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Organizations are collective bodies of individuals engaged in a common purpose through individual and group efforts. Channelizing human energies in a predetermined desirable direction is not possible unless harmonious relations are maintained among organizational members.
Management-Employee Relations «Contd.
Relationship among employees provides the context in which organizational roles assigned to members are performed, team spirit inculcated, expectations clarified, conflicts resolved and shared norms of behaviour developed.
Management-Employee Relations «Contd.
Maintenance of harmonious relationship among employees across the vertical and horizontal levels of the organization is thus a necessary condition for enabling organizations to move towards excellence. Despite the significance of healthy employee relations, there are occasions in the life of every organization when relationships are strained, particularly between the management and the individual employee.
code of conduct. Failure to meet these expectations or deviations from the laid down norms of behaviour on the part of the employees leads to the problem of indiscipline. The management has certain expectations of the employees in terms of standards of behaviour and performance. written or verbal means.Management-Employee Relations «Contd. . desirable actions and behaviour which are made known to the employees through formal or informal.
Likewise. just and fair treatment which are often made known to the management through various means of upward communication. freedom of expression and operation and equitable. the management must initiate action to ensure that an employee¶s behaviour is in conformity with their expectations. satisfaction of their variety of needs. the employees also have certain expectations of the management in terms of their conditions of service.Management-Employee Relations «Contd. . working environment. In such situations.
In such situations.Management-Employee Relations «Contd. just and fair treatment which are often made known to the management through various means of upward communication. working environment. the employees also have certain expectations of the management in terms of their conditions of service. Likewise. the management must initiate action to ensure that an employee¶s behaviour is in conformity with their expectations. satisfaction of their variety of needs. freedom of expression and operation and equitable. .
Thus both the problems of discipline and of employee grievance are two sides of the same coin. the relationship is strained and harmony disturbed. They result from the mismatch of the expectations of the management and the employees and failure of one group to meet the expectations of the other. Failure on the part of the management to meet those expectations leads to what is called employee grievance. If the problems relating to discipline and employee grievance are not properly managed.Management-Employee Relations «Contd. .
life goals. Yet another set of factors leading to strained relationship is the stress that employees experience in carrying out their day-to-day affairs. . Failure to meet one¶s own expectations in terms of career goal. achievement and challenge. efficiency and effectiveness of the total organization. The strained relationship affects adversely the productivity.Management-Employee Relations «Contd. and self-esteem may lead to stress among the individuals.
Productive capacities of individuals under stress and their ability to establish meaningful relationship with others are considerably reduced. Stress leads to anxiety and tension which in turn affects relationship among employees.Management-Employee Relations «Contd. The stress can be caused by several factors some of which are extra organizational in nature while others arise from organizational policies and structures. quality of interpersonal relationship and nature of job. work pressures. . group pressures.
Counselling then becomes an important managerial and personnel function.Management-Employee Relations «Contd. Moreover. The problems relating to discipline. What is required is a new set of skills-counselling skills-the use of which can go a long way in resolving those issues on a continuing basis. grievance and stress are of continuing nature in the life of any organization. they are complex in nature in that they cannot easily be predicted and controlled by conventional managerial actions or by legal-judicial process. being basically human problems. .
marketing. However.´ It has therefore. it includes ³the relationship between employees and employers in the course of running of an industry and may project itself to spheres which may transgress to areas of quality control. when taken in its wider sense. price fixation and disposition of profits among others.Concept of Industrial Relations The expression Industrial Relations (IR) by itself means relationship that emerges out of day to day working and association of labour and management. become customary to use the term Employee Relations (ER) to reflect this wider coverage. .
IR. social. political and legal variables. when taken it its wider meaning is a set of functional inter-dependence involving historical. .Concept of Industrial Relations «Contd. occupational. technological. psychological. demographic. economic.
The three major actors of the IR system are: 1. The Government The Government is an active participant of our IR system and formulates policies to meet IR issues and problems. .Concept of Industrial Relations «Contd. The Employers 3. The Employees 2.
Impatience to have quicker settlements and rising expectations are the main reasons why workers resort to violence. They are fast losing confidence in the establishment and are getting impatient with the weak collective bargaining situations prevailing as also the fact that every problem taken to a government labour machinery or courts takes a long time to resolve the issues.Concept of Industrial Relations «Contd. .
Government¶s inability to maintain the price level which is a critical factor in maintaining industrial harmony. . Other reasons why workers resort to violence are: 1. 2. Government¶s inability to provide an effective machinery for the speedy resolution of industrial disputes.Concept of Industrial Relations «Contd.
the price controls on a wide range of commodities.Concept of Industrial Relations «Contd. 3. These factors have also inhibited industrial growth which in turn has curtailed the capacity of the industrial sector to meet the legitimate demands of the working class. the licensing procedures. the high rate of taxation and the restrictions on imports which have led to the squeezing of profitability. Its management of the industrial sector with its plethora of controls on production. .
regulations and procedures that are deemed necessary for the attainment of objectives. 2. .Discipline It is the force that promotes an individual or group to observe rules. Means to train to obey given orders. Discipline can be seen as: 1. To train to behave in accordance with rules and regulations.
A technique to bring people at work under control. Discipline can be seen as «Contd. Discipline is the conduct of people or their behavior within the norm.Discipline «Contd. Means to train to do things in an orderly way and to establish a learning process. 3. . 4. Indiscipline occurs when employees do not conduct themselves within the expected norms.
Objectives 1. lower costs and better products. 2. . To maintain and increase business efficiency which in turn will result in increased sales. To make the members of the organisation accept the rules and regulations so that objectives of the organisations are achieved.
4. Standing Orders Standing orders lay down what a person has to do. thus. when to do and how to do. a means to achieve discipline. to create better human relations and a favourable atmosphere. To create a feeling of tolerance and mutual cooperation among employees. . They are. 3. To develop respect for human beings.Objectives «Contd.
The punishment awarded should be appropriate. the past record of the employee and the judgement of the management.Punishment Punishments are handed out to people who do not abide by the proper working norms of the organisation. . The Standing Orders normally specify various forms of punishment for misconduct depending on the gravity of the misconduct.
The alternative forms of punishment are: 1. Discharge 3. Suspension 5. Discharge Simplicitor 4. Demotion 6. Dismissal 2. Withholding Increment .Punishment «Contd.
The alternative forms «Contd. Warning or Censure Of the above. Fine 8. 5 and 6 are medium while 7 and 8 are regarded as minor punishments. . 3 and 4 may be categorised as major punishments. 1.Punishment «Contd. 2. 7.
. There are two types of Suspensions: 1. This amounts to prohibiting an employee from performing his / her duties and withholding of wages for the period till the charges are proved or s(he) is acquitted. Punitive suspension is resorted to as a punishment for misconduct. Suspension pending enquiry with / without pay. 2.Punishment «Contd.
Of these forms of punishment. theft. etc. dismissal is the extreme form and is usually resorted to only when it becomes incompatible to continue the employer-employee relationship. It is usually resorted to in cases of wilful insubordination. .Termination The services of an employee can be terminated by ways of dismissal. riotous or disorderly behaviour. discharge and discharge simplicitor.
Termination «Contd. Discharge simplicitor (usually resorted to for Senior Level cases) is the termination of an employee¶s services for loss of confidence and it does not necessarily imply any act of misconduct. Discharge amounts to termination of service by giving agreed notice or payment and acceptance of money in lieu of such notice. .
Termination «Contd. The stigma attached to the expression Dismissal is much more than that in the expression Discharge. termination benefits are given to an employee while a dismissed employee loses all of them. In case of dismissal. In the case of simple discharge. future employment may also be affected. .
Foreman selected on the basis of Technical Knowledge .Handling Grievances on the Shop Floor .Handling of people very important for a Foreman .Foreman gets results through his people .Definition of a Foreman .
Dealing with colleagues ± case of a colleagues coming late in the night shift and passing incomplete work to the next shift. .Case Studies 1. Dealing with workers ± case of workers starting work late in the morning. 3. Dealing with boss ± case of a supervisor dealing with his superintendent in a way that his Assistant Superintendent feels that he is bypassed. 2.
By his colleagues 3. By his bosses . By his subordinates 2.Requirement of a Supervisor 1.
Think about the other person 2.Create and Maintain Confidence 1. . Give the other person no cause to doubt either your intelligence or integrity 3. Give the other person positive evidence of your intelligence and integrity.
Those feelings are the direct outgrowth of what he believes in. . His belief is the product of thinking or reasoning he has done. 3. A person always acts in line with his strongest feeling / emotions at that time. 2.Seven Principles in the Law of Human Action 1. His reasoning at any time is caused by and is concerned with his wants. 4.
A person¶s attention always goes at any time. Keep the above facts in mind when you are counselling or handling a grievance.Seven Principles in the Law of Human Action «Contd. His wants at any time arise directly from his inborn impulses plus his experience. 6. His emotional experience is determined by the nature and intensity of his response to those influences. 5. 7. situations and events. . which attract his attention. wherever it is most forcefully attracted.
Four Steps for Effective Counselling First Step: Prepare ± the other person .Discuss with the other person also .Put him / her at ease .Think of alternative solutions .Listen with patience .Think over the problem .Show interest in him / her Second Step: Think .
Third Step: Weigh and Decide .Put your views as suggestions only and do not force them. .Do not jump to conclusions .Weigh the possible solutions .Four Steps for Effective Counselling «Contd.Give the other person ample opportunity to think .Keep the other person¶s emotions in view .
Four Steps for Effective Counselling «Contd.Change your decisions / suggestions.Study the results . Fourth Step: Follow up . if needed .
Four Steps for Grievance Handling First Step: Get the Facts .Get opinions and feelings .Be sure you have the whole story .See rules and regulations .Talk with individuals concerned .Review the record .Check customs .
Do not jump to conclusions on .Fit the facts together .Four Steps for Grievance Handling «Contd. Second Step: Weigh and Decide . group and production .Consider objective and effect individual.Consider their bearing on each other .Check practices and policies .
Third Step: Take Action .How soon will you follow up .Watch for changes in output.Decide who will take what action .Four Steps for Grievance Handling «Contd.Watch the timing of your action Fourth Step: Check Results . attitudes and relationships Did your relations help production? .How often will you need to check .
Important Points to Note 1. Do not take any action which is not in the interest of production 3. Be fair. Feelings are as important as facts 2. friendly and firm . Give credit when due 7. Treat every person as an individual 5. Avoid arguments 6. Do not jump to conclusions 4.
8. Be absolutely impartial and ensure that you appear also to be impartial . Never come in the way of the progress of your good subordinate. but continuously train substitute 10. Listen more than talk 11. Encourage and guide suggestions 9.Important Points to Note «Contd. Do self appraisal continuously 12.
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