CHAPTER 4

Chemical Reactions

John A. Schreifels Chemistry 211-notes

1

Overview
‡ Ions in Aqueous Solution
± Ion theory in solutions; precipitation reactions ± Molecular and ionic equation

‡ Typical Reactions
± Precipitation ± Acid-Base ± Oxidation-Reduction (Balancing)

‡ Working with solutions ‡ Quantitative analysis
John A. Schreifels Chemistry 211-notes 2

g. John A. KNO3. E.Ionic Thory of Solutions ‡ Pure water is a very poor conductor of electricity. Mg(NO3)2.good electrical conductor when dissolved in water (completely ionized). ‡ Solutions from dissolving substances such as sugar (sucrose) C12H22O11 are non-conductive. 2 NaCl(s) €€€p Na  (a )  Cl  (a ) H O ± Weak-poor conductor when dissolved in water (partial ionization): H3 (  )  H 2 O(l) n €p H 4 ( )  OH  ‡ Non-electrolyte: substance that does not produce ions when dissolved in water. Schreifels Chemistry 211-notes 3 . etc. ‡ Solutions from dissolving NaCl or KCl in water are very conductive. ‡ Electrolyte: substance that produces ions when dissolved in water. ± Strong. NaCl.

Schreifels Chemistry 211-notes 4 .Aqueous Reactions and Net Ionic Equations Three forms for writing chemical reaction: ‡ Molecular: : ± AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(aq) p AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq). ‡ Ionic: ± Spectator ions are not directly involved in the reaction   Ag  (aq)  NO 3 (aq)  Na  (aq)  Cl  (aq) p Na  (aq)  NO 3 (aq)  AgCl(s) ‡ Net ionic: exclude spectator ions: ± Ag+(aq) + Cl(aq) p AgCl(s). John A.

Schreifels Chemistry 211-notes 5 .g. John A. AX + BY p AY + BX E. Ni(NO3)2(aq) + (NH4)2S(aq) Hint: Use the solubility rules to determine if either product is insoluble.Precipitation Reactions ‡ Metathesis reaction: reaction in which two substances react through exchange of their components. Driving force is often a precipitation. Predict if precipitation occurs for the mixture: AgNO3(aq) + KI(aq) NaClO4(aq) + Pb(NO3)2(aq) Na2SO4(aq) + BaCl2(aq).

Schreifels Chemistry 211-notes Exception Ag+. phosphates. Hg22+ Ag+. sulfides Hydroxides. Ba2+. NH4+ Group 1. oxides John A. Pb2+. Ba2+ 6 . ClO4  Chlorides. bromides. ClO3. chromates. oxalates. iodides Acetates Sulfates Insoluble Compounds Carbonates.Solubility Rules Rule Soluble Group 1 elements. Ca2+ Group 1. Hg22+ Sr2+. NH4+ NO3 . Pb2+.

CuCO3(s) + 2HNO3(aq) p CO2(g) + Cu(NO3)2(aq) + H2O(l) CuS(s) + 2HNO3(aq) p Cu(NO3)2(aq) + H2S(g) John A.Metathesis Reaction (cont. ‡ sometimes formation of gas. Schreifels Chemistry 211-notes 7 .g.g. ± most common is CO2 from carbonates or H2S from sulfides E.) Driving force is ‡ sometimes formation of weak or non ± electrolyte. but readily dissolves in aqueous nitric acid. E. acid ± base reactions CuO(s) + 2HNO3(aq) p Cu(NO3)2(aq) + H2O(l) ± CuO is normally insoluble in water.

John A. Schreifels Chemistry 211-notes 8 . Bases. The general reaction for a base is: ± MOH(s) m OH(aq) + M+(aq) where ‡ M = some metal such as Na.Acids. ‡ Acids and bases can be strong or weak electrolytes. and ‡ H3O+ = hydronium ion often written as H+.etc. ‡ Base = compound that releases hydroxide ions (OH) in solution. ‡ A base/acid that is a strong electrolyte is a strong base/acid. and Salts Arrhenius definition most often used: ‡ Acid = a hydrogen containing compound that releases hydrogen ions (H+) in solution. HNO3. K. etc. ± HA(aq) + H2O(l) m H3O+(aq) + A(aq) where ‡ HA = HCl.

Polyprotic acids and weak bases ‡ Some acids have more than one acidic proton.  ± Sulfuric: H 2 SO 4 (l)  H 2 O(l) p HSO 4 (aq)  H3 O  (aq) 2  HSO 4 (aq)  H 2 O(l) p SO 4  (aq)  H3 O  (aq)  ± Phosphoric: H3PO4 (l)  H2O(l) p H2PO4 (aq)  H3O  (aq) 2  H2PO4 (aq)  H2O(l) p HPO 4  (aq)  H3O  (aq) 2 HPO 4  (aq)  H2O(l) p PO3  (aq)  H3O (aq) 4 ‡ Most weak bases produce hydroxide ions by reaction with water. ± Ammonia NH3(aq)  H2O m NH (aq)  OH (aq) 4 John A. Schreifels Chemistry 211-notes 9 .

HBr Hydroiodic. HI Perchloric. H2SO4 Nitric. NaOH. HNO3 John A. Ba(OH)2 10 . CsOH) Grp 2A metal hydroxides (Ca(OH)2. ‡ Amines (containing nitrogen) are weak. RbOH. HClO3 Hydrobromic. Sr(OH)2.Strong and Weak Acids and Bases ‡ Organic acids are weak (usually have ±COOH). Schreifels Chemistry 211-notes Strong Bases Grp 1A hydroxides (LiOH. KOH. HClO4 Sulfuric. ‡ In water they are completely dissociated: ± HCl(aq) + H2O(l) p H3O+(aq) + Cl(aq) Strong Acids Chloric.

net ionic equation: ± H+(aq) + OH(aq) p H2O(l) John A. neutralization reaction is ± HCN(aq) + OH(aq) p CN(aq) + H2O(l) Eg. NaOH = strong base.g.Neutralization Reaction ‡ Acids react with bases to form a salt and possibly water (called the neutralization reaction): ± HA(aq)+MOH(aq)pM+(aq)+A(aq)+H2O(l). exclude spectator ions in the ionic form. E. Schreifels Chemistry 211-notes 11 . ± If either the acid or base is a strong electrolyte. HCN = weak acid. 2 HCl neutralized by NaOH.

± Cu(s) + 2HNO3(aq) p Cu(NO3)2(aq) + H2(g) ‡ Metals also oxidized with salts ± Fe(s) + Cu(NO3)2(aq) p Fe(NO3)2(aq) + Cu(s) John A. ‡ Every reaction must have an oxidation and reduction.. ± Ni(s) + H+(aq) p Ni2+(aq) + H2(g) ‡ Reduction = gain of at least one electron during a reaction. H+ gains an electron to become reduced. Schreifels Chemistry 211-notes 12 . ± In above example.Oxidation ± Reduction ‡ Oxidation = loss of at least one electron during a reaction. ‡ Metals react with acids to form salts and hydrogen gas.

± Compounds and ions: sum of the charges on the atoms in a compound add up to 0 and to the ion charge in the ion. except in H2O2 and other peroxides. Ca in CaO Ca2+(aq) Cl(aq) +2 +2 1 Cr in CrO3 Fe in Fe2O3 Cr in K2Cr2O7 +6 +3 +6 John A. ± Hydrogen: +1. Rules: ± Elemental form: 0 ± Monatomic ions: charge of ion ± Oxygen: 2. respectively. except with metal hydrides when it is 1. ± Halogens: 1 (except when bound to oxygen or a halide above it) ± Alkali and alkaline earth metal ions have a charge of +1 and +2. Schreifels Chemistry 211-notes 13 .Oxidation Number ‡ ‡ Oxidation number (state): the charge on an atom in a substance or monatomic ion.

g. E. E.g. E. Predict which reaction will occur when: ± Li is mixed with K+ and ± Li+ is mixed with K.g.Displacement Reactions: Activity series of the elements A relative reactivity scale allows us to predict if reaction will occur when two substances are mixed together. more vigorous with steam . ± Fe2+(aq) + Cu(s)p NR   copper will not displace iron. Copper ions in solution are reduced to the metal when an iron nail is placed in the solution. In which of the following mixtures will reaction occur: ± Li+ + Mg ± Al + Mn2+ ± Fe + Cd2+ ± Cr + Zn2+ John A. ± Cu2+(aq) + Fe(s) p Fe2+(aq) + Cu(s)   Iron displaces copper. 14 Reacts vigorously with acids to give H2 Reacts with acids to give H2 Reacts with H2O to give H2 Reacts slowly with H2O to give H2. Schreifels Chemistry 211-notes ‡ Li K Ba Ca Na Mg Al Zn Cr Fe Cd Etc. ‡ Iron more reactive than copper.

Schreifels Chemistry 211-notes 15 . E.Balancing: Oxidation-Number Method ‡ Determine oxidation # for each atom. Balance:  ± Acidic solution: ClO   CrO 2 m Cl  CrO 2  4 John A.g. ‡ Determine change in oxidation state for each atom. E.g. Balance ± FeS(s)+CaC2(s) + CaO(s) p Fe(s)+ CO(g)+ CaS(s) ‡ In acidic or basic solution balance as above. ‡ Balance other side. then balance charge with H+ or OH on one side and water on other side. ‡ Left side: make loss of electrons = gain.both sides of equation. ‡ Insert coefficients for atoms that don't change oxidation state.

Schreifels Chemistry 211-notes 16 . ‡ ‡ Balance charge by adding e to the side that needs it. Balance: ± ± Acidic: Zn(s) + VO2+(aq)  Zn2+(aq) + V3+(aq). John A. ‡ Add the two half-reactions and simplify.Balancing: Half-Reaction Method Write unbalanced half reactions for the oxidation and the reduction ‡ Balance the number of elements except O and H for each. Multiply each half-reaction by integers to make electrons cancel. E. Basic: Ag(s) + HS(aq) + CrO42(aq)  Ag2S(s) + Cr(OH)3(s). ‡ Balance H's with H+ to the hydrogen deficient side ± ± Acidic: add H+ Basic: add H2O to the deficient side and OH to the other side.g. ‡ Balance O's with H2O to the deficient side.

25 M NaCl can be prepared by dissolving: ± 0. John A. E.5 g NaCl is dissolved and diluted to 500. 1 Determine mass needed to prepare exactly 2 liters of 0. ‡ Solvent substance in which solute is dissolved.125 mol in 1/2 liter flask (500 mL).g. ‡ Concentration: amount of solute dissolved in a given amount of solvent. E.25 mol NaCl in a 1-Liter flask ± 0.150M NaCl.g.50 mol NaCl in a 2-Liter flask ± 0. ‡ Concentrated solution: large amount of solute in solvent.g.Solution Composition. Often obtained by dilution.0 mL. Molarity Most reactions performed in solution (homogeneous mixture) since reactants mobile. Schreifels Chemistry 211-notes 17 . ‡ Solute dissolved substance. ‡ Molar concentration ( Molarity. 2 Determine the concentration when 12. An aqueous solution of 0. M ): moles of solute dissolved in a liter of solution. ‡ E. ‡ Dilute solution: very little solute in solvent.

0. Schreifels Chemistry 211-notes 18 .100 M Cu(NO3)2.Ion Concentrations in Solutions ‡ Concentrations of ions after dissolution depends on formula ‡ Determine concentration of each ion in the following solutions: 0.100 M CaSO4. 0.100 M FeCl3 John A.

E. ± Assume 100g of solution ± From mass of solute (28 g NH3) in 100 g determine .Mass % To Molarity Often manufacturers provide us with mass % of a compound in solution. John A. ± From the mass of solution (100 g) and the density. Schreifels Chemistry 211-notes 19 . Determine the molarity of NH3(aq) if the mass% = 28.898 g/mL.96 M NH3.65 mol NH3/ 0. ± From above steps determine the molar concentration: [NH3] = n(NH3)/V = 1. but it is more convenient to use molarity.0 % NH3 and the density = 0.111L = 14.g. determine V = the volume of the solution.

DILUTIONS ‡ Dilute solutions are prepared from more concentrated ones by adding solvent to the concentrated one.g. Vi.40 M stock solution. Mi.0 mL of a 0. ‡ The concentration of the dilute solution can be determined if we know: ± The volume of the concentrated solution.100 M HCl solution from a 12. Determine the volume needed to prepare 500. ‡ The relationship between the molarities and volumes is: moles of solute ! MiVi ! Mf Vf ‡ E. ± The concentration of the concentrated solution. John A. ± The volume of the dilute solution. Vf. Schreifels Chemistry 211-notes 20 .

Start with the stoichiometric relationship for any reaction: ± aA + bB p cC c ‡ Depending upon what is given in the problem substitute for mol A. Schreifels Chemistry 211-notes ¡ ‡ ‡ Substitute for mol: Solve   † y 21 .REACTIONS IN SOLUTION ‡ ‡ ‡ Reactions usually carried out in solution.g. ‡ Strategy: ‡ Balance reaction: Pb(NO3)2 + 2KI p PbI2 + 2KNO3. E. Amounts of reactants and products (m or n) must be determined from the volume and molarity of the solution. if we are dealing with a solution we substitute MAVA for the mol A. B or C. E.200 M KI required to react with 50. l y ‡ From stoichiometry: l † l l y › l l y John A..0 mL of 0.g. Calculate the volume of 0.300 M Pb(NO3)2.

‡ The ratio of stoichiometric coefficients tells how much of one compound will react if we know the amount of the other: aA + bB p cC ? !a (OH) † n B b ± Solutions: n = MV. What is the molarity of HCl if 25. ‡ Calculations are the same as in the last overhead. ‡ E. solids: n = m/FM John A.00 mL of it was titrated to the equivalence point with 33. Schreifels Chemistry 211-notes 22 .33 mL of 0.g.1000 M Ba(OH)2? V ‡ The stoichiometric relationship is: MHCl M (OH) † V HCl ‡ Substitute the given quantities and solve for the [HCl].TITRATIONS ‡ Titration: a procedure for determining the amount of one substance A by adding a carefully measured amount of a solution B until A is just consumed.

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