# SURVEYING

Prof.V. Kanakasabai PhD

Contents Definition Object of Surveying Uses of Surveying Types of Surveying Classification of Surveying Principles of Surveying .

above or below the surface of earth either by direct or indirect measurements.Definition Surveying is the art of determining the relative positions of points on. .

Object of surveying The main object of any survey is to prepare a plan or map so that it may represent the area on a horizontal plane. .

bridges. railway tracks and dams.Uses of Surveying To show the ground features. To determine the relative heights of objects/ points in a vertical plane. To fix control points and thus to establish the boundaries. To set out any engineering work like buildings. . roads.

Types of Surveying There are two types of surveying 1. Plane Surveying Geodetic Surveying . 2.

This survey is adopted over small areas upto 260 sqkm.Plane Surveying It is a type of surveying in which the earth surface is considered as a plane and curvature of earth is neglected. .

The triangle formed by three lines is a Plane Triangle.Plane Surveying « The line connecting two points on the earth is considered as a straight line. . railways. dams. It is used for the layout of highways. canals. construction of buildings. etc. bridges.

. It will posses a high degree of accuracy as it considers the effect of curvature of earth. All lines lying on the surface are curved lines and the triangle formed is a Spherical Triangle.Geodetic Surveying It is a type of surveying in which the shape of the earth is taken into account. This surveying extends over large area.

. Land Surveying Astronomical Surveying Marine or Hydrographic Surveying.Classification of Surveying Depending on the use and purpose of survey. Based on the nature of the field of Survey. the following are the classifications: I .

Classification of Surveying « II. Based on the object of Survey Engineering Survey Military Survey Geological Survey Mine Survey Archaeological Survey. .

Classification of Surveying« III. . Based on the Instruments used Chain Survey Compass Survey Plane table survey Level Survey Theodolite Survey photographic Survey.

.Principles of Surveying There are two main principles in Surveying. Location of a point by measurements from two points of reference. 1. Working from whole to part 2.

such as R. Location of a point by measurement from two points of reference o Let P & Q be the reference points located on the ground o This line PQ can be measured accurately. Any other point. o . can be located by any of the following direct methods.Principles of Surveying«.

.Working from whole to part A system of control points is first established and fixed them with higher precision Minor control points are then established in between the control points and details are worked out.

the unit of measurement of distance is metres (m) and centimetres (cm). 3. . 4. Horizontal Distance Vertical Distance Horizontal angle Vertical Angle According to the standards of weights and measures act (India) 1956.Measurements In plane surveying four kinds of measurements are used. 1. 2.

UK. India and other European countries.The angles are measured in the sexagesimal system. The unit of measurement is Degree Ü minutes · secondsÞ This system is adopted in USA. .