Total Quality Management

Case Study 1 A Note on Quality: The views of Deming, Juran and Crosby

Team Members
Adrien Sicard Gautam Virdi Mohammad Ali Xizhi Ma

Guess who is he?

Crosby

Management maturity grid Emphasizes the motivation and planning.Crosby y Oriented 'motivation' Quality is 'FREE'. Cost of prevention is less than the cost of detection. y y y y y y . and does not rely enough on more accurate measurements. The approach on individual improvement projects. Approach (too) connected to leadership and motivation.

Guess who is he? Deming .

Deming Oriented 'production' (Making high volume products). Problem Solving = Workers. Model based on process improvement y y y y . Statistical control of processes (identification of amount of defects trends).

Guess who is he? Juran .

What to do with this model when the customer expects anexpensivequality product? . Model 'Cost Of Quality'. Incorporates the ideas of the client. Quality pays by itself.Juran y y y y y y y Oriented 'costs'. Approach that emphasizes on people (Workers). Ready to measure quantitatively but not by technique.

Deming Crosby Meets requirements. Using in the field. Compliance. Industry standards.1 a How does each define quality? Which view makes the most sense to you? Why? Juran 'Fitness For Use " Amount of defects Design. Incorporates the customer s point of view. Quantity of variations Security. .

An excellent Cost of Quality (COQ) system can help point out the remaining improvement opportunities. foster a culture of excellence and set the stage for organizational change y y y . An effective Maturity Model helps to map current capabilities.1c. create a baseline for measuring improvement. Evaluation SPC is a powerful tool to optimize the amount of information needed for use in making management decisions.

Why are these techniques applied so seldom? Lack of commitment from senior management Lack of training and education in these techniques Lack of awareness of the potential benefits of these techniques Lack of knowledge on what to measure and how to measure in a certain process Inadequate measurement system in place y y y y y .1c.

Crosby Based on systems. improvement . Workers will produce quality products. and techniques and resolution measures problems. Very little mention of workers. Attitude Shift is critical to improve quality. Juran Identify goals achieved by the workers. The overall approach The overall approach The overall approach is emphasis on is emphasis on is emphasis on process people projects individual improvement.1 d What management philosophy is implied by each approach? Deming Quality initiatives must come from senior management.

Links among SPC. employ statistical approach and thus require its clear understanding by the workers .1f. Control Sequence. annual quality planning and COQ All require top management intervention All concentrate on bringing down the defects to least possible figure ‡ ‡ ‡ All tools except the management maturity grid. Breakthrough Projects.

.Why doesn·t Crosby push SPC as hard as Deming or Juran? Juran? ‡ Crosby believed that the key to quality improvements was changing top management·s thinking ‡ He emphasized prevention over detection and focused on changing corporate culture rather than on analytical or statistical tools.

Focused more on improving the quality of the product and customer services rather than financial aspect related to quality improvement ‡ ‡ .Why doesn·t Deming argue for COQ measures? ‡ Deming·s perspective is customer driven Laid more stress on the statistical approach to get down the number of defects.

However. it SPC) as a injuries due to hazards supports the need for troubleshooting of the product. up to a system measure of problem tool.1 g How is improvement measured in each approach? Deming Juran Crosby Statistical control of Prepare to measured More interested in processes ('Statistical and quantify any of motivation instead of Process Control "Compliance risk measures. . the cost of quality. quality.

Appraisal and recognition. Zero defects planning. In what setting is each approach likely to be successful? y y y y y y y y y y y Management·s commitment towards quality improvement. Implementing corrective action. Individual improvement goal setting. Cost of quality evaluation. Continuous quality improvement. Error-cause removal. Continuous and good communication between quality personnel.1h. Quality improvement team formation Instituting modern methods of training Quality measurement using SPC effectively. team chairpersons and management. y .

1 i How is improvement measured in each approach? y The 3 experts propose plans that are difficult to implement The leadership of senior management is essential The inspection is never the answer to superior quality y y .

What type of Companies? y Slow rate of improvement Low or no profitability Bureaucracy or complexity of business processes continue to get worse and worse Changes in one area tend to have disastrous effects in other areas Management is running out of ideas on where to cut costs any further y y y y .1j.

Why do all three experts regard top management leadership as so essential? y Implementing quality improvement involves large investment in terms of money. expertise and money .2b.

Is quality improvement different in fundamental ways from other types of manufacturing improvement? Yes.2b. It is different! y y It involves not just manufacturing improvement but also an improvement in industry·s working strategy and work ethics of all employees .

Why do all three experts reject inspection as a means of securing superior quality? y They feel that inspection is equivalent to planning for defects. It comes too late and is ineffective and costly. Instead the processes should improve.2c. sampling techniques had been developed to provide a scientific basis on which to accept or reject production lots based on a limited number of units. 100% testing was inefficient. y .

y . There is a resistance to change and lack of awareness for other methods of improving quality. Why is the idea of ´quality as policemanµ so hard to change? y Management must change from a preoccupation with short run to building for the long run. They do not realize that the need for inspection can be forgone.2c.

except that leadership and Little attention to design company with products motivation.2 d What are the blind-spots or weaknesses of blindeach approach? The strengths? ‡ Strengths and weaknesses each approach Deming Juran Crosby Excluded: Demonstrates an His approach is very Points on the market understandable (too) related to ustomer needs approach. and does a product that will upscale (Mercedes) uses not rely enough on more attract customers his COQ model ("Cost Of accurate measurements. Quality ')? .

production) . The grid large quantities hidden costs invites general terms (inventory excessive and subjective capacity additional answers.2 d What are the blind-spots or weaknesses of blindeach approach? The strengths? ‡ Values and limitations each of their approaches Deming Juran Crosby Control charts: When Cost of Quality Management data techniques can ignores lost sales due maturity grid is useful be recorded on to quality or porous to establish a Project products which are competitors. Also. it Quality Management produced in very rarely included to undertake.

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