Linear Programming : Introductory Example THE PROBLEM

A factory produces two types of drink, an ¶energy· drink and a ¶refresher· drink. The day·s output is to be planned. Each drink requires syrup, vitamin supplement and concentrated flavouring, as shown in the table. The last row in the table shows how much of each ingredient is available for the day·s production. How can the factory manager decide how much of each drink to make?

THE PROBLEM

Syrup 1 litre of energy drink 1 litre of refresher drink Availabilities

Vitamin supplement 0.4 units

Concentrated flavouring 6 cc

0.25 litres

0.25 litres

0.2 unit

4 cc

250 litres

300 units

4.8 litres

Energy drink sells at £1 per litre Refresher drink sells at 80 p per litre

FORMULATION Syrup constraint: Let x represent number of litres of energy drink Let y represent number of litres of refresher drink 0.25x + 0.25y e 250   x + y e 1000 .

4x + 0.2y e 300   2x + y e 1500 .FORMULATION Vitamin supplement constraint: Let x represent number of litres of energy drink Let y represent number of litres of refresher drink 0.

FORMULATION Concentrated flavouring constraint: Let x represent number of litres of energy drink Let y represent number of litres of refresher drink 6x + 4y e 4800   3x + 2y e 2400 .

8y .FORMULATION Objective function: Let x represent number of litres of energy drink ‡ Energy drink sells for £1 per litre Let y represent number of litres of refresher drink ‡ Refresher drink sells for 80 pence per litre Maximise x + 0.

SOLUTION 200 Empty grid to accommodate the 3 inequalities .200 200 400 .200 .

200 x + y = 1000 200 400 x 0 .SOLUTION 200 1st constraint Draw boundary line: .200 y 1000 0 1000 .

200 .SOLUTION 200 1st constraint Shade out unwanted region: 200 + y e 1000 400 x .200 .

SOLUTION 200 Empty grid to accommodate the 3 inequalities .200 .200 200 400 .

SOLUTION 2nd constraint Draw boundary line: - 2x + y = 1500 x 0 - y 1500 0 750 .

SOLUTION 2nd constraint Shade out unwanted region: - 2x + y e 1500 - .

SOLUTION 200 Empty grid to accommodate the 3 inequalities .200 200 400 .200 .

SOLUTION 3rd constraint Draw boundary line: - 3x + 2y = 2400 x 0 - y 1200 0 800 .

SOLUTION 3rd constraint Shade out unwanted region: - 3x + 2y e 2400 - .

200 x + y e 1000 200 400 .SOLUTION 200 All three constraints: First: .200 .

SOLUTION 200 All three constraints: First: .200 x + y e 1000 200 400 Second: 2x + y e 1500 .200 .

200 x + y e 1000 200 400 Second: 2x + y e 1500 .SOLUTION 200 All three constraints: First: .200 Third: 3x + 2y e 2400 .

200 Third: 3x + 2y e 2400 Adding: x u 0 and y u 0 .SOLUTION 200 All three constraints: First: .200 x + y e 1000 200 400 Second: 2x + y e 1500 .

200 .SOLUTION 200 Feasible region is the unshaded area and satisfies: x 200 + y e 1000 400 2x + y e 1500 3x + 2y e 2400 .200 x u 0 and y u 0 .

8x300 = 840 O Maximum income = £880 at (400. 600) D: 750 + 0 = 750 .8x600 = 880 C: 600 + 0.SOLUTION A - Evaluate the objective function x + 0.8y at vertices of the feasible region: B C O: 0 + 0 = 0 A: 0 + 0.8x1000 = 800 D B: 400 + 0.