A SEMINAR ON PRACTICAL TRAINING TAKEN AT

POWER LINE CARRIER COMMUNICATION
RAJASTHAN RAJYA VIDHUT PRASARAN NIGAM LIMITED PLCCPLCC-I HEERAPURA POWER HOUSE 220KV, JAIPUR SUBMITTED BY: RAJESH KUMAR E&C (FINAL YEAR) R.I.E.T ,JAIPUR

INTRODUCTION OF R.S.E.B.
* RSEB started from 1 July 1957  It is a big organisation and it function under provision electricity act  The aim of RSEB is to supply electricity to entire Rajasthan state in most economical way  The target of board is to distribut energy in new areas as possible

 For betterment and profit, privatization of

RSEB has been done recently . It has been divided in five main parts, they are

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Electricity production authority: RRVUNL authority: Electricity transmission authority: RRVVNL authority: Distribution authority for Jaipur: JVVNL Jaipur: Distribution authority for Jodhpur: JDVVNL Jodhpur: Distribution authority for Ajmer: AVVNL Ajmer:

CONTENTS 
          

INTRODUCTION OF PLCC GENERAL DISCRIPTION OF PLCC PARTS OF EQUIPMENTS SPECIFICATIONS FACILITY AVAILABLE ARE BASIC PRINCIPLE OF PLCC CONSTRUCTION OF PLCC TYPES OF COUPLING WAVETRAPS BATTERY CHARGER ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PLCC CONCLUSION

INTRODUCTION OF PLCC  POWER LINE CARRIER COMMUNICATION Power line carrier communication has been found to be the most economical and reliable method for communication medium and long distance in a power distance. .

Public Telephone Network.Radio Circuitsower .Direct Lines 3.Power Line Carrier Communication(PLCC) . Some of them are as between: .FFor sending speech or other signals from point to point in an interconnected power grid. .

Tele-printer Tele- TeleTele-protection signals for : . The transmitted intelligence is suitable for: for: Telephony Tele-operations : Tele. cables.PCB. plug-in PCB.Telemetry .High voltage power equipment .Remote analogue metering . complete range of variation made possible by a combination of tiers and plug.GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF PLCC EQUIPMENTS (ETI) The multipurpose equipment type ETI-21 and ETI-22 transmit ETIETIsimultaneously speech and multiplexed tele-operation signals in SSB teletechnique over high voltage lines of cables. .Remote control .High voltage power lines While the telephone and Tele operations facilities are typically used for economic control and supervision of energy network. The ETI series offers a network.

Parts of the Equipment  The equipment is built on three main parts:parts:- Low frequency multiplex signal  Carrier frequency signal  Power supply unit  .

Possibilities for input and output connections of tele operation signals from PLCC equipments.     .FACILITY AVAILABLE ARE  The four wire duplex speech from remote location. Duplex Signaling Channel from remote location. from remote location. Duplex Tele Operational Channel. Operational service telephone from parent PLC equipment to opposite PLC station.

double channle ETIETI-22 use for 4 wire. b:ETI-22 b:ETIETI-21 use for 3wire.double channle ETI3-PLCC Equuipments associated with protection signaling and electronics trunktrunkdialing unit for telephone subscribers .CONSTRUCTION 1-It is built in MODULE ELECTRONICS SYSTEM(MES) 2-There are two type of ETI Equipment: a:ETIa:ETI-21.

MODE OF OPERATION  PLCC Unit Provide Five type of operation: 1:TELEPHONE FACILITES 2:COMPRESSOR & EXPANDER 3:EMERGENCY CALL 4:SIGNAL BOOSTING 5:SUPERVISION & ALARMS .

GENERAL MODULATION PRINCIPLE  SINGLE SIDE BAND TRANSMISSION  CARRIER FREQUENCY IS SPACED ON A 4-KHZ  I.F. FIXED AT 16-KHZ 16 FULL DUPLEX MODE IS USED  LOWER SIDE BAND IS USED THROUGHOUT ALL COMMUNICATION .

700 KHZ 2)TRNSMITTER 2)TRNSMITTER  R.SPECIFICATIONS OF PLCC 1)GENERAL 1)GENERAL  Carrier frequency range :.300 to 3. -peak envelope power:.40 to 512 KHZ : Useful AF band :.TRANSMITTING POWER.15w :- .25w power:-side band power :.F.

-I.POWER CONSUMPTION : 16 KHZ : 3600 KHZ : 1000 KHZ : 20 OHMS : 24 V : 800 AH :< 80 W .F. CARRIER FRIQUENCY -PILOT TONE -TEST TONE -DUMMY LODE 3)POWER SUPPLY -DC SUPPLY -CAPACITY .

long-distance. suitably designed coupling devices have to be employed.BASIC PRINCIPLE OF PLCC  In PLCC the higher mechanical strength and insulation level of high voltage power lines result in increased reliability of communication and lower attenuation over long-distance. transmitequipment. . isolator. employed.  Since telephone communication system can not be directly connected to the high voltage lines.  Coupling devices consists of high voltage capacitors in conjunction with suitable line matching units(LMU·s) for line impedance matching to that of the co-axial cable connecting the counit to the PLC transmit-receive equipment.  Carrier currents used for communication have to be prevented from entering the power equipment used in GSS as this would result in high attenuation of even complete loss of communication signals when earthed at isolator.

 Wave traps also usually have one or more suitably designed capacitors connected in parallel with the choke coils so as to resonate at carrier frequencies and thus offer even higher impedance to the flow of RF currents. which offer negligible impedance to RF carrier currents. To prevent loss of communication signals.  The RF is prevented from entering the stations bus(yard) and the power frequency is blocked of coupling capacitor. . capacitor. wave traps or line traps are employed. These consist of suitably designed choke coils connected in series with the line.

The basic arrangement of connecting the WT and coupling capacitor in PLCC communication is shown in the figure below ² .

.

(a) PHASE TO GROUND COUPLING ) .

(b) PHASE TO PHASE COUPLING .

(c) PHASE TO PHASE COUPLING .

(d) INTERLINE OR INTER CIRCUIT COUPLING .

WAVE TRAP .

F. A wave trap must satisfy the following requirements: requirements: 1) It must block the carrier currents. By blocking. station. dB. 2) It must carry the power frequency current safely during normal operation as well as during short circuit fault conditions. the track should attenuate the H. ‡WT·s also ensure proper operating conditions and signal levels at WT· the PLCC transmit receive equipment irrespective of switching conditions of the power circuits and equipment in the station. . we mean that currents. station. signals by at least 8 to 10 dB.WAVE TRAPS ‡Wave traps ² (WT·s) are used between the transmission line and the (WT· power stations to avoid carrier power dislocation in the power plant and cross talk with other power line carrier circuits connected to the same power station.

2:After the over voltage discharge. It reduced the induced electrostatic or electromagnetic voltage. but during over voltage surge it must provide an easy way to the earth. it must be capable of interrupting the normal frequency of current from flowing to ground as soon as voltages reaches below break down value.LIGHTNING ARRESTER    The ground wires running over the towers provides an adequate protection against lighting called L. .A. A good light arrester must pass the following properties: 1:It should not absorb any current during normal operation.

.A.DIAGRAM OF L.

capacitors with mineral oil impregnated paper die electric are used . high stability mica capacitors with low losses For lower voltage class of tuning units with impulse test voltage rating upto 40 KV polystyrene capacitors are used For higher voltage class of tuning units with impulse test voltage rating upto 150 KV.TUNING CAPACITOR    Used are high voltage.

DIAGRAM OF TUNING CAPACITOR .

Firstly it isolates the communication equipment for the power line. The coarse voltage arrester consists of an air gap.THE DRAIN COIL     The drainage coils has a pondered iron core serves to ground the power frequency charging to appear in the output of the unit. is over at about 250 v is provided for giving additional protection to the communication equipment. . Secondly it serves to match the characteristic impedance of the power line 400-600 ohms to that of the co-axial vacuum 400coarrester. which sparks. which sparks over at about 2 KV and protects the matching unit against line surges.

When supply goes off. Control section 4. Battery charger mainly consists of 4 sections ² 1. battery of 48V. It provides DC to the panel by working. we use BATTERY CHARGER for main. proper functioning of PLCC. capacity. Float charger 2. In this type 24 batteries are connected in series and 48V individually per battery has approximately 2V capacity.BATTERY CHARGER PLCC (Power Line Carrier Communication) works on rectified AC or main. which provides supply to the PLCC equipment for uninterrupted working. Alarm section . Boost charger section 3.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS   NORMAL INPUT :415 V AC 3-PHASE 3INPUT VARIATION : +/.1% +/: >70% .20% +/- FLOAT CHARGER : DC OUTPUT OUTPUT CURRENT RIPPLE EFFICIENCY :50 V :20 TO 40 AMP : +/.

10% .2 V . 25.25-70 Amps.43.>80% .2 to 67.     BOOST CHARGER DC output Output current Over load Efficiency .

FLOT CHARGER .

BOOST CHARGER .

.

The large spacing also reduces the frequencies. Power lines have large cross-sectional area resulting in very low resistance crossper unit length. is less. No separate wires are needed for communication purposes. as the power lines themselves carry power as well as communication signals. which results in smaller attenuation at high frequencies. 5. cross talk to a considerable extent. They would normally remain unaffected under the conditions. Power lines are well insulated to provide only negligible leakage between conductors and ground even in adverse weather conditions 6. 4. 2 Power lines have appreciably higher mechanical strength compared with ordinary lines. 3. extent. less. Hence the cost signals. Largest spacing between conductors reduces capacitance. Consequently carrier signals suffer much less attenuation length. than when they travel on telephone lines of equal lengths. stations. which might seriously damage telephone lines. Power lines usually provide the shortest route between the power stations. lengths. . lines.ADVANTAGES 2 1. lines.

3. problem. 2. currents. 4. . across insulators. Sub-station equipments adversely affect the currents. lines. Reflections are produced on spur lines connected to high voltage lines. Noise introduced by power lines is far more than in case of telephone lines. corona and switching processes. difficulties. High voltage lines have transformer connections. It is obvious that an effective power lines carrier system must overcome these difficulties. processes. Proper care has to be taken to guard carrier equipment and persons using them against high voltages and currents on the lines. Subcarrier currents. lines. This increases attenuation and creates problem. attenuate carrier currents. This is due to the noise generated by discharge lines.DISADVANTAGES 1.

CONCLUSION A practical training for a period of 45 days provided me with an in-depth knowledge about inPOWER LINE CARRIER COMMUNICATION (PLCC). .

THANK YOU .

QUERIES ? .

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