COMMUNICATION SKILLS

What do we mean by Communication? Communication is a process of transferring information from one entity to another. sign-mediated interactions between at least two agents which share a repertoire of signs & semiotic rules.

Communication is commonly defined as "the imparting or interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by speech, writing, or signs".

Communication has been defined in different ways as:
A transactional process that involves an exchange of ideas, information, feelings, attitudes, or beliefs and impressions. A multi involves - level process in an organization because it involves the organizational hierarchy, from top to bottom and across horizontal level.

A cultural interaction with people in groups for conversing and sharing ideas in social gatherings A disseminating process that involves passing on of information to masses through the media An interaction process with the corporate A transformational process that motivates and fosters growth and mutual understanding .

A dynamic process that challenges ¶what you say ¶ and ¶how you say· at that particular moment. . A mental/psychological process of talking to oneself in mind.

More than what we communicate. how we communicate is more crucial for the success rate of communication. Peter Drucker identified four fundamentals based on nature of process: Communication is perception † Communication is Expectation † Communication makes demand † Communication and information are different † .

Communication skills refer to the repertoire of behaviors that serve to convey information for the individual. .Communication skills Communication skills is the set of skills that enables a person to convey information so that it is received and understood.

colleagues. subordinates. Communication skills is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral language and written language.It is the ability to effectively communicate with clients. . and supervisors in professional manner and in the personal department.

a message is successful only when both the sender and the receiver perceive it in the same way. with messages often misinterpreted causes unnecessary confusion and counter productivity. . In fact. This process leaves room for error.Why communications skills are so important: to get your message across to others.

† trade fairs.Every platform for communicating is a communication event includes formal meeting. † workshops. † seminars. etc. † .

etc. † TV. . etc. etc.Then there are the communication media such as † radio. The communication professionals include advertisers. journalists. The communication technologies include † pagers. † phones. † newspapers. camera crew.

This process requires a vast repertoire of skills in interpersonal processing. Communication skills is the ability to use language (receptive) and express (expressive) information . questioning.Communication is thus a process by which meaning is assigned and conveyed in an attempt to create shared understanding. speaking. observing. analyzing. gestures and evaluating. listening.

History The word communication has been derived from the Lattin word ¶communis·. Over time. . technology has progressed and has created new forms of and ideas about communication. meaning ¶comman·.

During this era.These technological advances revolutionized the processes of communication. written communication was not mobile. which were too heavy to transfer. † These writings were made on stone. the first written communication began. with pictographs. † . but nonetheless existed. Researchers have divided how communication was transformed into three revolutionary stages: † In the 1st Information Communication Revolution.

writing began to appear on paper. † Common alphabets were introduced. . wax. papyrus. clay. allowing the uniformity of language across large distances. Gutenberg created this printing-press after a long period of time in the 15th century. etc.† In the 2nd Information Communication Revolution. Much later the Gutenberg printing-press was invented.

† Now writings were able to be transferred for others across the world to view. . and portable. information can now be transferred via controlled waves and electronic signals. † In the 3rd Information Communication Revolution. Written communication is now storable.

. Most human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for symbols which enable communication with others around them.Human communication Human spoken and written languages can be described as a system of symbols and the grammars by which the symbols are manipulated. and these seem to share certain properties. There are thousands of human languages. even though many shared properties have exceptions.

transmission of signals involving a living sender and receiver ³ can be considered a form of communication. Also very primitive animals such as corals are competent to communicate. which encompasses most of the issues in ethology. there is the broad field of animal communication.e.Nonhuman communication Communication is not limited to humans. Every information exchange between living organisms ³ i. . Thus.

This is quite evident as humans are able to communicate with animals. . However. and chemical communication between primitive organisms like bacteria. cellular communication. these animals have to learn a special means of communication. and within the plant and fungal kingdoms.On a more basic level. especially dolphins and other animals used in circuses. there is cell signaling.

Communication requires that all parties have an area of communicative commonality. .Communication Process Communication is a process whereby information is enclosed in a package and is channeled and imparted by a sender to a receiver via some medium. and a receiver. All forms of communication require a sender. The receiver then decodes the message and gives the sender a feedback. a message.

message. feedback and context and have the potential to create misunderstanding and confusion. channel. .The stages of communication process consist of sender. receiver.

.. † You must also know audience (individuals or groups to which you are delivering your message).. † Failure to understand who you are communicating to will result in delivering messages that are misunderstood. the audience and the context in which the message is delivered. † To establish yourself as an effective communicator.Sender. display knowledge of the subject.

as well as your individual style of communicating.Message. † Next. validity of the argument. ultimately changing minds and actions.. oral and nonverbal communications are effected by the sender·s tone. . with intellect allowing us the ability to reason and emotion allowing us to present motivational appeals. method of organization. what is communicated and what is left out. consider the message itself. Written. † Messages also have intellectual and emotional components..

telephone and videoconferencing.Channel. and written including letters. with verbal including face-to-face meetings. emails.. memos and reports. .. † Messages are conveyed through channels.

audience also enters into the communication process with ideas and feelings that will undoubtedly influence their understanding of sender's message and their response.Receiver... † However. † When . these messages are delivered to an audience one will have in mind the actions or reactions expected from this audience.

† Audience will provide with feedback. .Feedback. † Close attention Must be paid to this feedback as it is crucial to ensuring the audience understood the message. verbal and nonverbal reactions to communicated message...

.e.. international cultures. † The situation in which message is delivered is the context. .). corporate culture.Context. † This may include the surrounding environment or broader culture (i. etc.

you can expect the message to be misunderstood and misinterpreted. one must commit to breaking down the barriers If your message is too lengthy. disorganized. †.Removing barriers at all these stages † To deliver messages effectively. . or contains errors.

delivering too much information too fast will result in less information received or understood. making sure you can converse and deliver message to people of different backgrounds and cultures within own organization. . in this country and even abroad.† Use of poor verbal and body language can also confuse the message. † Also † Do consider audience·s culture.

Thus A communication process comprises the following elements: † The sender † The sender has an idea † The sender encodes the idea into a message † The message travels through the channel † Noise in the transmission process † The receiver gets the message † The receiver decodes the message † The receiver provides the feedback † The frame of reference of the sender and the receiver † The context of the receiver .

attitudes feelings. message are conveyed.opinions.The communication is the process by which † Information. ideas. exchanged. shared By/to † † Transmitter (Tx) Sender Receiver (Rx) Listener Is effective only when it † Reflects in the Mind of Rx As a True Image of the thoughts conveyed by the Tx For the Receiving and Understanding of the Message . views. passed on. beliefs.

Communication major dimensions scheme Communication code scheme .

Linear Communication Model Source Receiver Source Receiver Interactional Model of Communication Source Receiver Receiver Source .

Berlo's Sender-Message-Channel-Receiver Model of Communication .

Transactional Model of Communication .

. another entity (such as a corporation or group of beings). another person or being. in one of the various manners of communication. These acts may take many forms. The form depends on the abilities of the group communicating. The target can be oneself.Communication includes acts that confer knowledge and experiences. give advice and commands. and ask questions.

.Communication can be seen as processes of information transmission governed by three levels of semiotic rules: properties of signs and symbols). communication is social interaction where at least two interacting agents share a common set of signs and a common set of semiotic rules. † syntactic(formal Therefore. † Pragmatic (concerned with the relations between signs/expressions and their users) and † Semantic study of relationships between signs and symbols and what they represent).

to which signals are adapted for transmission † A receiver. where the message arrives . which 'decodes' (reconstructs) the message from the signal. which encodes the message into signals † A channel. which produces a message.Social scientists Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver structured the model based on the following elements: † An information source. † A destination. † A transmitter.

Shannon and Weaver argued that there were three levels of problems for communication within this theory. † The technical problem: how accurately can the message be transmitted? † The semantic problem: how precisely is the meaning 'conveyed'? † The effectiveness problem: how effectively does the received meaning affect behavior? .

In any communication model.In the presence of ´Communication Noise" on the transmission channel (air. in this case). noise is interference with the decoding of messages sent over a channel by an encoder. may not achieve the desired effect. reception and decoding of content may be faulty. .

such as standing next to loud speakers at a party. or the noise from a construction site next to a classroom making it difficult to hear the professor.Communication Noise Environmental Noise: Noise that physically disrupts communication. .

Physiological-Impairment Noise: Physical maladies that prevent effective communication. such as actual deafness or blindness preventing messages from being received as they were intended. .

such as abrupt changes in verb tense during a sentence.Semantic Noise: Different interpretations of the meanings of certain words. . the word "sea" can be interpreted as an ocean or as a verb ´seeµ. Syntactical Noise: Mistakes in grammar can disrupt communication. For example.

For example.Organizational Noise: Poorly structured communication can prevent the receiver from accurate interpretation. . unclear and badly stated directions can make the receiver even more lost.

´ Psychological Noise: Certain attitudes can also make communication difficult.Cultural Noise: Stereotypical assumptions can cause misunderstandings. such as unintentionally offending Jews by wishing them a "Merry Christmas. great anger or sadness may cause someone to lose focus on the present moment. . For instance.

gestures. and † 7% by the content or the words used in the Communication Process .Types of communication There are three major parts in human face to face communication which are body language. voice tonality. † 38% by the tone of voice. and eye contact. and words. According to the research: † 55% of impact is determined by body language³ postures.

. intonations or pitch. such as voice sounds. gestures or written symbols which communicate thoughts or feelings.System of signals.

Thayer has divided the functions of communication into four specific categories: † The information function: † The command and Instructive function † The influence and persuasion Function † The integrative Function .

7 C·s of effective communication: Courtesy Clarity Conciseness Concreteness Correctness Consideration Completeness .

The classifications include: Verbal and non-verbal Technological and non-technological Mediated and non-mediated Participatory and non-participatory .Communication is generally classified into a couple of types.

Body movements are not usually positive or negative in and of themselves.Verbal Communication the term ´verbal´. meaning ´of or concerned with words. rather.µ When we speak (or listen). An audience is simultaneously processing both verbal and nonverbal cues.µ . our attention is focused on words rather than body language. the situation and the message will determine the appraisal. But our judgment includes both.

as well as through an aggregate of the above. or symbols and info graphics.Nonverbal communication Nonverbal is the process of communicating through sending and receiving wordless messages. . facial expression and eye contact. object communication such as clothing. body language or posture. hairstyle or even architecture. Such messages can be communicated through gesture. such as behavioral communication.

Likewise.Speech contains nonverbal elements known as paralanguage including voice quality. or the use of emoticons. as well as rhythm intonation and stress. written texts have nonverbal elements such as handwriting style. emotions and speaking style. Nonverbal communication plays a key role in every person's day to day life. . from employment to personal engagements. spatial arrangement of words.

where it can be classified into three principal areas: † environmental conditions where communication takes place. much of the study of nonverbal communication has focused on face-to-face interaction. and † behaviors of communicators during interaction . † the physical characteristics of the communicators.However.

† even your appearance at the time the communication is exchanged. and † the voice in which you offer the exchange. † your overall body language. It·s also how you ´sayµ it ² taking into account † your eyes. .The importance of non-verbal communication It·s not always just what you say. † your posture.

In verbal communication. . even clothing and personal space. relying on nonverbal cues. such as gestures. including how the message is delivered. however. an active dialogue is engaged with the use of words. participants begin to doodle or chat amongst themselves. during your meeting. non-verbal communication takes place. even your voice's overall loudness and its pitch. they are no longer paying attention to you: Your message has become boring or your delivery is no longer engaging. others strongly influence interpretation of messages. If. facial expressions. This means paying close attention to your tone of voice. At the same time. eye contact.

the handshake that is so widely accepted in Western cultures as a greeting or confirmation of a business deal is not accepted in other cultures.Once again. you need to be mindful of cultural differences when using or interpreting nonverbal cues. . and can cause confusion. For instance.

. Aesthetic. painting and sculpturing. This is the type of communication that takes place through creative expressions: playing instrumental music. It includes facial expressions. tone of voice. sense of touch. Porter divides non-verbal communication into four broad categories: Physical. and body motions.Categories G. sense of smell. dancing. This is the personal type of communication. W.

This is the mechanical type of communication. . horns. or ego-building symbols. which includes the use of signal flags.Signs. and sirens. status. the 21-gun salute. Symbolic. This is the type of communication that makes use of religious.

Features Static Features † Distance. . † Orientation. † Posture † Physical Contact.

† Distance. side-to-side. People may present themselves in various ways: face-to-face. . or even back-to-back. For example. In some cultures it is a sign of attraction. cooperating people are likely to sit sideby-side while competitors frequently face one another. while in others it may reflect status or the intensity of the exchange. † Orientation. The distance one stands from another frequently conveys a non-verbal message.

. and the level of fondness a person has for the other communicator.Posture Posture can be used to determine a participant·s degree of attention or involvement. the difference in status between communicators. where one person·s left side is parallel to the other·s right side. Studies investigating the impact of posture on interpersonal relationships suggest that mirrorimage congruent postures. leads to favorable perception of communicators and positive speech.

a person who displays a forward lean or a decrease in a backwards lean also signify positive sentiment during communication. . and body openness. Posture is understood through such indicators as direction of lean. arm position. body orientation.

They reflect an element of intimacy or a feeling of (or lack of) attraction. pushing. embracing. Shaking hands. holding. .† Physical Contact. or patting on the back all convey messages. touching.

† Gesture † Looking † Facial .Dynamic Features Expressions.

Facial Expressions. A smile. Facial expressions continually change during interaction and are monitored constantly by the recipient. and sneer all convey information. . yawn. frown. There is evidence that the meaning of these expressions may be similar across cultures. raised eyebrow.

† in which visible bodily actions are used to communicate particular messages. †a .Gesture A gesture is non-vocal bodily movement † intended to express meaning.

and † also include movements of the head. or rolling ones' eyes. such as winking.They may be articulated with hands. arms or body. face and eyes. † the . nodding.

Gesture can also be categorized as either † speech-independent or † speech-related. .

. A wave hello or a peace sign are examples of speech-independent gestures.Speech-independent gestures are dependent upon culturally accepted interpretation and have a direct verbal translation.

this form of nonverbal communication is used to emphasize the message that is being communicated. . provides supplemental information to a verbal message.Speech related gestures are used in parallel with verbal speech.

 . A major feature of social communication is eye contact. or aversion.  It can convey emotion.† Looking. signal when to talk or finish.  The frequency of contact may suggest either interest or boredom.

. † For example. the idea of mirroring body language to put people at ease is commonly used in interviews.Body language Understanding body language † The technique of "reading" people is used frequently.

touching and slouching are all forms of nonverbal communication.Physical expression Physical expressions like waving. Humans move their bodies when communicating because. pointing. The study of body movement and expression is known as kinesics." . it helps "ease the mental effort when communication is difficult.

. gestures can emphasize a point or relay a message. posture can reveal boredom or great interest.Physical expressions reveal many things about the person using them. and touch can convey encouragement or caution. For example.

But in a serious or confrontational situation.One of the most basic and powerful body-language signals is when a person crosses his or her arms across the chest This can indicate that a person is putting up an unconscious barrier between themselves and others it can mean that a person is thinking deeply about what is being discussed. . it can mean that a person is expressing opposition.

It is also an important part of effective team communication skills. .Eye Contact helps regulate the flow of communication. eye contact with the audience increases the speaker's credibility. Furthermore. It signals interest in others.

Consistent eye contact can indicate that a person is thinking positively of what the speaker is saying. also mean that the other person doesn't trust the speaker enough to "take his eyes off" the speaker Lack of eye contact can indicate negativity. .

.Eye contact can also be a secondary and misleading gesture because cultural norms about it vary widely. the eye contact could be indicative that something is bothering the person. If a person is looking at you. and that he wants to talk about it. but is making the arms-across-chest signal.

Disbelief is often indicated by averted gaze. or by the eyes looking straight at the speaker but becoming slightly unfocused. . or by touching the ear or scratching the chin. Boredom is indicated by the head tilting to one side.

Interest can be indicated through posture or extended eye contact. Excessive blinking is a well-known indicator of someone who is lying. . such as standing and listening properly.

noise. and music. temperature. † interior decorating. such as † furniture. . architectural style. The furniture itself can be seen as a nonverbal message. lighting conditions.Role of Physical Environment in Communication Environmental factors affect the behavior of communicators during interaction. colors.

The space between the sender and the receiver of a message influences the way the message is interpreted. .Proxemics is the study of how people use and perceive the physical space around them.

as well as close family members and friends. † Intimate distance is the space around us that we reserve for children.Research has revealed that there are four different zones of interpersonal space. . † The first zone is called intimate distance and ranges from touching to about eighteen inches (46 cm) apart.

† We .† The second zone is called personal distance and begins about an arm's length away. to chat with associates. starting around eighteen inches (46 cm) from our person and ending about four feet (122 cm) away. and in group discussions. use personal distance in conversations with friends.

† The third zone of interpersonal space is called social distance and is the area that ranges from four to eight feet (1. † Social . distance is reserved for strangers. newly formed groups. and new acquaintances.2.4 m) away from you.2 m .

and theater. essentially.4 m) away from you. public distance is that range reserved for larger audiences .The fourth identified zone of space is public distance and includes anything more than eight feet (2. This zone is used for speeches. lectures.

.Chronemics Chronemics is the study of the use of time in nonverbal communication. The way we † perceive time. † structure our time and † react to time is a powerful communication tool. and helps set the stage for communication.

† the speed of speech and how long people are willing to listen. The timing and frequency of an action as well as the tempo and rhythm of communications within an interaction contributes to the interpretation of nonverbal messages. .Time perceptions include † punctuality and willingness to wait.

Gudykunst & Ting-Toomey identified 2 dominant time patterns: Monochronic time schedule (M-time): Time is seen as being very important and it is characterized by a linear pattern where the emphasis is on the use of time schedules and appointments. † Time is viewed as something that can be controlled or wasted by individuals. † The M-pattern is typically found in North America and Northern Europe . and people tend to do one thing at a time. † .

is the usual pattern that is typically found in Latin America and the Middle East † This .Poly chronic Time Schedule(P-time): † Personal involvement is more important than schedules where the emphasis lies on personal relationships rather than keeping appointments on time.

position is a general term for a configuration of the human body posture means the intentionally or habitually assumed position pose implies artistic or aesthetic intention of the position bearing refers to the manner. of the posture.Human position Human position refers to a position of a Human Body. as well as of gestures and other aspects of the conduct .

. . We communicate a great deal through touch. back slapping. and brushing an arm. a pat on the shoulder.Haptics Haptics is the study of touching as nonverbal communication. holding hands. defined as communication include a firm handshake.

. volume. other people ´readµ our voices in addition to listening to our words. rhythm. inflection. even when we are not using words. and rate are important communication elements. Nonverbal speech sounds such as tone. pitch. When we speak.Voice We communicate with our voices.

Functions of nonverbal communication there are five primary functions of nonverbal bodily behavior in human communication: † Express emotions † Express interpersonal attitudes † To accompany speech in managing interaction † Self-presentation of one·s personality † Rituals (greetings) .

The relation between verbal and nonverbal communication The meaning is communicated verbally. and also non-verbally the combined effect is a weighted sum of their independent effects .

† regulating and † accenting/moderating. † . conflicting.Interaction of verbal and nonverbal communication When communicating. nonverbal messages can interact with verbal messages in six ways: † repeating. † substituting. † complementing.

Dance and nonverbal communication Dance is a form of nonverbal communication that requires conceptualization. . creativity and memory Means of self-expression. both forms have vocabulary (steps and gestures in dance). grammar (rules for putting the vocabulary together) and meaning.

Commonly known types of communications † Personal or intrapersonal communication † Interpersonal communication † Group Communication † Oral Communication † Mass Communication † Social Communication † Visual Communication † Graphic Communication † Organizational communication .

Other types of Communication Science communication Strategic Communication Facilitated communication (FC) Technical communication Superluminal communication .

.µ this behavior of individuals in organizations is best understood from a communication point of view.Organizational Communication organizational communication is defined as ´the central binding force that permits coordination among people and thus allows for organized behavior.

.History of Organizational Communication 1930s through the 1950s organizational communication was a discipline of a few professors within who had a particular interest in speaking and writing in business settings. organizational communication focused largely on the improving organizational life and organizational output. In the 1950s.

the field turned away from a business-oriented approach to communication and became concerned more with the constitutive role of communication in organizing.In the 1980s. . In the 1990s. organizational communication was focused more on communication's possibilities to oppress and liberate organizational members.

Organizational Communication Internal to Organization External to organization .

Key Distinctions Key distinctions with respect to organizational communication involve: levels. † formal versus informal. † direction and † internal versus external focus. † .

Levels Communication is frequently divided into the following levels: † † † † † Interpersonal communication Group level communication Organizational level communication Inter-organizational level communication Mass communication. .

Horizontal. and Diagonal Communications .Direction Vertical.

This is used to implement policies. This approach is used by the Top Level Management to communicate to the lower levels. distortion of the actual information occurs. guidelines.Top-down approach: This is also known as downward communication.Up: Upward Communication . Bottom . etc. effective by using feedbacks.

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and † macro levels . † meso.Organizational Communication also distinguished between † micro.

.Grapevine Communication informal communication used to spread information bypassing the formal communication structure it spreads in random ways and it goes where it can.

Disadvantages
not verified It does not spread rumors, it used to spread gossip lives can get destroyed

Advantages
creates a social bond fills in a gap helps keep people honest

Grapevine communication is part of the workplace, it can't be eliminated.

Communications networks Networks are another aspect of direction and flow of communication There are several patterns of communication † Chain † Wheel † Star † All-Channel † Circle .

Internal communications should: Promote a climate of involvement and trust Ensure that senior managers have an understanding of the issues affecting staff working at all levels and Continually update staff on developments and progress Motivate staff through public recognition of organization/team/individual successes and achievements. . Ensure staff are kept aware of key decisions or changes at a corporate level.

Communication: External with its environment .

.Variables influence the effectiveness of communication † the environment in which communication takes place. personalities of the sender and the receiver. and † the † the relationship that exists between sender and receiver.

Key Functions of Communication Leading. Influencing Problem-solving decision-making Conflict management negotiating. and bargaining . motivating.

represented as any differences between the original and the received messages. Distortion. unless there is some breakdown in the communication process. can and ought to be identified and reduced or eliminated. .Assumptions It will make rational decisions.

† what and † How † why they need to achieve and † what the benefits are for them. thorough understanding of role.The benefits Share an organization's vision and value. † their Feel informed about the organization and believe that their opinions and views are valued. .

Communication Barriers If any kind of disturbance blocks any step of communication. . the message will be destroyed and desired result is not achieved.

Barriers to Effective Communication Perceptual and Language Differences Information Overload Inattention Time Pressures Distraction/Noise Emotions Complexity in Organizational Structure Poor retention .

Other Barriers Absence of common frame of reference: Social context Badly encoded message Disturbance in distribution channel Mistrust Premature evaluation of message Semantic difficulties Misinterpretation of message Psycho ² physical factors .

Overcoming Communication Barriers Eliminating differences in perception Use of Simple Language Reduction and elimination of noise levels Active Listening Emotional State Simple Organizational Structure Avoid Information Overload Give Constructive Feedback Proper Media Selection Flexibility in meeting the targets .

LISTENING SKILLS .

Listening Difference between hearing and listening Types of Listening † Marginal Listening † Evaluative Listening † Active/Empathic Listening .

Stages in Listening Sensing or Selecting Interpreting stage Evaluating Responding Memory stage .

Listening Process Interpreting Selecting Evaluating Memory Responding .

Barriers to listening Environmental barriers Linguistic / Semantic barriers Emotional/Personal barriers Socio Culture barriers Psychological Barriers Prejudgment/ hasty evaluation † Superficial frame of reference † Closed mindedness † Inability to pay attention † Jealousy/dislike † The urge to debate or advise † .

Benefits of Effective Listening Helps in creating happy environment Saves time Improves management ² Employee relation Leads to early problem solving Reduces tensions and Hostilities .

ORAL COMMUNICATION .

Oral Communication
Face to Face Telephonic Instructions Dictation Interviews Meeting Seminar & Conferences Group Discussion

Face To face

† Most

common

† Participant

plays role of a speaker and a Listener interchangeably

Telephonic

† Interaction

between two people on phone † Advantage is body language and eye contact is lost † One of the commonest and fastest way of contacting person

Instructions
Directing others to perform a particular act The response to instruction will be action While giving instructions keep in mind
† Background

knowledge of the recipient † His psychology † Capacity to grasp † ability to act upon instructions

Dictation † Very frequently used in organizations † An art which professional has to learn in order to transact his day to day business † Requires imagination and constructive mentality .

INTERVIEW .

Purpose ² To assess a person on various personal attributes . especially for the purpose of obtaining a statement or for assessing the qualities of a candidate.THE INTERVIEW An interview is a face-to-face meeting.

Twp types of Interview Employment Interview Data collection Interview .

TEN THINGS THAT AN INTERVIEWER LOOKS IN YOU Family Background Education Experience Stability Initiative General Ability Interpersonal Skills Confidence Aptitude Pleasant Looks .

Most companies have internal screening interviewers who sort through candidates.SCREENING INTERVIEWS More adept at Extracting information and evaluating people. typically from the personnel or human resources department. .

TYPES OF INTERVIEWS Based on number of people Based on the nature of the interview Conduct wise interview Placement wise interview Other types of interview .

BASED ON NUMBER OF PEOPLE One-to-One Interview Sequential interview Panel interview .

BASED ON THE NATURE OF THE INTERVIEW Structured interview Unstructured interview Mixed interview Stress interview Hypothetical or Scenario Questions Behavior Descriptive or Behavioral Questions .

CONDUCT WISE INTERVIEWS Preliminary interview Intermediate interview Final interview .

Placement Wise Cabin interview Outdoor interview .

OTHER TYPES OF INTERVIEWS Campus interview Video ² conference interview Online interview A phone interview .

most will incorporate the following stages: † establishing rapport.Process Regardless of the type of interview. . and † closing the interview. † exchanging information.

MEETING .

Meeting A meeting is the ultimate form of managed conversation "meetings" are a vital part of the organization of work and the flow of information act as a mechanism for gathering together resources from many sources and pooling them towards a common objective .

Preparation Who should attend † meeting loses its effectiveness if too many people are involved † Limit to maximum of 12 Decide Place and time of the meeting .

How long? † stipulate a time for the end of the meeting so can plan the rest of their day with confidence.Make a meeting agenda. . and † share this with the participants. complete with detailed notes. † outline the goal and † proposed structure of the meeting.

Managing a meeting † keep the number of participants to a maximum of 12 † Make sure the people with the necessary information for the items listed in the meeting agenda are the ones that are invited. † When an agenda item is resolved or action is agreed upon make it clear who in the meeting will be responsible for this .

Issuing minutes Summarize the discussion and the recommendations at the end of each logical section Circulate minutes to all participants .

† the Focus on stated goals Summary . † the time allowed.Conducting the Meeting Maintaining Communication always clarify purpose of the meeting. † the rules to be observed (if agreed) by everyone.

† to seek information. † to make a decision † to ratify/explain decisions. etc Support Responding to problems Concluding Remarks .Code of conduct Matching method to purpose † to convey information.

SEMINAR & CONFERENCES .

Seminar & Conferences
Seminar Symposium Panel Discussion Conference Convention

A Seminar refers to discussion in a small group in which the study of original research or advanced study is presented through oral or written papers Main purpose is to share knowledge and get the viewpoints of equally well-informed persons In Symposium a small group of experts or well informed persons discuss different aspect of a problem for the benefit of an audience

Panel Discussion is a series of speeches on
different aspects of a problem. Each member speaks on announced topic No. of panelists is small and having a lot of experience in problem area selected for discussion

Conference: purpose is to confer with persons
having similar interests and pool their experiences and opinions. Results in set of suggestions or recommendations on central theme

Participants and subject matter spectrums are wider than those of Seminar and symposium It is closed group discussion and participants have to register for attending it. A convention is generally a fellowship meeting of closely linked fraternal group Applies to professional gathering held by companies, societies, associations etc.

Conducting a Seminar Draw a detailed plan † Objective †A lead speaker † Number of participants † Venue † Date † Timings † Incase of more than one session . identify chairman for each .

stationary.Send mentioned information to all the participants well in time Get the response by given date Make arrangement for † Transport † Rooms/guest houses † Meals. coffee † Seating. note taking † Allocation of tasks and duties etc. snacks. recording. black board. audio visual aids. . tea.

Organizing a conference
Since a large number of people will meet to confer so better to prepare a brochure containing all the details. Can structure the brochure as
† Pg1:

theme of the conference, name of the sponsor, dates and name of the organizers : Short note on theme of the conference

† Pg2

† Pg3:

Names of conference president and secretary; names of repporteurs; time, date, place of plenary and valedictory sessions details of invited lectures-name, topic, time, date, place etc.

† Pg4:

† Pg5:

reception, transport, boarding arrangement, postal address, phone number, delegate fees

GROUP DISCUSSION

GROUP DISCUSSION
Where it is used? Number of participants What is checked in a GD?

Group discussion A GD is a methodology used by an organization to gauge whether the candidate has certain personality traits and/or skills that it desires in its members. .

a few minutes to think about the same.In this methodology. . and † given † then asked to discuss the topic among themselves for 15-20 minutes. the group of candidates † is given a topic or a situation.

Some of the personality traits the GD is trying to gauge may include :- † † † † † † Ability to work in a team Communication skills Reasoning ability Leadership skills Initiative Assertiveness Flexibility † Creativity † Ability to think on ones feet † Clarity of thought † Body language and eye contact † .

Seek clarification if you have any doubts regarding the subject. Do not try and be someone you are not. Be yourself.GD Do's ABHIJEET UNHALE Be as natural as possible. Take time to organize your thoughts. 176 . The evaluator wants to hear you speak. Think of what you are going to say. A group discussion is your chance to be more vocal.

Opening the discussion is not the only way of gaining attention and recognition. all your efforts of initiating the discussion will be in vain. Work out various strategies to help you make an entry: initiate the discussion or agree with someone else's point and then move onto express your views. . If you do not give valuable insights during the discussion.Don't start speaking until you have clearly understood and analyzed the subject.

try to maintain a balanced tone in your discussion and analysis. Language skills are important only to the effect as to how you get your points across clearly and fluently. Be assertive not dominating. .Your body language says a lot about you .your gestures and mannerisms are more likely to reflect your attitude than what you say.

The key is to stay calm: Don't take the discussion personally. Instead try phrases like: `I would like to share my views on«' or `One difference between your point and mine«' or "I beg to differ with you" 179 .ABHIJEET UNHALE Don't lose your temper if anyone says anything against you. Always be polite: Try to avoid using extreme phrases like: `I strongly object' or `I disagree'.

. and creativity. Apart from the above points. motivate the other members of the team to speak and listen to their views. ability to work as a team without alienating certain members.Brush up on your leadership skills. problem-solving abilities. Be receptive to others' opinions and do not be harsh or aggressive. the panel will also judge team members for their alertness and presence of mind.

WRITTEN COMMUNICATION .

Written Communication Letter Proposals Notice Agenda Minutes Handbooks Manuals Reports .

accepting or refusing request † Making or responding to complaints etc. .Letter A form of written communication by an authorized person of an organization Purpose † Making an enquiry or answering † Making an order † Demanding or refusing credit † Selling goods or services † Making .

Structure Compulsory elements Optional elements Letter Head Date Inside address Salutation Body Complimentary close Typed signature Reference Attention Subject Identification mark Enclosures .

A memorandum Elements † Name of the Company † Sender·s Name † To whom message is sent † Date line † Subject line .

Specifies a plan of action Contains an estimated cost of execution .Proposal It is a written offer to solve a technical problem or to undertake a project of a practical or theoretical nature.

Types of Proposal Solicited Unsolicited Prepared in response to specific invitation of demand Prepared with the hope that the excellence of proposed plan would attract the interests of potential customers .

Content Summary Statement of Technical requirement proposal fulfills † Analysis of problem which proposal solves † Description of hardware required † An estimate † Duration of planned project † Realistic cost estimate † Assurance of capabilities and experience † Technical section Management Section Cost Estimate .

Evaluation An understanding of problem Sound and feasible technical solution Clarity in presentation Reasonable cost estimate Proper management planning Adequacy of facilities and personnel Realistic performance estimate Practicable schedule of work .

matter. call a meeting notice is used Notice should mention name and address of organization † Date † Necessary details can be attached to the notice as annexure .Notice To inform the rules.

Agenda The agenda states the purpose of each section of the meeting An agenda is a list of meeting activities also be called a docket The purpose of an agenda is inform participants of the subject of the meeting in advance. † to . and † to structure the discussion at the meeting itself.

† followed by a series of points outlining the order of the meeting.Form of agenda usually headed with † Name of the organization/Unit † the date † day. time of meeting † location of the meeting. † Signature of secretary . date .

Arrange/announce details of next meeting Close meeting agenda.Points on a typical agenda Approve minutes of the previous meeting Matters arising from the previous meeting A list of specific points to be discussed Any other business (AOB) ³ allowing a participant to raise another point for discussion.docx .

† every meeting of Board of Directors and † every meeting of committee of the Board of Directors .Minutes Companies are generally required to keep minutes of the proceedings of: † every general meeting.

Begin with the name of the body (eg a committee) holding the meeting. date. of people absent No. No. No. people attended by invitations Record of transaction Signature of secretary and the chairman the time that the chair called the meeting to order end with a note of the time that the meeting was adjourned. of meetings if in series list of people present. . place.

What minutes record The official record of the business transacted at a meeting the decisions made. any and all official decisions must be included The voting tally .

. mechanism. job instruction etc. operation.Handbooks and Manuals Handbooks are brought out for general information Different types of handbooks are produced for different audience Manuals is a concise reference handbook dealing with a particular process.

staff on use of equipment or procedure Types † Technical † Laboratory † Procedure .Uses of manuals are: † Instruct customer to use the equipment † Instruct management .

BUSINESS REPORT .

document in which a given problem is examined for the purpose of conveying information and putting forward ideas first and sometimes making recommendations..µ .What is Business report ? ´««.

The purpose is to † communicate information to assist in the business decision making process † Provide solutions for business problems † present relevant information to assist in the problem solving process .

Features of good business report Factual Objective Orderly/ Structured in a predetermined fashion Comprehensive Detailed Logical Clear Coherent .

Types of Reports Routine/periodic/progress reports Informational reports Justification Reports with recommendations Situational reports Feasibility report Research report Business Plan /proposal .

Steps in writing a business report Determining the scope of the report Understanding the Target Audience Research to collect supporting information Formatting and organizing the report .

. † how detailed the report would be.Determining the scope This process would determine † what topics would be covered in the report † what elements are not necessary.

† marital status potential requirements of the readers have to be considered . is aimed at. † gender. can be † age group.Understanding the Target Audience Identify the target audience the primary group of people that something.

surveys and publications about the topic are studied Investigative research might be needed Explain the process and methods used for research study and review of recommendations and proposed solutions .Collection of Information all previous reports.

Formatting and organizing the report final step before actually writing a business report. what charts/diagrams will be used to complement the information what medium of presentation would be used? . in which the format of the report has to be decided how would the data be presented?.

\2009-10\Projects\Final Projects\model_format_for_dissertation.\.doc Conclusion Recommendation Appendix List of references Bibliography` Glossary Index .Structure Cover Title Page Acknowledgement Table of content Abstract and summary Introduction Discussion or description ...

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CONTENTS OF RESUME Personal details Career goal Academic & Professional qualification Training attended. Special awards / achievements Membership of professional bodies Professional experience Role model Existing or expected salary Covering letter . Article published.

CHRONOLOGICAL RESUME WORKSHEET Name Address Phone E . city. state Job title Responsibilities Employer.mail Employment objective (optional) Summary ( optional-------can include on cover letter) optional-------can Work experience Employer. state Job title Responsibilities/ accomplishments/ skill Education Licenses and certifications Awards Professional memberships | dates | dates | dates | fax . state Job title Responsibilities. accomplishments/ skills Employer. city. city.

FUNCTIONAL RESUME WORKSHEET NAME ADDRESS PHONE | FAX E .MAIL EMPLOYMENT OBJECTIVE (OPTIONAL) HIGHLIGHTS OF QUALIFICATIONS (OPTIONAL) WORK EXPERIENCE OCCUPATIONAL /FUNCTIONAL CATEGORY SKILLS/ ACCOMPLISHMENTS/ RESPONSIBILITIES OCCUPATIONAL/ FUNCTIONAL CATEGORY SKILLS/ ACCOMPLISHMENTS/ RESPONSIBILITIES OCCUPATIONAL/ FUNCTIONAL CATEGORY SKILLS/ ACCOMPLISHMENTS/ RESPONSIBILITIES EMPLOYMENT HISTORY EMPLOYER | TITLE EMPLOYER | TITLE EMPLOYER | TITLE EDUCATION LICENSES AND CERTIFICATIONS AWARDS/ PROFESSIONAL MEMBERSHIPS MEMBERSHIPS | DATES | DATES | DATES .

COMBINATION RESUME WORKSHEET NAME ADDRESS PHONE EMPLOYMENT OBJECTIVE SUMMARY OF SKILLS AND / OR EXPERIENCE SKILLS / EXPERIENCE DESCRIPTION SKILLS / EXPERIENCE DESCRIPTION SKILLS / EXPERIENCE DESCRIPTION WORK EXPERIENCE NAME OF EMPLOYER ADDRESS / PHONE NAME OF EMPLOYER ADDRESS / PHONE NAME OF EMPLOYER ADDRESS / PHONE EDUCATION SCHOOL NAME CITY / STATE MAJOR(S) DEGREE / CERTIFICATES EARNED LICENSES AND CERTIFICATIONS PROFESSIONAL MEMBERSHIPS OF ORGANISATIONS | DATES OF ATTENDANCE (IF RECENT) | JOB TITLE | DATES OF EMPLOYMENT | JOB TITLE | DATES OF EMPLOYMENT | JOB TITLE | DATES OF EMPLOYMENT | FAX | E .MAIL .

experienced Administrative Assistant Assistant Customer Relations Manager Corporate experience with major clients a must PC knowledge a plus .Company Needs My Qualifications Four years Administrative / Assistant experience with responsibility for numerous detailed reports Assisted Customer Relations Manager for two years Regularly served purchasing agents at Fortune 500 companies Hands-on experience with Lotus 1Hands12-3 and Word perfect on IBM-PC IBM- DetailDetail-oriented.

MANAGEMENT OF INFORMATION .

Management of Information One of the greatest concern to accumulate the information Keep vibrant and meaningful communication pattern to meet increasing demand MIS. HRIS .

Use of Word processor and DTP EDP: Electronic Data Processing Handle large data At the same time make information available to large number of people .

TECHNOLOGY .

.Communication technologies are generally categorized as Asynchronous or synchronous.

Here participants may engage in the exchange of ideas or information without the dependency of other participants involvement at the same time. Electronic mail (Email) is also asynchronous in that mail can be sent or received without having both the participants· involvement at the same time. wikis. and discussion boards. .Asynchronous activities use technologies such as blogs.

Synchronous activities involve the exchange of ideas and information with one or more participants during the same period of time. A face to face discussion is an example of synchronous communications. .

† Electronic Type writers † Cellular Phones .Many electronic devices are used in communication † Computers : E ² mail system. Instant Messaging (IM) etc.

† share Email became widely adopted in the corporate world. people began to be able to stored data and information and † produce printed materials with greater ease. which can be a great productivity tool .Computers and Human Communication With computers.

. email was transmitted directly from one user to another computer. deliver and store messages. for as long as it takes to send or receive messages. like instant messaging. is a method of exchanging digital messages across the Internet or other computer networks. This required both computers to be online at the same time. Originally.Electronic mail. Users no longer need be online simultaneously and need only connect briefly. typically to an email server. But Today Email servers accept. commonly called e-mail. forward.

.Online bulletin boards to form groups to share information with about subjects that matter Online bulletin boards and forums were the beginning of collaborative tools that satisfied one of the human need: the need for community.

Twitter Face book Blogster Buzz net Flickr Google buzz Hi5 Ibibo LinkedIn Orkut Tagged Wayn .Social Networking Technology and Human Communication fulfilled yet another human need: the need for self expression and recognition.

.Audio video Aids used Black Board Projector Film strip and Slide Projector Movie film projector Video tape recorder Audio Tape recorder Models etc.

for the purpose of communication. the use of radio and microwave communications as well as fiber optics and their associated electronics. lung-blown horns. telephones. In the modern age of electricity and electronics. telecommunications involved the use of visual signals. .Telecommunication is the transmission of messages. In earlier times. over significant distances. for example. or sent by loud whistles. such as beacon. smoke. or audio messages via coded drumbeats. telecommunications now also includes the use of electrical devices such as telegraphs. plus the use of the orbiting satellites and the Internet. signal flags.

Teleconferencing A group of people interacting with each other by means of audio and video media with moving or still pictures Not only hear but also see each other·s expressions and discuss .

Advantages of Teleconferencing † Saves travel expenses † Saves time † Can have conference whenever necessary .

g. caller-id. E. † helped satisfy some of people's social needs † help . and as a barrier to block out those they don·t want to connect with. † an organization should be able to realize a competitive advantage in its performance and in the marketplace † People will use technology as an enabler to communicate with those they want.Advantages of Technology in Communication dispersed individuals work as a team.

Disadvantages † Equipments are subject to breakdown † Compare to meeting difficult to arrange † technology has hindered human communication. it reduced the quality and quantity of face time .

and write other documents on more perishable media .Timeline of communication technology Prior to 3500BC . 3500s BC .The Phoenicians develop an alphabet AD 26-37 .Hindu-Malayan empires write legal documents on copper plate scrolls.Tsai Lun invents paper 7th century .Roman Emperor Tiberius rules the empire from island of Capri by signaling messages with metal mirrors to reflect the sun 105 .Communication was carried out through paintings of indigenous tribes.The Sumerians develop cuneiform writing and the Egyptians develop hieroglyphic writing 16th century BC .

Claude Chappe establishes the first long-distance telegraph line 1831 .Johannes Gutenberg finishes a printing press with metal movable type 1520 .Joseph Henry proposes and builds an electric telegraph 1835 .Samuel Morse develops the Morse code 1843 .Samuel Morse builds the first long distance electric telegraph line .751 .Ships on Ferdinand Magellan's voyage signal to each other by firing cannon and raising flags.Paper is introduced to the Muslim world after the Battle of Talas 1305 .The Chinese develop wooden block movable type printing 1450 . 1793 .

Associated Press organizes Nova Scotia pony express to carry latest European news for New York newspapers 1876 .John Logie Baird transmits the first television signal .Almon Strowger patents the direct dial telephone 1901 .1844 .Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas A. Watson exhibit an electric telephone in Boston 1877 . 1849 .Guglielmo Marconi transmits radio signals from Cornwall to Newfoundland 1925 .Charles Fenerty produces paper from a wood pulp.Thomas Edison patents the phonograph 1889 .

Claude Elwood Shannon the "father of information theory".Douglas H. 1966 .1942 . mathematically proves the Nyquist²Shannon sampling theorem 1958 .Charles Kao realizes that silica-based optical waveguides offer a practical way to transmit light via total internal reflection .Chester Carlson presents the first photocopier suitable for office use 1963 .First geosynchronous communications satellite is launched. Rae Young of Bell Labs proposed a cell-based approach which lead to "cellular phones" 1949 . Ring and W.Hedy Lamarr and George Antheil invent frequency hopping spread spectrum communication technique 1947 .

2010 .Erna Schneider Hoover invented a computerized switching system for telephone traffic.1969 .The Apple I-pad . Internet's ancestor.The first hosts of ARPANET.Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau built the prototype system which became the World Wide Web at CERN 1991 .Anders Olsson transmits solitary waves through an optical fiber with a data rate of 32 billion bits per second 1994 .The Apple I-phone.Internet2 organization created 2002 Intel finds new product 2005 .Donald Knuth begins work on TeX 1989 . 1971 . 1977 . are connected.

. ultimately resulting in foreign behaviors and official actions favorable to the originator's objectives.Perception management Actions to convey and/or deny selected information and indicators to audiences to influence their emotions. and objective reasoning as well as to intelligence systems and leaders at all to influence official estimates. motives.

" Public relations firms now offer "perception management" as one of their services. public officials who are being accused of shading the truth are now frequently charged with engaging in "perception management" when disseminating information to media or to the general public. Similarly. .The phrase "perception management" is filtering into common use as a synonym for "persuasion.

When performing the exercise.A Johari window is a cognitive psychological tool. used to help people better understand their interpersonal communication and relationships. . the subject is given a list of 56 adjectives and picks five or six that they feel describe their own personality.

These adjectives are then mapped onto a grid. . Adjectives that are selected by both the participant and his or her peers are placed into the Open quadrant.Peers of the subject are then given the same list. This quadrant represents traits of the participant of which both they and their peers are aware. Room 1 is the part of ourselves that we see and others see. and each pick five or six adjectives that describe the subject.

but others are. . and they can decide whether and how to inform the individual about these "blind spots".Room 2 is the aspect that others see but we are not aware of. These represent information of which the participant is not aware. Adjectives that are not selected by the participant but only by their peers are placed into the Blind Spot quadrant.

or because there is collective ignorance of the existence of said trait.Room 3 is the most mysterious room in that the unconscious or subconscious part of us is seen by neither ourselves nor others. This may be because they do not apply. . Adjectives which were not selected by either the participant or their peers remain in the Unknown quadrant. representing the participant's behaviors or motives which were not recognized by anyone participating.

which we know but keep from others. It is then up to the participant whether or not to disclose this information.Room 4 is our private space. are placed into the Hidden quadrant. . but not by any of their peers. representing information about the participant of which their peers are unaware. Adjectives selected only by the participant.

Johari adjectives: A Johari Window consists of the following 56 adjectives used as possible descriptions of the participant. In alphabetical order they are: Able Adaptable Brave Caring Clever Confident Dignified Extroverted Giving Helpful Independent Intelligent Kind Logical accepting bold calm cheerful complex dependable energetic friendly happy idealistic ingenious introverted knowledgeable loving Mature modest Nervous observant Organized patient Powerful proud Quiet reflective Relaxed religious Responsive searching self-assertive self-conscious Sensible sentimental Shy silly Smart spontaneous Sympathetic tense Trustworthy warm Wise witty .

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