Introduction to WAN

CCNA Exploration
Campus-Booster ID : 327

www.supinfo.com
Copyright © SUPINFO. All

rights reserved

Introduction to WAN

Course objectives
By completing this course, you will : 
Learn about WAN devices  Understand WAN norms  Create a hierarchical network  Learn about WAN networks

Introduction to WAN

Course topics
Course plan 
WAN Technology concepts  WAN Connection options

Introduction to WAN

WAN Technology concepts

WAN Technology concepts

Plan
Chapters we will study: 
Overview  Equipments and devices  Physical Layer Terminology  Norms  Physical Layer concepts  Data Link concepts

operational connections . HDLC Physical Link Electrical.WAN Technology concepts Overview  Working primarily on Layers 1 & 2 of the OSI Model  Correlation between OSI Model and WAN Services OSI Model WAN Services Data Link Frame Relay. mechanical. ATM.

WAN Technology concepts Overview  Main characteristics of WAN networks:  Wide geographical areas  Internet providers services  Layers 1 & 2 of the OSI Model .

WAN Technology concepts Overview  Local loop = part between the customer¶s POP and the service provider CO  Group of links linked to interconnected telecom providers .

WAN Technology concepts Equipments and devices  Router  Layer 3 equipment  Provides several services such as :  Path selection  LAN and/or WAN ports  Filtering  NAT Redirection .

WAN Technology concepts Equipments and devices  Communication server  Layer 7 equipment  Inbound and outbound concentrator for users communications  Example : DSLAM .

ISDN .WAN Technology concepts Equipments and devices  WAN Switches  Layer 2 unit  Multi-port device that ensure WAN traffic switching  Examples : ATM switch.

NT1.WAN Technology concepts Equipments and devices  Modem & CSU/DSU unit  Layer 1 unit  Converts a signal into another one  Exemples  Modem : Digital to analog converter using modulation and demodulation process  CSU/DSU unit : Digital Interface (TA.) . etc.

WAN Technology concepts Physical Layer Terminology 2 1 4 6 3 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 LAN CPE Demarcation line Local loop Central Office switch Service provider interurban network .

WAN Technology concepts Physical Layer Terminology  CPE  Located at the customer premise  Belong to the customer or rented by the provider  Example : Modem. NT1  DCE:  Convert user¶s data in a WAN format .

WAN Technology concepts Physical Layer Terminology  DTE  Provides the user¶s data  Demarcation Line :  Demarcation between customer side and provider side  Line that separate responsibilities .

etc). . switches.WAN Technology concepts Physical Layer Terminology  Local loop  Link between the demarcation line and the central office  Switch :  Nearest to the customer  Inter-Urban network :  Service provider ³cloud´ (Routers.

WAN Technology concepts WAN norms  Describes :  Delivery ways of Physical layer  Configuration of Data-link layer  Addressing  Flow control  Encapsulation .

WAN Technology concepts WAN norms  Normalization organisations :  ITU (International Telecommunications Union  ISO (International Standards Organization)  IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)  EIA (Electrical Industries Association)  TIA (Telecommunications Industry Association) .

WAN Technology concepts WAN Physical Layer concepts  Physical layer  Description of the interface between DCE and DTE Physical layer norms .

SDH STM-0. T3.WAN Technology concepts WAN Physical Layer concepts  EIA/TIA-232 (similar to the V.) .24)  Asymmetrical circuits  Up to 64 Kbits/s  EIA/TIA-449  Faster version of EIA/TIA-232 (2 Mbits/s)  EIA/TIA-612/613  Describes HSSI interface (Pour E3. etc.

35  Synchronous circuits  For packet networks  X.WAN Technology concepts WAN Physical Layer concepts  V.21  Synchronous digital lines  G.048 Mbits/s) .703  BNC connector  E1 throughputs (2.

EAI-530: Two electrical implementation of EIA/TIA-449  RS-422: Symmetrical transmission  RS-423: Asymmetrical transmission .WAN Technology concepts WAN Physical Layer concepts  V.

WAN Technology concepts WAN Data Link concepts  Data link layer  Definition of data encapsulation WAN Encapulations (Layer 2) .

WAN Technology concepts WAN Data Link concepts  Frame Relay :  Lightweight simplified Encapsulation  No error correction  To be used with very-top digital equipment  Fast data transmission  2 variants :  Cisco  IETF .

WAN Technology concepts WAN Data Link concepts  PPP :  Contain a layer 3 protocol identification field  Link quality verification at the connection establishment  Possible authentication:  PAP  CHAP  ISDN :  Group of digital services for voice and data .

25 networks  On packets switching network  Also on point-to-point link if bad reliability and/or important delay (Example: satellite link)  Reliability and flow control .WAN Technology concepts WAN Data Link concepts  LAPB :  For X.

WAN Technology concepts WAN Data Link concepts  HDLC :  Can be incompatible between providers (several implementation of HDLC)  Support point-to-point and multipoint connection type  Based on and replacement to SDLC  Enable by default on WAN interfaces of Cisco router  Very simplified ( no windowing and no flow control)  HDLC is recommended for link between 2 IOS equipment (if not PPP is advised) .

WAN Technology concepts WAN Data Link concepts  Telecom providers supply end-to-end communications  Offer services such as:  Communication initiation (Signalization)  Data transit  Time-division multiplexing  Bandwith sharing .

WAN Technology concepts WAN Data Link concepts  WAN paths that interconnect DTE  Link  Circuit  Canal  Line .

NT1)  DCE is the interface between DTE and service provider WAN link . TA. CSU/DSU unit.WAN Technology concepts WAN Data Link concepts  DTE provides datas (router)  DCE converts and transports datas (Modem.

X.WAN Technology concepts WAN Data Link concepts  2 kinds of circuits  End-to-End : Dedicated circuits (POTS. ISDN)  Virtual : Logical circuit through a cloud (Frame Relay.25)  SVC  PVC .

WAN Technology concepts WAN Data Link concepts  SVC  Dynamically established on demand an closed at the end of the transmission  3 steps communication :  Establishment  Data transfert  Closing  Bandwidth consumption (because of steps)  Low costs (according to time) .

WAN Technology concepts WAN Data Link concepts  PVC  Permanently established  Used for constant transmission needs  Communication in 1 step  Transfert  Lower bandwidth consumption (less steps)  Higher costs (permanent services) .

736 Mbits/s .544 Mbits/s 2.064 Mbits/s 44.048 Mbits/s 34.WAN Technology concepts WAN Data Link concepts  Examples : Line T1 E1 E3 T3 Bandwith 1.

WAN Technology concepts Pause At which layers of the OSI Model do WAN networks work? Layers 1 & 2 .

WAN Technology concepts Pause What is the difference between a modem and a CSU/DSU unit? The first one is analog. the second one digital .

WAN Technology concepts Pause What kind of encapsulation is generally used on ADSL lines ? PPP .

Introduction to WAN WAN Connection Options .

WAN Connection Options Plan Chapters we will study:  Introduction  Dedicated connection link options  Switched connection options .

WAN Connection Options Introduction WAN network Dedicated Switched T1/E1 T3/E3 Circuits switching POTS ISDN 56K.25 Frame Relay ATM SMDS .V90 Packets/cells switching X.

WAN Connection Options Dedicated connection link options  Continuous service  Physical dedicated link between customer and provider  Point-to-point synchronous serial links  Physical link  Virtual link made of several physical links  Used for big quantities of informations and constant traffics .

WAN Connection Options Dedicated connection link options .

WAN Connection Options Switched Connection Options  Circuit switching :  Physical commutation of telephony central in order to get a point-to-point link  Packets /cells Switching:  ³Logical´ switching performed at the layer 2 of the OSI model .

WAN Connection Options Switched Connection Options  Circuit switching :  Physical dedicated circuit using switching at central offices  Established. maintained and closed at each session  Established on demand  Can be used as backup link for main link  Dedicated bandwidth .

WAN Connection Options Switched Connection Options .

WAN Connection Options Switched Connection Options  Circuit switching disadvantages :  Low data rate  Relatively long connection time  Example of ISDN:  2 types: BRI and PRI .

WAN Connection Options Switched Connection Options  Usage of a virtual point-to-point dedicated circuit (PVC or SVC)  Forwarding variable (packets) or fixed (cells) length frames  Flexible usage  Better use of the bandwith than circuits switching links .

WAN Connection Options Switched Connection Options .

ATM. and legacy X.25 are the most popular packet-switching technologies used today .WAN Connection Options Switched Connection Options  Packet switching can be viewed as a mix between leased lines and circuit switching (low cost)  Frame Relay.

WAN Connection Options Pause Link peers up POST Frame Relay ATM RNIS Packet switching Circuits switching .

WAN networks Quizz Where is DCE located ? At customer side At provider side .

Introduction to WAN Course summary WAN connection Option WAN technologies concept .

Congratulations You have successfully completed the SUPINFO course Introduction to WAN .

Introduction to WAN The End .