# TO THE EXITING WORLD OF

ELECTROSTATICS

THE BRANCH OF PHYSICS DEALING WITH CHARGES AT REST AND THEIR PROPERTIES STATIC ELECTRICITY WAS FIRST OBSERVED BY THALES OF MILETUS IN 600 BC WHEN HE FOUND THAT AMBER WHEN RUBBED WITH FUR ACQUIRED THE PROPERTY OF ATTRCACTING TINY PIECES OF SAW DUST ETC. ELECTRICITY PRODUCED BY RUBBING IS CALLED FRICTIONAL ELECTRICITY SINCE THE CHARGES SO PRODUCED ARE AT REST IT IS ALSO CALLED STATIC ELECTRICITY CHARGES ARE PRODUCED BY TRANSFER OF ELECTRONS

IN 1600 AD, DR. WILLIAM GILBERT, COURT PHYSICIAN TO QUEEN ELIZABETH I OF ENGLAND, PUBLISHED THE BOOK (DE MAGNETO) IN WHICH HE MADE AN ACCOUNT OF ALL THE EXPERIMENTS AND OBSERVATIONS MADE SO FAR IN THE FIELD OF ELECTROSTATICS. GILBERT FOUND THAT THERE ARE TWO KINDS OF CHARGES AND THAT LIKE CHARGES REPEL AND UNLIKE CHARGES ATTRACT. HE NAMED THE TWO KINDS OF CHARGES AS RESINOUS AND VITREOUS. THE CHARGE ACQUIRED BY AMBER OR EBONITE (WHEN RUBBED WITH WOOL OR FUR) WAS CALLED RESINOUS AND THE OTHER KIND OF CHARGE WAS CALLED VITREOUS.

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN. FRANKLIN.
AN AMERICAN SCIENTIST
Introduced the convention according to which resinous charge was called negative and the other was called positive
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.CONSERVATION OF CHARGES
THE TOTAL CHARGE IN ANY SYSTEM IS ALWAYS CONSERVED NET CHARGE CAN NEITHER BE CREATED NOR BE DESTROYED IN ISOLATION CHARGES CAN ONLY BE PRODUCED OR DESTROYED IN EQUAL AND OPPOSITE PAIRS THE TOTAL CHARGE BEFORE AND AFTER ANY REACTION REMAINS THE SAME.

QUANTIZATION OF CHARGE
THE CHARGE PRESENT IN ANY BODY IS ALWAYS THE INTEGRAL MULTIPLE OF FUNDAMENTAL CHARGE THE CHARGE OF AN ELECTRON (1.6 X 10-19C) NO BODY CAN POSSESS FRACTIONAL ELECTRONIC CHARGE (IN THE MACROSCOPIC WORLD)
.

± 1/3 e. BOTTOM. ± 2/3 e «. DOWN. TOP.QUARKS
ARE PARTICLES CONSIDERED TO POSSESS FRACTIONAL ELECTRONIC CHARGES -.. THEY ARE ALWAYS FOUND COMBINED TO FORM INTEGRAL MULTIPLES OF ELECTRONIC CHARGE. QUARKS CANNOT EXIST FREELY. ALSO. CHARM AND STRANGE BUT THE EXISTENCE OF QUARKS DONOT VIOLATE THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF CHARGE. THERE ARE SIX TYPES OF QUARKS UP. IT ONLY CHANGES THE MAGNITUDE OF FUNDAMENTAL CHARGE TO THAT OF THE LOWEST POSSIBLE CHARGE ON QUARKS.
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Quark Up Down Charm Strange Top Bottom
Symbol Spin Charge U D C S T B 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 +2/3 -1/3 +2/3 -1/3 +2/3 -1/3
Baryon Num S ber 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 0 0 0 -1 0 0
C 0 0 +1 0 0 0
B 0 0 0 0 0 +1
T 0 0 0 0 +1 0
Mass* 360 MeV 360 MeV 1500 MeV 540 MeV 174 GeV 5 GeV
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COULOMB¶S LAW
THE FORCE OF ATTRACTION OR REPULSION BETWEEN TWO POINT CHARGES IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO THE PRODUCT OF THE AMGNITUDE OF THE CHARGES AND INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL TO THE SQUARE OF THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THEM. MATHEMATICALLY
1 Q1Q2 F! 2 4TI 0 r
.

e. Ir= F0 /Fm
.RELATIVE PERMITIVITY
Is defined as the ratio of the force between two point charges separated in vacuum to the force between the same two charges separated by the same distance while kept in the medium. i.

i. the net force on any one of the charges is equal to the vector sum of the forces due to the individual charges.
F1 = F12+ F13+ F14 + ««
.e.PRINCIPLE OF SUPER POSITION
States that when there are a number of point charges.

.DEFINE 1 COULOMB
One coulomb is defined as that charge which when kept one metre apart from an equal and similar charge in vacuum. repels it with a force of 9 x 109N.

Quantitatively The intensity of ELECTRIC FIELD at any point is defined as the force exerted per unit charge by a positive test charge kept at that point.ELECTRIC FIELD
Qualitatively The region of space around a charge where it can exert a force of electrical origin on another charge.
¨F¸ E ! lim© ¹ qo p0© q ¹ ª 0º
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ELECTRIC LINES OF FORCE
Are imaginary lines of force such that the tangent to it at any point gives the direction of electric field at that point.
. A positive point charge free to move will move in the direction of electric field and a negative point charge will move in a direction opposite to the direction of electric field along an electric line of force.

The lines of force to represent uniform electric field are as shown below
The electric lines of force due to point charge q < 0 are as shown below
The electric lines of force due to point charge q > 0 are as shown below
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.PROPERTIES OF ELECTRIC LINES OF FORCE
Start from a positive charge and end in a negative charge. They never intersect each other They tend to contract longitudinally and expand laterally. They always enter or emerge normal to the surface of a charged conductor. The tangent to it at any point gives the direction of electric field at that point. They are close together in regions of strong electric field and far apart in regions of weak electric field.

WHY TWO ELECTRIC LINES OF FORCE NEVER INTERSECT?
If they intersect two tangents can be drawn from the same point( i.e. at the point of intersection) indicating two directions of electric field at the same position which is impossible.
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p ! 2l v q
. Dipole moment.ELECTRIC DIPOLE
Two equal and opposite point charges separated by a very small distance constitute an electric dipole. Electric dipole moment of a dipole is defined as the product of the magnitude of either of the charges and the distance between the charges.

ELECTRIC FIELD AT A POINT DUE TO A DIPOLE
On the axial position
Eaxial Eaxial
1 2 pr ! 2 2 2 4TI o .

l
r 1 2p ! when r "" l 3 4TI o r
1 p ! 3 2 2 2 4TI o r l 1 p hen r "" l ! 3 4TI o r
On the equatorial position
Eequatorial Eequatorial
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.

TORQUE ON A DIPOLE
X = pE sinU sinU
Or
X=pXE
where p is the electric dipole moment and E is the intensity of electric field.
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q at B
F
B
! qE
Forces F A and FB equal and opposite form a couple which tends to rotate the dipole torque acting on dipole is
X ! force v arm of couple
.
F
A
! qE
force on charge .DERIVATION (X = PE sinU) (X sinU
Force on charge +q at A .

X ! qE v AC
In (AB
(1)
AC ! sinU A
AC ! AB sinU
AC ! 2l sinU
so from -------.e U = 0 ) from ( 2 ) ! pE sin 0 ! pE v 0 = 0
.( 1 )
X ! qE v 2l sin U ! ( q v 2l ) E sin U X ! pE v sin U
( 2)
3
p ! q v 2 l dipole
o ent
X
No torque acts when dipole moment aligns parallel to electric field ( i.

ELECTRIC FLUX
Is the total lines of force passing nor al to a given surface
JE !
´
s
T T E .d S
JE = E A for uniform electric field
Electric flux is a scalar quantity
.

d S ! .GAUSS¶ THEOREM
States the total electric flux through a closed surface (surface integral of electric field over a closed surface) is equal to 1/Io times the total charge 1/I enclosed by the surface. Mathematically
T T 1 E .

q enclosed ´ I0 s
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ELECTRIC FIELD AT A POINT DUE TO DIFFERENT CHARGE DISTRIBUTIONS
E due to a point charge E due to a line of charge
E po int E line
1 ! 4 TI 1 ! 4 TI
o
q 2 r
E due to a plane sheet of charge
o
2P r
E sheet
E due to a sphere of charge
W ! 2I o 1 ! 4 TI
o
E sphere
q 2 r
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ELECTRIC POTENTIAL
Electric potential at any point is defined as the work done per unit charge in bringing a positive test charge from infinity to that point without any acceleration.
W V! qo
.

VAB
WAB ! qo
.POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE
Potential difference between two points is defined as the work done per unit charge in carrying a positive test charge from one point to other without any acceleration.

1 1 « qi q j » ! §¬ r ¼ 4TI 0 2 i !1 ¬ ij ¼ ½
j !1 i{ j
i !n j !n
.POTENTIAL ENERGY OF A SYSTEM OF CHARGES
Potential energy of a syste of charges is defined as the total work done in asse bling all the U charges constituting the syste fro infinity to their respective positions.

WORK DONE IN ROTATING A DIPOLE IN A UNIFORM ELECTRIC FIELD
W ! PE (cosU 2 cosU1 )
.

E
.POTENTIAL ENERGY OF A DIPOLE IN A UNIFORM ELECTRIC FIELD
TT U ! .

This is known as action of points. It is maximum at sharp points and hence the intensity of electric field will also be maximum at these points.
.ACTION OF POINTS
The surface charge density is not uniform in the case of uneven metal surfaces.

CORONA DISCHARGE
When a metal with sharp points is charged.
. the sharp points acquire a high electric field and ionizes the air molecules nearby and then repels them away. The charged air molecules moving away from the sharp points constitute an electric wind and the discharge of electricity from sharp points like this is known as corona discharge.

They avoid the occurrence of lightning by corona discharge and neutralizing the clouds.
. They protect the building in two ways.LIGHTNING CONDUCTOR
Is a device made of metal with sharp points fixed on the top of huge buildings and earthed by thick strips of conductor. Even if lightning strikes. it provides a low resistance conducting path for the charges coming from the clouds and protects the building from damage.

. It works on the principle that whenever a charge is given to a hollow conductor.VAN DE GRAFF GENERATOR
Is a device used to produce very high potential by the action of points. the charge is immediately transferred to the outer surface.

A Van de Graff Generator
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CAPACITANCE
The ratio of electric charge to electric potential of a conductor or a device is called capacitance Capacitance C = Q/V Unit is farad (F) 1 farad = 1 coulomb / 1 volt
.

PRINCIPLE OF A CAPACITOR
Capacitor is based on the principle that the capacitance of an isolated charged conductor increases when an uncharged earthed conductor is kept near it and the capacitance is further increased by keeping a dielectric medium between the conductors.
.

C = Q/V C=A I0/d
. V = Ed = Qd/A I0 Capacitance. E = W/I0 But W=Q/A @E=Q/AI0 E=Q/AI Potential difference between the two plates .CAPACITANCE OF A PARALLEL PLATE CAPACITOR
Electric field between the plates.

CAPACITANCE OF A PARALLEL PLATE CAPACITOR WITH A DIELECTRIC SLAB
When a dielectric slab is kept between the plates COMPLETELY filling the gap E¶ = E0/K where K is the dielectric constant of the medium. Potential difference V¶ = E¶d = E0d/K=Qd/K I0A Capacitance C¶ = Q/V¶ = K I0A/d = KC @when a dielectric medium is filled between the plates of a capacitor.
. its capacitance is increased K times.

CAPACITANCE OF A PARALLEL PLATE CAPACITOR WITH A DIELECTRIC SLAB
When a dielectric slab is kept between the plates PARTIALLY filling the gap
I0 A C" ! 1¸ ¨ d t ©1 ¹ ª Kº
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CAPACITANCE OF A PARALLEL PLATE CAPACITOR WITH A METAL SLAB OF THICKNESS t
I0 A C" ! d t
.

.... the effective capacitance
C p ! C1 C2 .... Cn
..... C s C1 C2 Cn
PARALLEL COMBINATION When capacitors are combined in series.......COMBINATION OF CAPACITORS
SERIES COMBINATION When capacitors are combined in series.... the reciprocal of effective capacitance 1 1 1
1 ! .

DEFINE DIELECTRIC CONSTANT ON THE BASIS OF CAPACITANCE OF A PARALLEL PLATE CAPACITOR
Dielectric constant of a medium is defined as the ratio of the capacitance of a capacitor completely filled with the medium to the capacitance of the capacitor without any dielectric.
C K! Co
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DIELECTRIC STRENGTH
Dielectric strength of a dielectric is the maximum electric field that can be applied to it beyond which it breaks down.
.

PRACTICE PROBLEMS
Calculate the number of electrons in excess in a body with 1 coulomb of negative charge. Q = ne Q = 1C e = 1.25 X 1018
.6 X 10-19C n = Q/e= 1/(1.6 X 10-19C) = 6.