Understanding Human Nature and Behaviour

Presented by Muhammad Iqbal Malik
© 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved.

Today·s Objectives
‡ To develop an understanding about human nature and its influence on behaviour ‡ Becoming more self-aware and have a deeper understanding about others ‡ To develop an appreciation for diversity

© 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved.

We will cover:
‡ What is personality? ‡ What makes us what we are? ‡ What are the key elements of personality? ‡ Are there generic types or classes? ‡ Is this personality ³good´ or ³bad´? ‡ Is diversity a ³curse´ or a blessing? ‡ Application of what we have learnt

© 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved.

Why Bother?

© 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved.

. All rights reserved.org.Know thyself The unexamined life is not worth living! © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.

All rights reserved. .‡ Self-awareness ‡ People are the most important organizational resource ‡ Improving predictability and selfconfidence ‡ Building relationships ‡ Effective utilization of human resources ‡ Avoiding or managing conflicts ‡ Improving the quality of life and work environment © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org.

org. All rights reserved. thought or felt very different than you? ‡ Have you ever looked down on someone who behaved. . thought or felt differently? © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking. behaved.Reflection ‡ Have you ever faced a person whom you failed to understand? ‡ Have you ever been misunderstood (as a person)? ‡ Have you ever been frustrated by people who looked.

All rights reserved.What is Personality? © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. .

Personality ‡ ³Every man is in certain respects like all other men. .org. like no other man´ Kluckhohn & Murray © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking. All rights reserved. like some other men.

All rights reserved. thought.org.Personality ‡ Personality describes the character of emotion. . and behavior patterns unique to a person ‡ It is a particular pattern of behaviour and thinking prevailing across time and situations that differentiates one person from another ‡ Personality is the sum total of ways in which an individual react and interacts with others © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.

. motivation. All rights reserved.Personality ‡ Personality is that which permits a prediction of what a person will do in a given situation ‡ It explains how each individual is unique ‡ Personality is one of the key determinants of human behaviour ± but there are also other factors of behaviour e. belief etc.g.org. © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking. situation. attitude. cognition.

What makes us what we are? How do we become ´usµ? © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. . All rights reserved.

endocrine system and other systems  Environment and life experiences ‡ Identical twins share the same template but have different ³states´ ‡ Twins raised in different families have often demonstrated similar tastes.org. Nurture  Heredity and biology . . choosing the same profession and even using the same brands of products © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking. All rights reserved. nervous system.The Development of Personality ‡ Nature vs.genes.

. Plasticity hypothesis  Set like plaster  Changes throughout adulthood © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.The Development of Personality ‡ Some traits may be more strongly linked to heredity than others ‡ The initial few years are critical in the formation of personality ‡ Plaster vs.org. All rights reserved.

org. All rights reserved. resulting in characteristic responses to situations ‡ Humanist Theories ± difficult to predict behaviour ± lives are not scripted ± personalities are defined by their own different perceptions and experiences ‡ Behavioural Theories ± Personality is the constantly changing set of learned behaviour.Views on Personality ‡ Trait Theories ± personality is a set of mental structures/systems. influenced by reinforcements © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking. different for each individual. .

org.Interactionism ‡ Human behaviour is influenced by:  Personality traits  The situation  The interaction between personality and situation ‡ How one perceives or defines a situation is a critical factor of behaviour © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking. All rights reserved. .

CASE ‡ Doctors report that the child would never be able to play any physically exerting sport« the child grows to be the fittest athlete in the world ‡ How did the parents define the situation? ‡ How did the child define the situation? ‡ How did it influence their behaviour? © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking. All rights reserved.org. .

.org.being aware of oneself. All rights reserved.Feelings of self-worth stemming from the individual's positive or negative beliefs about being valuable and capable ‡ Self-awareness . including one's traits. behaviours and limitations ‡ Risk Taking .a person¶s willingness to take chances or risks © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking. feelings.Other Attributes ‡ Locus of Control (internal/external) The degree to which people believe they are in control of their own fate ‡ Self-Esteem .

org.Personality Models © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking. . All rights reserved.

Is this Personality Good or Bad? ‡ Before we examine various types of personalities we should remember:  There is no ³right´. ³wrong´. . ³good´ or ³bad´ type  Each type has ³strengths´ and ³weaknesses´  A personality may however be more ³suitable´ for a given role or situation  Personality traits may shift over time  Behaviour/performance is not dependent on personality alone © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved.

Personality Models ‡ The Big Five ‡ Cattell¶s 16 Primary Factors ‡ Myers-Briggs Type Indicator © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking. . All rights reserved.org.

All rights reserved.The Big Five Neuroticism  Anxiety  Angry hostility  Depression  Self-consciousness  Impulsiveness  Vulnerability Extraversion  Warmth & Sociability  Assertiveness  Activity  Positive emotions  Talkativeness  Boldness  Spontaneity  Adventure & Enthusiasm Conscientiousness  Competence  Order  Dutifulness  Achievement striving  Self-discipline  Deliberation (reflection) © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org.        Openness Fantasy Aesthetics Feelings Actions Ideas Values Agreeableness  Trust  Straightforwardness  Altruism  Compliance  Modesty  Tender-mindedness .

restrained. impersonal. humble. obedient Serious. more intelligent. avoids conflict. enthusiastic. spontaneous. competitive. cool.Cattells· 16 Primary Factors Factor Warmth Low Reserved. expressive. outgoing. thoughtful. kindly. detached. emotionally less adaptive. aggressive. cheerful. Reactive. impulsive © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking. participating. All rights reserved. bright. silent Dominant. stubborn. calm Respectful. likes people Abstract-thinking. bossy Lively. mature.org. prudent. less intelligent High Warm. Liveliness . easygoing. faces stable. formal Concrete-thinking. cooperative. easily upset reality. fast learner Reasoning Emotional Stability Dominance Emotionally stable. assertive.

sentimental. suspicious. venturesome. unconditional. nonconforming. All rights reserved. oppositional Abstracted. rule-bound Socially bold. imaginative. hesitant. absent-minded. refined Vigilant. threat-sensitive.org. dutiful. toughminded. aesthetic. conscientious. moralistic. tenderminded. intuitive. solution-oriented. impractical. rough Trusting. © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking. thickskinned. practical. absorbed in ideas. objective.Cattells· 16 Primary Factors Factor RuleConsciousness Social Boldness Low Expedient. easy Grounded. skeptical. steady. disregards rules Shy. timid. conventional High Rule-conscious. distrustful. Sensitivity Vigilance Abstractedness . uninhibited Sensitive. unsentimental. accepting. intimidated Utilitarian.

genuine. guiltprone. free of guilt. worldly. complacent. liberal. insecure. tactful. individualistic. experimenting. solitary. attached to familiar. shrewd. flexible Self-reliant. self-sufficient Apprehension Openness to Change Self-Reliance © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking. open. conservative Group-oriented. confident Traditional. follower. secure.Cattells· 16 Primary Factors Factor Privateness Low Straightforward. nondisclosing. naive unworried. selfdoubting. . dependent High Private. affiliative. All rights reserved.org. analytical. selfblaming Open to change. diplomatic Apprehensive. worried.

All rights reserved. careless. low drive High Perfectionist. organized. calm. high energy. compulsive. lazy. frustrated. self-disciplined Tense.org. high drive. patient. . impatient.Cattells· 16 Primary Factors Factor Perfectionism Low Tolerates disorder. time-driven Tension © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking. flexible. easy going. impulsive Relaxed.

.Introversion  Sensing ± Intuition  Thinking ± Feeling  Judging . All rights reserved.Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) ‡ 4 Scales  Extraversion .Perceiving ‡ 16 Types © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org.

. All rights reserved.MBTI Scales Extraversion  Outer world  People/Things  Active  Breadth of Interest  Live. then live  Concentration  Inwardly directed Intuition  Meanings  Associations  Possibilities  Hunches/Speculations  Theoretical  Future  Fantasy © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. then understand  Interaction  Outgoing ensing  Facts  Data  Details  Reality based  Actuality  Here and now  Utility/Purpose Introversion  Inner World  Thoughts/Concepts  Reflective  Depth of Interest  Understand.

.org.MBTI Scales Thinking  Analysis  Objective  Logic  Impersonal  Critique  Reason  Criteria Judging  Organized  Settled  Planned  Decisive  Control own life  Set goals  Systematic Feeling  Sympathy  Subjective  Humane  Personal  Appreciate  Values  Circumstances Perceiving  Pending  Flexible  Spontaneous  Tentative  Let life happen  Undaunted by surprise  Open to change © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking. All rights reserved.

Likely to be original and creative.org. serious. Enjoy the present moment.MBTI ² 16 Personality Types ISTJ Serious and quiet. interested in how and why things work. Well-developed sense of space and function. They can usually accomplish any task once they have set their mind to it. Uncomplicated in their desires. Loyal to their peers and to their internal value systems. Extremely thorough. Risk-takers who they live for the moment. Flexible and open-minded. Not interested in leading or controlling others. responsible. interested in security and peaceful living. ISTP Quiet and reserved. they excel at finding solutions to practical problems. they work steadily towards identified goals. Stable and practical. All rights reserved. © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking. ISFJ Quiet. ISFP Quiet. . and aesthetic appreciation for beauty. they value security and traditions. Detached and analytical. Do not like conflict. Excellent skills with mechanical things. Usually interested in and talented at extreme sports. Usually puts the needs of others above their own needs. and conscientious. Rich inner world of observations about people. Interested in serving others. Can be depended on to follow through. Extremely perceptive of other's feelings. and not likely to do things which may generate conflict. sensitive and kind. Extremely well-developed senses. and dependable. kind. but not overly concerned with respecting laws and rules if they get in the way of getting something done. Loyal and faithful. Welldeveloped powers of concentration. Well-organized and hard working. Usually interested in supporting and promoting traditions and establishments.

Interested in understanding and helping people. Highly value knowledge. reflective. competence. INTJ Independent.MBTI ² 16 Personality Types INFJ Quietly forceful. creative thinkers. INFP Quiet. Quiet and reserved. Can become very excited about theories and ideas. and able to see possibilities. competence and logic. Interested in serving humanity. which they strive to live in accordance with. original. Have very high standards for their performance. Extremely intuitive about people. Well-respected for their perserverence in doing the right thing. . Well-developed value system. Natural leaders. original. and the performance of others. Tend to stick to things until they are done. Mentally quick. original. Extremely loyal. and structure. Usually talented writers. Highly value knowledge. but will follow if they trust existing leaders. rather than leading or following. Adaptable and laid-back unless a strongly-held value is threatened. analytical. Individualistic.org. Long-range thinkers. Have an exceptional ability to turn theories into solid plans of action. and idealistic. © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking. INTP Logical. Likely to be individualistic. Exceptionally capable and driven to turn theories into clear understandings. Driven to derive meaning from their visions. and concerned for their feelings. All rights reserved. Welldeveloped value systems which they strictly adhere to. and sensitive. having no interest in leading or following others. and determined. hard to get to know well.

All rights reserved. ESTJ Practical. they're risk-takers who live fast-paced lifestyles. Exceptionally capable in organizing and running activities. They dislike theory and impersonal analysis. but not usually respectful of laws and rules if they get in the way of getting things done. Have clear visions of the way things should be. adaptable. Great people skills. Feel strong sense of responsibility and duty. © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking. Impatient with long explanations.MBTI ² 16 Personality Types ESTP Friendly. popular. Not interested in theory or abstraction unless they see the practical application. Loyal and hard-working. ESFJ Warm-hearted. Interested in serving others. action-oriented. "Good citizens" who value security and peaceful living. they love new experiences. ESFP People-oriented and fun-loving. Like to be in charge. and organized. Likely to be athletic. Well-developed sense of space and function. Value traditions and security. Tend to put the needs of others over their own needs. traditional. Likely to be the center of attention in social situations. they make things more fun for others by their enjoyment. . Extremely loyal to their peers. Interested in serving others. and conscientious. Living for the moment. Living in the here-and-now. Welldeveloped common sense and practical ability. Need positive reinforcement to feel good about themselves.org. "Doers" who are focused on immediate results.

All rights reserved. and probably place the needs of others over their own needs. ENFJ Popular and sensitive. Able to do almost anything that interests them. They enjoy people and are stimulating company. © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking. Open-minded and flexible. Excellent ability to understand difficult organizational problems and create solid solutions. and usually have little patience with inefficiency or disorganization. with outstanding people skills. with real concern for how others think and feel.they are driven to lead. . and dislike impersonal analysis. They value knowledge and competence. Excellent ability to understand concepts and apply logic to find solutions. but bored with details. Excited by new ideas. resourceful. ENTJ Assertive and outspoken .org. ENTP Creative. Interested in serving others. They get very excited about new ideas and projects. Need to live life in accordance with their inner values. Externally focused.MBTI ² 16 Personality Types ENFP Enthusiastic. Good at a broad range of things. and leading group discussions. idealistic. Generally outspoken and assertive. Very effective at managing people issues. Great people skills. with a broad range of interests and abilities. Intelligent and well-informed. and creative. Enjoy debating issues. but may neglect the more routine aspects of life. They see everything from the human angle. and may be into "one-up-manship". and intellectually quick. they usually excel at public speaking. Usually dislike being alone.

. plan and avoid failures  Self-optimize.org. All rights reserved. weaknesses and preferences  Predict. plan and avoid conflict and failures  Adapt and support © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking. weaknesses and preferences  Predict.Application ‡ Self-management  Understand strengths. excel and adapt ‡ Managing relationships  Understand strengths.

. 50% of the mismatch is caused by you  Do not blame the person for something s/he hasn¶t done  Do not forget that the perceived weakness could be a real advantage in a different situation © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.Application ‡ Try to accommodate type mismatch  Remember. type mismatch is unavoidable  Remember. All rights reserved.org.

All rights reserved. .org.Application ‡ Diversity  Recognizing differences as natural  Appreciating diversity  Developing complementary work teams  Expertise and task assignment Caution: other components of behaviour + development of others ‡ Synergy  n1 + n2 = k x (n1 + n2) where k > 1 © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.

org.Application: Other Considerations ‡ For those traits that are not dominant  Avoid over exposure and over commitment  Understand the consequences  Cognition (thinking)  Self-monitoring  Positive attitude  Learning and practice  Changes in socio-technical environment © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking. . All rights reserved.

. All rights reserved.Exercise: Trait Recognition Can you visualize someone who: ‡ would panic under stress.org. and works hard to ensure that others feelings are not hurt © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking. even if it involves taking on enormous stress ‡ Enjoys parties and gatherings. is talkative even with strangers. on time. new idea or suggestion ‡ would do all it takes to get the job done. is a frequent worrier or would be intensely tense on slightest criticism ‡ is very open to change. is adventurous and is action oriented ‡ Is very considerate and sympathetic.

Exercise: ´Undesirableµ Traits ‡ Identify a trait that you perceive as a ³weakness´. then think of a situation where it could be utilized as a strength © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.org. All rights reserved. .

perspectives and conflicts are actually opportunities to broaden our thinking and prospects © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking. .org. All rights reserved.Afterthoughts ‡ Awareness and recognition is the first step towards change ‡ After self-evaluating your personality. observe other available templates and see how that may help you in adapting into a ³new´ person or adopting a different response set ‡ If no traits are absolutely bad. then recognize that differences.

All rights reserved. .org.Final Word ‡ While dealing with people. lose your spectacle and put on their glasses ± try to understand first before being understood © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.

org. . All rights reserved.Thank you © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.

All rights reserved. .org.Q&A © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.

apa.com/types/infp.personalitypathways.org.centacs.jungtype.com/MBTI_geyer-2.htm ‡ What Color is Your Personality.personalitypathways.com/MBTI_intro.org/releases/personality.html ‡ http://www.htm ‡ http://changingminds.com/quickstart.html ‡ http://www. by Carol Ritberger © 2007-2008 LetsStartThinking.Further Reading ‡ http://www. .org/explanations/personality/personality.htm ‡ http://www.html ‡ http://www. All rights reserved.

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