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Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.
SDH Principle
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page1
Contents
1. SDH Overview
2. Frame Structure & Multiplexing Methods
3. Overheads & Pointers
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page2
Emergence of SDH
What is SDH?
Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
Ìt defines a standard frame structure, a specific
multiplexing method, and so on.
Why did SDH emerge?
Need for a system to process increasing amounts of
information.
New standard that allows interconnecting equipment
of different suppliers.
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page3
Advantages of SDH
Ìnterfaces
PDH electrical interfaces
Only 3 regional standards:
European (2.048 Mb/s),
Japanese, North American
(1.544 Mb/s)
PDH optical interfaces
No standards,
manufacturers develop at
their will.
SDH electrical interfaces
Universal standards
SDH optical interfaces
Can be connected to
different vendors' optical
transmission equipments.
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page4
140 Mb/s
34 Mb/s
34 Mb/s
8 Mb/s
8 Mb/s
2 Mb/s
140 Mb/s
Not suitabIe for huge-voIume transmission
Headache for network pIanners
More equipment to achieve this functionaIity
More equipment More fIoor space
More power More costs
DemuItipIexers
MuItipIexers
Multiplexing methods: Level by level
Disadvantages of PDH
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page5
Advantages of SDH
Lower rate SDH to higher rate SDH
(STM-1 STM-4 STM-16 STM-64)
4:1
STM-1
A
STM-1
B
STM-1
C
STM-1
D
A
B
D
C
B
A
D
C
B
A
.
STM-4
One Byte from
STM-1 B
--- Synchronous multiplexing method and
flexible mapping structure
--- Multistage pointer to align PDH loads in
SDH frame, thus, dynamic drop-and-insert
capabilities
What about PDH?
Multiplexing methods: byte interleaved
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page6
Advantages of SDH
OAM function
PDH
Ìn the frame structure of
PDH signals, there are
few overhead bytes used
for OAM.
Weak OAM function
SDH
Abundant overheads
bytes for OAM
Remote & Centralized
Management
Fast circuit provisioning
from centralized point
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page7
Advantages of SDH
Processing
PDH ATM SDH Ethernet
Pack
SDH Network
Processing
PDH ATM SDH Ethernet
Transmit Receive
Container
STM-N
STM-N
Container
Service Signal Flow Model
Unpack
Compatibility
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page8
Comparison between SDH and PDH
Low bandwidth utilization ratio
Ìn PDH, E4 signal (140Mbits/s) can contain 64 E1 signals.
Ìn SDH, STM-1 (155 Mbits/s) can only carry 63 E1 signals.
Complex mechanism of pointer justification
Ìnfluence of excessive use of software on system security
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page9
Contents
1. SDH Overview
. Frame Structure & MuItipIexing Methods
3. Overheads & Pointers
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page10
SDH Frame Structure
From ITU-T G.707:
1. One frame Iasts for 1
microseconds (8000
frames/s)
. RectanguIar bIock
structure 9 rows and 70
coIumns (Basic frame:
STM-1)
3. Each unit is one byte (8 bits)
4. Transmission mode: Byte
by byte, row by row, from
Ieft to right, from top to
bottom
Bit rate of STM-1= 9*270*8*8000
1

3
4

7
8
9
70 CoIumns
9 rows
Frame = 1 us
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page11
SDH Frame Structure
Frame = 1 us
9
MSOH
AU-
PTR
Ìnformation
Payload
RSOH
1

3
4

7
8
9
70 CoIumns
9 rows
Three parts:
SOH
AU-Pointer
Ìnformation
Payload
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page12
SDH Frame Structure
Ìnformation Payload
\ Also known as Virtual Container level 4 (VC-4)
\ Used to transport low speed tributary signals
\ Contains low rate signals and Path Overhead (POH)
\ Location: rows #1 ~ #9, columns #10 ~ #270
Ìnformation Payload
\ Also known as Virtual Container level 4 (VC-4)
\ Used to transport low speed tributary signals
\ Contains low rate signals and Path Overhead (POH)
\ Location: rows #1 ~ #9, columns #10 ~ #270
9
MSOH
AU-PTR
PayIoad
RSOH
70 CoIumns
H
P
O
H
1
package
package
Iow rate signaI
LPOH, TU-PTR
LPOH, TU-PTR
9 rows
Data
package
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page13
SDH Frame Structure
Functions: Fulfills the section layer OAM
9
70 CoIumns
9 rows
Types of Section Overhead
1. RSOH monitors the regenerator
section
2. MSOH monitors the
multiplexing section
Location:
1. RSOH: rows #1 ~ #3,
columns #1 ~ #9
2. MSOH: rows #5 ~ #9,
columns #1 ~ #9
1

3

7
8
9
MSOH
AU-PTR Ìnformation
Payload
RSOH
Section Overhead Section Overhead
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page14
SDH Frame Structure
9
MSOH
AU-PTR
Ìnformation
Payload
RSOH
70 CoIumns
9 rows
4
Function:
Ìndicates the first byte of VC4
Location:
row #4, columns #1 ~ #9
J
1
AU-PTR AU-PTR
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page15
SDH Multiplexing Features
SDH Multiplexing includes:
Low to high rate SDH signals (STM-1 STM-N)
PDH to SDH signals (2M, 34M & 140M STM-N)
Other hierarchy signals to SDH Signals (ÌP STM-N)
Some terms and definitions:
Mapping
Aligning
Multiplexing
Go to gIossary
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page16
AU-4
TU-3 TUG-3 VC-3 C-3
VC-4 C-4
TU-12 VC-12 C-12
TUG-2
j3
j1
j7
j3
E4
signal
E3 signal
E1 signal
Multiplexing
Mapping
Aligning
STM-1 AUG-1
j1
j1
AUG-4
AUG-16
AUG-64
STM-4
STM-16
STM-64
j1
j1
j1
j4
j4
j4
Go to gIossary
C-4-4c VC-4-4c
AU-4-4c
j1
C-4-16c VC-4-16c
AU-4-16c
j1
C-4-64c VC-4-64c
AU-4-64c
j1
SDH Multiplexing Structure
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page17
From 140Mb/s to STM-N
140M
Rate
adaptation
Add HPOH
C4
9
1
260
125 µs
1
Next
Mapping
VC4
1
9
125µs
1
261
H
P
O
H
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page18
From 140Mb/s to STM-N
Add
AU-PTR
Add
SOH
Aligning
AU-PTR
AU-4
10 270
X1
AUG-1
Multiplexing
AUG-N
1
70
RSOH
MSOH
Ìnfo
Payload
AU-PTR
9
STM-1
Add
SOH
One STM-1 frame can load
only one 140Mbit/s Signal
1 70N
RSOH
MSOH
Ìnfo
Payload
AU-PTR
9
STM-N
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page19
From 34Mb/s to STM-N
34M
Rate
Adaptation
Add LPOH
C3
1
84
9
125µs
1
1
9
VC3
L
P
O
H
125µs
1
85
Next
Mapping
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page20
From 34Mb/s to STM-N
1st
align
Fill
gap
j3
86
TU-3
1
H1
H2
H3
1
9
1
86
1
9
H1
H2
H3
R
TUG-3
Multiplexing
H
P
O
H
R R
VC-4
9
1
1
261
3
Same
procedure
as 140M
Aligning
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page21
From 2Mb/s to STM-N
2M
Next
page
125µs
1 4
C12
1
9
4
LPOH
VC12
1
1
9
Rate
Adaptation
Add
LPOH
Add
TU-PTR
Aligning
TU12
1 4
1
9
TU-PTR Mapping
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page22
From 2Mb/s to STM-N
X 3
1 12
TUG-2
1
9
X 7
Multiplexing
R R
TUG-3
1
86
1
9
Multiplexing
Same
procedure
as 34M
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page23
Questions
What are the main parts of SDH Frame structure?
What is the transmission rate of STM-4? How to
calculate it ?
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page24
Contents
1. SDH Overview
2. Frame Structure & Multiplexing Methods
3. Overheads & Pointers
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page25
Overheads
Overheads
Section
Overhead
(SOH)
Path
Overhead
(POH)
Regenerator
Section Overhead
(RSOH)
MuItipIex Section
Overhead
(MSOH)
High Order Path
Overhead
(HPOH)
Low Order Path
Overhead
(LPOH)
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page26
Overheads
A1 A1 A1 A A A 0 X X
B1 E1 F1 X X
D1 D D3
AU-PTR
B B B 1
D4 D D
D7 D8 D9
D10 D11 D1
S1 M1 E
H
P
O
H
:

V
C
-
3
/
4
1
B3
C
G1
F
H4
F3
3
N1
R
S
O
H
M
S
O
H
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Media dependent bytes (Radio-link, Satellite)
X Reserved for National use
Huawei propriety bytes LPOH: VC-11/12
' N 4
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page27
A1 and A2 Bytes
Framing Bytes
Ìndicate the beginning of the STM-N frame
Bytes are unscrambled
A1 = f6H (11110110), A2 = 28H (00101000)
STM-N: (3XN) A1 bytes, (3XN) A2 bytes
STM-N STM-N STM-N STM-N STM-N STM-N
Finding frame head
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page28
A1 and A2 Bytes
Frame
Next
process
Find
A1,A2
OOF
LOF
N
Y
AÌS
over 3ms
over 625µs
(5 frames)
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page29
D1 ~ D12 Bytes
Data Communications Channel (DCC) Bytes
RS-DCC ÷ D1 ~ D3 ÷ 192 Kbit/s (3x64 Kbit/s)
MS-DCC ÷ D4 ~ D12 ÷ 576 Kbit/s (9x64 Kbit/s)
TMN
DCC channel
NE NE NE NE
OAM Ìnformation: Operation, Administration and
maintenance
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page30
E1 and E2 Bytes
Orderwire Bytes
E1 ÷ RS Orderwire Byte Used between regenerators
E2 ÷ MS Orderwire Byte Used between multiplexers
Digital telephone channel
E1-RS, E2-MS
E1 and E2
NE NE NE NE
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page31
B1 Byte
Bit interleaved Parity Code (BÌP-8) Byte
A parity code (even parity)
Used to check the transmission errors over the RS
B1 BBE is represented by RS-BBE (performance event)
Tx
STM-N
Rx
1STM-N CaIcuIate B
1STM-N
STM-N
CaIcuIate B'
A1 00110011
A2 11001100
A3 10101010
A4 00001111
B 01011010
BIP-8
B1 = B
STM-N
B1
B
Compare B' & B RS-BBE
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page32
B2 Byte
Bit interleaved Parity Code (MS BÌP-24) Byte
BÌP-24 is used to check the bit errors over the MS
B2 BBE is represented by MS-BBE (performance event)
The working mechanism of B2 is same as B1
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page33
M1 Byte
Multiplexing Section Remote Error Ìndication Byte
A return message from Rx to Tx ,when Rx find B2 bit errors
Value is the same as the count of BÌP-24xN (B2) bit errors
Tx generate corresponding performance event MS-FEBBE
Tx
Rx
Traffic
Generate
MS-FEBBE
MS-REÌ
Find B2 bit errors
Generate MS-BBE
Return M1
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page34
K1 and K2 (b1-b5) Bytes
Automatic
Protection
Switching
(APS) bytes
Transmitting APS protocol
Used for network multiplexing
protection switch function
P
WTR
WTR
P
I
I
I
I
P
S
S P
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page35
K2 (b6 ~ b8) Byte
Rx detects K2 (b6-b8) = "111"
Generate MS-AÌS alarm
Rx detects K2 (b6-b8) = "110"
Generate MS-RDÌ alarm
Generate
MS-AÌS
Start
Detect
K2 (b6-
b8)
Return
MS-RDÌ
Generate
MS-RDÌ
111
110
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page36
S1 Byte
Synchronization Status Message Byte (SSB): S1
b1 ~ b4 Value indicates the external clock ÌD (Extended SSM)
b5 ~ b8 Value indicates the sync. Level (Standard SSM)
bits 5 ~ 8 Description
0000 Quality unknown (existing sync. Network)
0010 G.811 PRC
0100 SSU-A (G.812 transit)
1000 SSU-B (G.812 local)
1011 G.813 (Sync. Equipment Timing Clock)
1111 Do not use for sync (DNU).
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page37
Path Overheads
1
B3
C
G1
F
H4
F3
3
N1
VC-n Path Trace Byte
Path BÌP-8
Path Signal Label
Path Status
Path User Channel
TU Multiframe Ìndication
Path User Channel
AP Switching
Network Operator
Higher Order Path Overhead
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
R S O H
M S O H
A U - P T R
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page38
J1 Byte
Next
process
Detect 1
Match
HP-TIM
Y N
Path trace byte
The first byte of VC-4
User-programmable (HUAWEÌ
SBS)
The received J1 should match
the expected J1
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page39
B3 Byte
Next
process
Verify B3
Y N
Correct
HP-BBE
Path bit parity
Even parity code
Used to detect bit errors
Mechanism is same as B1 and B2
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page40
C2 Byte
Detect C
00H
HP-UNEQ Match
HP-SLM
Next
process
Insert AIS
downward
N Y
N
Y
Signal label byte
The received C2 should
match with the expected C2
Specifies the mapping type in
the VC-n
00 H Unequipped
02 H TUG structure
13 H ATM mapping
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page41
VC-12 VC-12 VC-12 VC-12
K4 N2 J2 V5
1
9
1 4
500µs VC-12 multi-frame
Low Order Path Overhead
V5
Ìndicated by TU-PTR
Error checking, Signal Label
and Path Status of VC-12
b1 - b2 Error Performance
Monitoring (BÌP-2)
b3 Return Error detected in
VC-12 (LP-REÌ)
b8 Return alarm detected in
VC-12 (LP-RDÌ)
Path Overheads
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page42
Pointers
Pointers
Administrative
Unit Pointer
(AU-PTR)
Tributary
Unit Pointer
(TU-PTR)
Bytes indicated
AU-PTR VC-4 J1
TU-PTR VC-3 J1
VC-12 V5
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page43
AU-PTR
RSOH
MSOH
MSOH
RSOH
H1YYHFF H3H3H3
H1YYHFFH3H3H3
0 --- 1--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- 86
696 --- 697 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- 782
1
9
270
1
4
9
1
4
9
125µs
250µs
522 --- 523 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- 608
435 --- 436 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- 521
Negative
justification
Positive
justification
0 --- 1 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- 86
435 --- 436 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- 521
87 --- 88 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- 173
87 --- 88 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- 173
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page44
TU-PTR
VC3
H1
H2
H3
TU POÌNTERS
VC-
12
VC-
12
VC-
12
VC-
12
V1 V2 V3 V4
1 4
1
9
TU POÌNTERS
TU Multi-frame 500µs
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page45
Questions
Which byte is used to report the MS-AÌS and
MS-RDÌ?
What is the mechanism for R-LOF generation?
Which byte implements the RS (MS/HP) error
monitoring?
Copyright © 2006 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page46
Summary
SDH Overview
Frame Structure & Multiplexing Methods
Overheads & Pointers
Thank you
www.huawei.com

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