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Repair and Strengthening of

Reinforced Concrete Structures

By :-
Dixit Bhardwaj
Definitions:-
Repair involves re-establishing the
strength
and function of the damaged
elements.

Strengthening involves upgrading


of the
strength and/or the stiffness of a
structural
Damage of concrete
Concrete structures can be damaged due to
different environmental effects:-

• Freezing and thawing


• Abrasion
• Corrosion
• Overloading
Freezing and thawing

ØExposing damp concrete to freezing


and
thawing cycles results in poor quality
concrete.

ØGood quality concrete with


sufficient
air-entrained will resist cyclic freezing
for years.
Abrasion
• Abrasion of concrete floors may result
from
foot or vehicular traffic.

• Wind or waterborne particles can also


abrade
concrete surfaces.
Corrosion

• Concrete can be damaged when exposed


to
aggressive chemical environments.

• Sulphate chemicals attacks concrete. It is


found
naturally in some soils and sewer treatment
facilities.

• Concrete can be made to perform


satisfactorily in various atmospheric
Types of Damage:-

Non-Structural damage

• -Doors, windows, partitions


• Do not affect the integrity of
• the structure.

Structural damage
• -Beams, columns, slabs etc.
• Can affect the integrity of the
building.
Examples of Concrete
Damages:-

Freeze-Thaw
Deterioration
Corrosion, abrasion &
deterioration
Corrosion of steel

With improper cover or


protection.
Steel starts to corrode;
Pushes concrete cover away;
Deterioration progresses.
Spalling of concrete
Spalling of concrete-
insufficient cover
Severe Damage:- Earthquake;
Blasting & Explosions

Earthquake Damaged columns


Explosion

D am aged D am aged
w a ll b u ild in g
Repairing
concrete
structures
Repairing concrete
structures

Repairing concrete structures requires


special
training and skills.
Each structure is a unique system and
damage
in one building is usually different
from that of
other buildings.
Before the repair :-

• Initial investigation of the damage.


• Assessment of the condition of the
building.
• Emergency protection plan.
• Thorough study of the damage to define:
• Significance of the damaged elements;
• Level of damage;
• Cause of damage.
Selecting the repair scheme

In selecting the repairing scheme, the


following aspects need to be considered:

• Type and age of the structure;


• Importance of the structure;
• Type and degree of the damage;
• Available materials;
• Cost and feasibility;
• Aesthetics.
Three main stages:-

For the repair to be successful, it is


very important to carefully select:

• Materials;
• Preparation;
• Application.
Material
It is known that new concrete does not bond well to
existing
concrete due to volumetric changes during setting.
Selecting proper repairing material is the first and
perhaps the
most important issue for a successful repair.

There are several cement and bonding agents


available
in the market…BUT you need to check carefully:

• Properties and data sheets;


• Applicability for your application and;
• Method and instructions for application.
Preparation
Proper preparation is also crucial for a
successful
repair.

Preparation usually includes but is not


limited to the
following:

• Cleaning the damaged area;


• Removing all loose concrete and bond
inhibiting material.
Application
It Depends on :-

• Type and location of the damage.


• Material used for repair.

It is important to strictly follow the


manufacturer’s
instructions for application.
Methods of repair:

Many repairing techniques are being used


in
concrete structures. The following are
some
common techniques:
• Patching;
• Crack injection;
• Removal and replacement;
• Jacketing.
Patching

This is a very common and widely used


technique
used to repair concrete when damage is
limited to
the surface such as:

• Honeycombing;
• Spalling of concrete cover;
• Localized damage.
Honeycombing

Spalling – Local damage


Patching

Define the area needs to be


patched;
Chip out lose material and clean
patch area;
Use suitable bonding agent.
Place concrete patch material
and finish.
Use appropriate curing practices.
Preparation for concrete
patching:-
Repair of shallow crack by
patching

1 - E n la rg e / tra ck th e cra ck w ith a co ld


ch ise l a n d a h a m m e r
2 - C le a n th e u n d e rcu t a re a w ith a stiff
w ire b ru sh .
3 - M o iste n in g th e a re a to b e
re p a ire d .
4 -Fo rce th e co n cre te p a tch m ix in to th e a re a .
Preparation - Water blasting

Remove loose and deteriorated concrete


Patching by Shotcrete
Crack injection
Crack injection is widely used to grout
shallow and deep cracks.
Polyurethane injection is used to seal
cracks in water retaining structures.
Epoxy raisin is used for structural
cracks:

High viscosity for wide cracks;


Low viscosity for fine cracks.
Crack injection
Removal and replacement
Removal and replacement technique
is used to
replace badly damaged portions of
concrete in
columns, beams, walls or a slabs.
Repair of damaged column
(removal & replacement)
Jacketing

Jacketing is used for


repairing damaged columns
or beams.

It can also be used for


strengthening undamaged
columns or beams to
improve strength and/or
stiffness.

One or two sides jacketing


Three or four sides jacketing