"Learning disabilities is a term used to Learning disabilities" describe the seeming unexplained difficulty a person of at least average intelligence has in acquiring basic academic skills. A learning disability is not a single disorder. It is a term that refers to a group of disorders and can become apparent in different ways with different people, at different stages of development and in different settings.

‡ Learning disabilities can affect a person's ability in the areas of listening, speaking, reading writing, and mathematics and is often first suspected when there is a clear and unexplained gap between an individual's level of expected and actual levels of achievement. ‡ Learning disabilities also can encompass problems in the area of social-emotional skills and behavior, and some individuals with learning disabilities struggle with peer relationships and social interactions in addition to academic challenges.


most common condition in a group of developmental disorders known as the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) What is Autism? characterized by impaired social interaction. or severely limited activities and interests . and unusual. problems with verbal and nonverbal communication. repetitive.

obsessive interests . problems with verbal and nonverbal communication. and repetitive behaviors or narrow. but are abnormally sensitive to sound. or other sensory stimulation have difficulties with social to respond to their name often avoid eye contact with other people engage in repetitive movements such as rocking and twirling Symptoms of Autism have a reduced sensitivity to pain. touch.

2)Teach the meaning and value of a schedule STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING STUDENTS WITH AUTISTIC SPECTRUM DISORDERS 4)Develop independent work systems geared to student skill level 5)Consider location. distractions. and boundaries .1)Students with autism often need highly structured visual teaching 3)Behavior is communication.

individual work systems. predictability. and behavior problems  Builds on the student s strengths · desire for routine. and organization · comfort with repetitive tasks · need to finish · visual learning styles  Leads toward independence . anxiety. confusion. and classroom arrangement.Students with autism often need highly structured visual teaching  The main elements of structured teaching include daily schedules.  This makes the environment predictable reduces student stress.

photos. ‡ use daily schedules. words. check lists) ‡ individualize to the student s developmental level and skills ‡ determine the length of the schedule based on student skill level ‡ independence is the goal (not sophistication) . icons.Teach the meaning and value of a schedule ‡ Focus on what you want the child to do. and lists to assist in sequencing of activities and aid in transitions ‡ use a variety of visual cues (objects. sentences. calendars.

‡ Once the student understands the basic framework of a work system. ‡ Gear activities so they end before the student becomes frustrated. . the individual tasks within the system can be varied.Behavior is communication ‡ Work systems can be incorporated into the regular class activities.

and smells can interfere with concentration. motors.Develop independent work systems geared to student skill level ‡ Buzzing lights. ‡ it should be visually clear what activities happen in which areas ‡ furniture and materials should be clearly organized ‡ locate the student near or facing the teacher or at the end of a row ‡ in large groups. hallway sounds. place between two model students ‡ use visual barriers or study carrels . visual distractions.

Consider location. (List what to do. ‡ Write behavior rules for the child to read when necessary. if possible. distractions. . and boundaries ‡ Work at reading the behavior and not taking it personally. ‡ Use if/then patterns to aid in understanding. and not what not to do. ‡ Positive rewards work better than punishment.) ‡ Use story webs and role playing to model appropriate behavior in social situations.

you may need to let some of the ³little things´ go) . ‡Set your priorities (safety first -.‡Teach the child ways to be flexible.

Dyslexia .

What is Dyslexia? Dyslexia is a common learning disability that hinders the development of reading skills. Other names: reading disability or reading disorder. . Difficulty with written language. particularly with reading and spelling spelling.

‡ Reverse or transpose letters when writing or confuse letters (b.Characteristics ‡ Difficulties with learning how to decode at the word level. d. ‡ Difficulty of sound-letter association. and to read accurately and fluently. p. q). ‡ Not a visual problem. to spell. .

What causes dyslexia? ‡ impairment in the brain's ability to process the sounds in words (phonemes). or a lack of intelligence. . ‡ not due to mental retardation. ‡ probably an inherited (genetic) disorder ‡ not result from vision or hearing problems. brain damage.

What are the symptoms? .

. .Word reversals. such as tip for pit. . . such as a word on a flashcard. Once children enter school.Difficulty learning the connection between letters and sounds.Letter reversals. such as d for b. .Difficulty reading single words. the signs of dyslexia include: . such as at and to.Confusing small words.

A preschool-age child may: ‡ Talk later than most children. ‡ Be slow to add new vocabulary words and unable to recall the right word. . ‡ Have more difficulty than other children pronouncing words.

.‡ Have trouble learning the alphabet. colors. ‡ Have difficulty reciting common nursery rhymes or rhyming words. shapes. days of the week. numbers. how to spell and write his or her name. ‡ Have difficulty separating sounds in words and blending sounds to make words.

" Word reversals such as "tip" for "pit. including: ± ± ± ± ± Letter reversals such as "d" for "b." or "does" and "goes.A child in kindergarten may: ‡ Have difficulty reading single words that are not surrounded by other words. ‡ Make consistent reading and spelling errors." Inversions such as "m" and "w" and "u" and "n." Transpositions such as "felt" and "left." ." Substitutions such as "house" and "home. ‡ Confuse small words such as "at" and "to. ‡ Be slow to learn the connection between letters and sounds.

.What are the different types of dyslexia? 1) Trauma dyslexia occurs after some form of brain trauma or injury to the area of the brain that controls reading and writing.

able to read & may struggle with reading.2) Primary dyslexia a dysfunction of. . rather than damage to. spelling. and writing as adults. It is found more often in boys than in girls.passed in family lines through their genes (hereditary). . . the left side of the brain (cerebral cortex) and does not change with age.

caused by hormonal development during the early stages of fetal development.It is also more common in boys.3) Secondary or developmental dyslexia . . .Diminishes as the child matures. .

Involve educational tools. Medications and counseling are not used to treat dyslexia.How is it treated? There is no cure for dyslexia. specialized phonics instruction can help remediate the reading deficits oral phonological training . but dyslexic individuals can learn to read and write with appropriate education or treatment.


nutrition. . and hormones all influence a child's height and weight. gender. environment.What Factors Affect a Child's Growth? Genetics. physical activity. health problems.

which may slow growth in some cases. . juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. These include heart and kidney problems. cystic fibrosis. and sickle cell anemia.What Are Some Other Reasons Why Kids Do Not Grow Normally? ‡ Chronic diseases.

This condition is called intrauterine (say: in-trah-yu-ter-in) growth retardation.  One of the reasons a pregnant woman is warned not to smoke or drink is because it may slow down her baby's growth. and certain genetic diseases can also cause this problem. .  Some infections during pregnancy.‡ Complications during pregnancy.  A baby may be too small when it's born and some remain small for life. or IUGR. other pregnancy problems.

‡ Failure to thrive. This is called failure to thrive (FTT). Some babies may have an illness that needs to be treated. FTT may happen when a child simply doesn't get enough to eat. but most will grow normally after they start eating enough food. . Some babies don't grow and gain weight normally after they're born.

or that one of their X chromosomes is abnormal. makes a person tall.  Some genetic conditions can also cause children to not grow as they should. Another genetic condition. The person may also have heart and eye problems. called Marfan syndrome.‡ Genetic conditions.   . Some girls who are short may have Turner syndrome. This means they have one X chromosome instead of two. with very long legs and arms.


³ . For example. it is more sensitive to say "I'd like the two of you to go" than "Take her with you. sensitive. and patient manner. but do not talk down to her.‡ Model respectful behavior toward the student. in asking a classmate to go with the student to the library.  Your students will look to you for cues about how to interact with the student.  Use language that is suitable for her age and that places her on an equal level with her peers.  Demonstrate by treating her in a kind.

‡ Find opportunities to praise the student.  Keep in mind that her accomplishments might not take the same form as those of other students. .  In an honest and sincere manner. praise her successes in the presence of classmates (or privately if you sense she will be embarrassed by public recognition).  The student might be frustrated by difficulties posed by her disability. and need emotional support.  Small steps can represent giant leaps for a child with special needs.

 Although you might feel sympathetic to the student. and they need to receive reasonable consequences for their inappropriate behavior. not to punish or humiliate. . however. she should not be exempt from discipline because of her disability unless her misbehavior is a direct result of that disability.  Bear in mind.  Students with disabilities need to know when their behavior is inappropriate. that the ultimate purpose of discipline is to teach.‡ Discipline the student when she misbehaves.

.  Modify the amount of writing required of a student with a handwriting problem.  Give the student with an auditory processing problem extra time to process information presented orally.  Provide alternatives to reading aloud for the student with a reading disability. simple and clear directions to the student who is a slow learner or cognitively impaired.‡ Make accommodations to lessen the student's frustration or difficulties.  Provide short.  Prepare the autistic child for changes in school routine.

‡ Talk with your class about the student. find a time when she is out of class to talk with them. If her behavior is particularly unusual.     . Avoid using labels or language that sets the student apart from other students. Tell them you expect them to be kind to the student and to include her in their activities. but emphasize her similarities rather than her differences.  If you find that the student's classmates are ridiculing her. help them understand why she might behave that way. Help them understand that she has the same feelings and sensitivities as other students.

‡ Help the student blend in with other students. and expect her to comply with the same rules. .  Give her the same privileges or materials that you give other students. make sure to involve her in class routines.  Because a student with special needs might stand out in a regular class. it is important to give her a sense of belonging by treating her as much like her classmates as possible. as long as they are within her ability.

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