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Nishanthi I MSC Maths

.Automata theory y An automaton is a self operating machine. an input alphabet and a transition function that maps input symbols and current states to a next state. transmits and uses information to perform its functions without direct human participation. transforms. y It is a system which obtains. y An automaton is a model of computation consisting of a set of states: a start state.

a subfield of computer science and mathematics. deals with finding a solution to a problem from the given inputs by means of an algorithm. .Computation y Theory of computation.

Model of computation y Model of computation means o formal. abstract definition of a computer. the intrinsic execution time or memory space of an algorithm which ignoring many implementation issues. Using a model one can analyze more easily. y Types of model y Serial model y Parallel model .

which is the mathematical representation of FSM. . finite because the number of states and the alphabet of input symbols is finite. It is used in mathematical problem analysis.F >.Finite State Machine y A FSM or finite automaton or a mathematical model of a machine. which can only reach a finite number of states and transitions. .q0. . y A = < Q. y A general model of a machine is called a finite automaton. automaton because the structure or the machine is deterministic.

.Components of FSA y Components: y Control unit y Read unit and y An input tape.

Getting up in the morning Sleeping (start) Hitting snooze button Alarm buzzing Turning off alarm Getting up .

y Any change in the nature or quantity of such properties in a state is detected by an observer and this a transmission of information occurs.State y A state is a complete set of properties. transmitted by an object to an observer via one or more channels. .

. y Next state: The state immediately following the current state. defined by the transition function of a FSM and the input. y Accepting state: If a FSM finishes an input string and is in an accepting state. the string is accepted or consideration to be valid.Types of states y Start state: An initial state or condition of a FSM.

. y Dead/ trap state: A non final state of FSM. .Contd. y Existential state: A state. y Universal state: A state from which the machine only accepts all possible moves leading to acceptance. from which the machine accepts any move that leads to acceptance. whose transition on every input symbol terminates on itself.

y State transition table.Transition y Transition is the act of passing from one state to the next.e. y State diagram or transition diagram. . A change from one place / state to another. y Transition function. i.

y y y y y State of the process Final/ accepting Transition ready open Input Output .State diagram or transition diagram y A diagram consisting of circles to represent states and directed line segment to represent transitions between the states.

State transition table y Tabular representation of transitions that the two y y y y argument and return a value. Row corresponds to states and column corresponds to input. . The accepting states are marked with a star. The start state is marked with an arrow ( ). Entries correspond to next state.

< qi .Transition Function y The transition function of a automaton. w . specifies the state into which the machine will move on the basis of its current state and the word that is read.e. y Thus. the transition function can be represented as a set of ordered triples of the form. which is also called its transition matrix or transition table. qj > i. w) = qj . . qiw qj or (qi.

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