Bang type (2 position) Modulated acceleration of turbine at rated speed. Maintains minimum pressure drop across fuel nozzles in Combined cycle operations maintains high exhaust temperatures at low loads. loading and unloading of the generator deceleration of gas turbine proper flows and pressures.
Turbine speed is corrected to reflect the air conditions at 80ºF. HYD.7º per % increase in TNHCOR.Temp >80ºF TNHCOR < TNH At Amb. this compensates for changes in air density as ambient conditions change. SUPPLY <RST> CSRGV CSRGV <RST> IGV REF D/A HIGH SELECT CSRGVOUT Analog I/O CLOSE HM 3-1 At Amb. I FH6 O N -1 U T R P OPEN 90TV-1 2 1 A C OLT-1 TRIP OIL VH3-1 IGV open to minimum full speed angle 57º and stop opening at 91% TNH D OD C2 ORIFICES (2) .Modulated Inlet Guide Vane Control IGV Operation: During start-up IGV is fully closed (34º) from 0% to 83% of corrected speed.Temp <80ºF TNHCOR > TNH Above 83% IGV open at 6.
temp approaches Temp. IGV begins to move to full open pos. ) IGV ANGLE . For Combined Cycle operation.) 0 Fuel Open Max. Control ref. usually 700ºF. a min press drop is maintained across the fuel nozzles. thereby lessening combustion system resonance. as exh.Inlet Guide Vane Operation By not allowing the guide vanes to close to an angle less than than the min full speed angle at 100%TNH.DEG (CSRGV) For Simple Cycle operation IGV move to full open position at pre-selected exhaust temperature. Angle Combined Cycle (TTRX) Simple Cycle (CSKGVSSR) MIN Full Speed Angle Startup Program Region Of Negative 5th Stage Extraction Pressure 100 100 BASE LOAD EXHUAST TEMPERATURE Corrected Speed -% 0 (TNCHOR) FSNL . temperature (Normally IGVs begin open when Tx is within 30ºF of temp control Ref.
Speed Ref.IGV Control Schematic Temp. Servo IGV Output Command IGV Reference Speed IGV Part IGV Part Speed Ref. Inlet Guide Vane Ref. Control Feedback Temp. Control Reference Manual Command IGV Position Compressor Inlet Temp. .
Wet Low NOx Control Gas dP Gas Press Gas Gas Fuel Flow Gas Temp Basic Injection Flow + _ Flow Liq Fuel Flow Humidity Power Augmentation Flow Required Injection Injection Flow Flow Dead band Controller Lower Injection Flow Water Flow Steam Steam Press Steam Temp Select Steam Flow Injection Flow .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.