SOURCES OF WATER Sources of water

Surface water

Rain water

Underground water

Sea water

Flowing water

Still water


Tube wells





In India most of the power plants use River Water.

Hardness of Water
µPrevents the lathering of soap¶ Reasons: Presence of certain salts of Ca, Mg and other heavy metal ions like Al3+, Fe3+ and Mn2+ dissolved in water.

2C17H35COONa + CaCl2 2C17H35COONa + MgSO4

(C17H35COO)2Ca (C17H35COO)2Mg

+ 2NaCl + Na2SO4

Types of Hardness:
Temporary Hardness: Salts responsible: Ca(HCO3)2, Mg(HCO3)2 and carbonate of Iron. Largely removed by boiling of water. Ca(HCO3)2 Mg(HCO3)2 ¨ ¨ CaCO3 Mg(OH)2 + H2O + CO2 + 2CO2

Permanent Hardness: Salts responsible: CaCl2, MgCl2, CaSO4, MgSO4, FeSO4, Al2(SO4)3

A boiler ± feed water should correspond with the following composition: (i) Its hardness should be below 0.2 ppm

(ii) Its caustic alkalinity (due to OH±) should lie in between 0.15 and 0.45 ppm. (iii) Its soda alkalinity (due to Na2CO3) should be 0.45 ± 1 ppm.

Excess of impurities, in boiler feed water cause following problems. 1. Scale & sludge 4. Carryover 2. Priming 5. Boiler Corrosion 3. Foaming 6. Caustic embrittlerment


The impurities present in river water can be broadly classified into following groups :

Floating solids Suspended solids Colloids Dissolved solids Dissolved liquids, gases etc. For thermal power station the most objectionable impurities are dissolved solids

PRE-TREATMENT PLANT Depending upon the impurities present in source water pre-treatment plants are designed. Normally following processes are carried out in pretreatment plant Screening Storage of raw water Aeration Chlorination Coagulation and flocculation Filtration .

Raw water to Clarified water Raw water bay RW make up pumps Clarifi ed water Clariflocculator Cl2 dosing Lime dosing Alum dosing Flash mixer 26 July 2011 PMI Revision 00 7 .

.SCREENING Coarse screens are provided at river intake to prevent floating material of fairly large size entering the works. The steel bar forming the screen are normally quite substantial (about 25 mm dia. the orifices of which are generally of the order of 6 mm. The velocity of water through the screen openings should not exceed 0.5 m/s Fine screens are also normally fitted immediately after the coarse screens.) and are spaced about 100 mm apart.

RAW WATER STORAGE The storage provided is for 7.15 days of the average water demand. . suspended solids and river algae. This is sufficient of to reduce pathogenic bacteria. while at the same time not long enough to encourage other organism to develop.

PRE CHLORINATION Chlorine is injected into the raw water soon after it enters the plant. but also oxidises and precipitates iron and manganise. kills algae. reduce color and slime formation are generally assists settlement. .5 mg/L This destroys the high bacterial count. Dosing rate : 2.

Chlorination .

it will pickup oxygen from air.AERATION It is a cheap and valuable means of controlling taste. * * * Looses excess CO2 or H2S Iron and manganese in solution are oxidized and precipitated out Certain volatile substance is liberated by algae growths or decomposition of organic matter. odor and corrosion Gases are absorbed or liberated from water until equilibrium is reached between the natural content of each gas in the atmosphere and its content in the water. * If water is lacking in dissolved oxygen. can be released from water .

Aeration .

active materials called coagulation aids. This can be done by two ways. (i) By adding traces of surface. (ii) By introducing fresh particles with positive charge.COAGULATION Coagulation is a process by which small particles in suspension join together to form large agglomerate. the particles will touch each other or pulled together and agglomerate. . Obvious way of promoting coagulation is to neutralize or reverse the electrical repulsion effect. Fine suspended particles and colloids present in water carry charges on their surface and most of the common materials assume negative charge. In that case.

It is prepared on the site because it is unstable & requirement may be more than ten times than that of poly acryl amides. For. which carries positive charge. .acryl amides) are toxic and can not be used in potable water. Most of the very effective aids (poly.COAGULATION AIDS Long chain molecule carrying electrically active groups all along the length of the chain. A common nontoxic aid is activated silica.example: long chain poly .acryl amides.

which increases. whose surface carry positive charge. More effective. good mixing time and presence of nuclei on which precipitate can form. .FLOCCULATION Ferric and aluminium salts when added in water forms insoluble hydroxides. proper pH. This positive charge flocs attaches itself with the negative charge particles in water. favors good floc formation. the probability of collision. because Large electropositive surface area Greatly increases particle concentration in water. which come out as floppy flocs.

Aluminium and iron hydroxide gives good flocs normally in slight acidic pH Iron : Aluminium: 5 ± 6 pH 6 ± 7 pH When alum (Aluminium sulphate) is added in water aluminium hydroxide floc and sulphuric acid is formed. Al2(SO4)3 + 6 H2O Al(OH)3 + 3 H2SO4 If turbidity is high alum dosing is also high Here pH may fall below the coagulation pH Lime [Ca(OH)2] is generally used to increase pH and it is also have coagulation property. .

Coagulation and flocculation .

There are different types of clarifiers: Conventional Type Clarifiers. Solid Contact Unit Clarifier (i) (ii) Slurry re-circulation clarifier Sludge blanket clarifier Hopper Bottom Clarifier Latest concept. The tank is usually square in plane with upper portion having vertical sides and the lower portion in the form of an inverted pyramid with sides at an angle of 60°to the horizontal size of the tank is governed by the turbidity and volume of the feed water.CLARIFIERS Clarifiers are structure/system in which water is cleared from most of the suspended solids with or without addition of coagulant. .

The effect of increases flow through the tank is the expansion of the sludge blanket until the equilibrium is re-established. The surface of the sludge blanket will rise but carry over will not occur until the increase in flow is excessive.CONTROL OF FLOCCULATION A variable velocity valve adjustable from the top of the tank is fitted with inlet pipe to take care exceptional changes of water characteristics or wide variation of flow. Inlet pipe has a fixed diameter outlet to give required discharge velocity. .

. The main discharge pipe is periodically used to remove heavier sludge from the bottom of the tank.circuiting.COLLECTION OF CLARIFIED WATER The water coming out of the sludge blanket passes up through straight position of the tank and is drawn off by a series of collecting troughs. SLUDGE DISCHARGE It is necessary to bleed off a small flow of sludge through concentrating pocket. This eliminates chances of short. It may be constructed in the concrete or it may be suspended from the top of the tank. They have notched side and are provided with adjustable support to enable them to be set for uniform draw off.

Clarified water to Filtered water Clarified water FW sump Clari-flocculator Cl2 Cl2 House FW pumps Filtered water DM water for Plant purpose To Township for drinking water PMI Revision 00 Sand filters DW sump Post-chlorination DW pumps DM PLANT 22 .

the suspended matter slowly blinds the pores of the Screen resulting greater pressure loss and slowly stoppage of the process.pressure loss.SPECIFICATION OF CLARIFIED WATER The clarified water should be seen by naked eye without any turbidity. Deposition of suspended matter on the pores of the screen is known as formation of filter cake. FILTRATION Filtration means taking suspended solids out of fluids There are some problems : (i) Suspended matter and water is relatively viscous. . (ii) As the filtration process is in progress. This means that very small holes must be used and any reasonable rate of flow. Almost 98% turbidity should be removed. through them will raise a high.

felts. Disposable screens which are created a fresh for every filter cycle. Raw water flows into the middle of the drum and out through the mesh by gravity. such as meshes. (b) MICRO STRAINERS Cylindrical drum covered with a very fine wire mesh. fibrewound candles or cloth held in some device which forces water to flow through. . sinters.There are two kinds of simple screen filter (a) True screens. else filter replacement becomes too costly. This class includes paper filters and cartridge filter which are used at place where there is used little suspended matter to remove. The drum rotates continuously and bring the mesh under a high pressure jet. sieves.

the flow of water practically stops and the bed is back washed for reviving the filtering capacity. . The suspended matter gets caught in the discontinuities which occur within such a bed.DEEP BED FILTER This is a vessel in which filter bed is created from a fine granular medium such as sand etc. When the bed accumulates lot of solids that is practicable. through which water is made to flow.

The deep bed filter differ from another filters: (a) (b) They are capable of filtering very fine solids including colloids. Particles tend to accumulate at the same place. the rising pressure loss can force accumulated dirt right through the filter. Depending the bed increases the availability of the filter medium and improves the quality of filtrate. (c) (d) (e) . At the end of a filter cycle. Fine sand gives finer filtration because the size of the channel is decreased and a more area of filtration is achieved. promotes coagulation.

and capable of removing particles up to 10 micron size from water containing 100 ppm of suspended load. The gravel sizes vary from 2.6 meter in depth. . This filter operates between 5 ± 10 m3/m2/hr.5 mm to 25 mm.RAPID SAND FILTER It consists of a bed of grinded sand typically +30 mesh to 15 mesh about 0. This lies in a bed of grinded gravel in several layers.

. The water. as it progressively looses its pollutants encounters zones of activated carbon which are less and less saturated and therefore more and more active.ACTIVATED CARBON FILTER: (AC FILTER) Granular carbon is used as a filter.

(b) Biological media: The surface of carbon offers ideal conditions bacterial growth.LIMITATIONS (a) Filtration: This must often be reduced to minimum in order to avoid clogging of the bed. Carbon tend to exert absorbable products from the flow with which it is contact. clogging of bed etc. causing premature saturation. Anaerobic fermentation giving off odor. . This phenomenon does assist purification but can also be very dangerous if not properly controlled.

Cl2 + H2O 2HCl + ½ O2 The pH has considerable role to play. algae etc.(c) Catalytic action: The main function of activated carbon is oxidation of water by free chlorine. Thus a clean water perform better for activated carbon filter. The de-chlorination properly is affected by any factor that interfaces between carbon and chlorine such as filterable impurities like flock. A grate care is taken to keep the bed active and unaffected. Absorption: This is the principle role of the activated carbon. .

. Installed after DM plant to absorb colloidal silica.MEMBRANE FILTERS Organic membranes have very fine pores. µUltra filtration¶ membranes have pores small enough to remove most kind of non reactive silica with a pressure across the membrane less than 5 bars. Reverse osmosis plant followed by DM plant can produce water of almost ultimate purity and is very economical in handling brackish salts or more than 500 ppm.

ION EXCHANGE RESINS ION Exchange resins are Synthetic polymers Most commonly used resins are gel type polystyrene resin. PLANT Dissolved solids present in water are removed in DM plant by ION exchange process and for this ION exchange resins are used.M.10% Divinyl Benzene. manufactured by polymerization of Vinyl Benzene (Styrene) and 8. .D.

DM Plant .

it behaves as cation exchange resin or anion exchange resin.2 mm size) optimum size 0.3 mm or 1. Depending upon the functional group attached to resin Matrix. Resin Beads are insoluble in water. Functional groups are then attached to each of the benzene rings to make it chemically active. . Smaller size would restrict the flow and higher size.Ion exchange resin are manufactured in bead form (0. retention time would not be sufficient for proper exchange.6 mm.

SAC can split all salts and its performance is not influenced by pH of water. Strong acid cation exchange resins (SAC) : When the functional group attached to resin matrix is strong acid group. . Operational exchange capacity and regeneration efficiency of SAC is less than WAC.CATION EXCHANGE RESIN Cation exchange resins are nothing but acid and can be represented as: R± H+. where R is resin matrix completely insoluble in water and only H+ is mobile in water. Cation exchange resins are of two types.

When pH < 4. actually regeneration takes place. WAC can only split weak electrolyte (carbonate and bicarbonate) only. It performs better with high pH water and with lower pH water its performance decreases.Weak Acid Cation Exchange Resin When the attached functional group is of weak acid. it is called WAC resin. Na2CO3 NaCl WAC H2CO3 NaCl SAC H2CO3 HCl Na2CO3 NaCl SAC H2CO3 HCl .

Anion Exchange Resins are of two types: Strong Base Anion Resins (SBA): Functional group is strong base. Weak Base Anion Resins (SBA): Functional group is weak base Perform better at low pH pH > 11 regeneration takes place .ANION EXCHANGE RESINS Anion exchange resins can be simply represented as R+± OH± and is nothing but an alkali / base. performance is not influenced by water pH & it exchanges with both strong & weak acid. OH± is only mobile in water.

CO32± SO42± Cl± SiO32± Ions .Operational capacity and regeneration efficiency of WBA is higher than SBA HCl H2CO3 Cation effluent WBA H2SiO3 HCl H 2O H2CO3 SBA SBA H 2O H2O H 2O H 2O Principle of Deionisation: In normal river water most common salts are present: Ca++ Mg++ Na+ & HCO3 ± .

all the cations are exchanged with H+ of cation exchange resins. The above water is then passed through anion exchanger. all anions are exchanged with OH± of SBA resins and equivalent amount of water is produced.5 and water becomes soft. R±±H+ + CaCl2 R±± Ca++ + R±± Ca++ + HCl H2CO3 R±±H+ + CaCO3 pH drops around 3. H+±Cl± + R+±OH± R± Cl + H+OH± (H2O) H+OH± (H2O) H2+CO32± + R+±OH± All the acids are converted to H2O R± CO3 + .If this water passes through a cation exchanger.

Selectivity of Ions Resins have a preferences for exchange and it depends on charge and size of the ion. Thus for cation: Ca++ > Mg++ > Na+ > H+ Similarly for anions: HSO4± > NO3± > Cl± > SiO32± . Triple charge is preferred to double and double is preferred to single charge. Charge being same preference is given to bigger size ions.

Ion exchange reactions are all reversible. Mg. Ca ions are retained in the 1st layer then Mg and in the last layer Na ions are retained. Na ions is passed through cation exchanger bed.Sodium Slip When water containing Ca. R±Na + HCl R±H + NaCl . The reaction in the bottom part of the bed is with sodium salt ( say NaCl) R±H + NaCl R±Na + HCl Now even at very low concentration of R±Na some back reaction produces NaCl.

acids are converted to water but sodium salts are converted to NaOH. Increased bed depth reduces this amount of slip but never be reduced to zero. R±OH R±OH + + NaCl HCl R±Cl R±Cl + + NaOH H 2O Effluent coming out of anion bed contains NaOH that increases the pH and conductivity of the anion effluent. The cation effluent containing some sodium when passes through anion exchanger.Effluent coming out from cation exchanger is not 100% acid but contain a little amount of Sodium salt. . Similarly silica-ship takes place.

SAC SBA MB Further. H2SO3 produced in SAC can be easily removed at low running cost in a Degasifier.Mixed Bed Units After passing water through cation and then through anion exchanger. it is passed through mixed bed unit ± resulting final effluent of very good quality water. SAC Degasser SBA MB .

. PLANT From filter water. Dosing calculated amount of sodium sulphate. different types of demineralization schemes are made.M. Depending upon the amount of water to be treated and quality of the filter water. chlorine is removed before allowing it to enter ion exchanger. which reduces chlorine to chloride ion. It may be done by: (a) (b) Passing through activated carbon filter which absorbs chlorine.D.

SAC WBA Degasser SBA MB WAC .B.Unit Cation Unit (SAC) (2) Where water requirement is more: WBA Degasser SBA MB Cation Unit (3) Where water contains more carbonate/ bicarbonate and requirement is more.(1) Simplest Arrangement: Degasser Anion Unit (SBA) M.

resin fines. Contact time is normally 30 min. fragments etc.Regeneration of Cation Exchanger: Regeneration of the cation exchanger is done when the sodium leakage increases to certain pre set value. (i) Backwash: Backwash is done by up flow of water with air scouring. (ii) Acid Injection: After backwash acid injection is required at specified concentration. Two types of acids are used (a) sulphuric acid (b) hydrochloric acid . The following steps are observed in regeneration. Purpose of backwash is to loose the bed and remove accumulated suspended solids. dirt.

If WAC exists in the stream then normally acid coming out of SAC unit as the time of its regeneration is passed through the WAC to regenerate it. This is therefore called regeneration.After acid injection the bed is rinsed with water. Weak Acid Cation Exchanger For regeneration of weak acid cation exchanger acid strength may be 0. Cubic ft. Volume used is 30-40 gall. . first at slower rate and then at higher rate.8 to 1%.

(ii) Injection of Caustic: 4% caustic at 4-8 Ibs/cubic ft. .ft. for 10 minutes. resin is injested for a contact time of about 1 hr. For better removal of silica particularly in WBA/SBA combination higher regenerant level more contact time and higher temperature of regenerant (50°C) may be needed.Anion Exchanger Resin¶s Regeneration The following steps are observed for regeneration of Anion Exchange Units: (i) Backwash: Backwashing is done to loose the bed and remove resin fines and fragments. Normal backwash rate is 2-4 g pm/sq.

Volume used is 40100 gal/cubic ft.(iii) Rinse: Slow rinse at 1 g pm/sq.ft. then fast rinse at 5 to 8 g pm/sq. for 1 to 1½ hour may be required to bring down the conductivity and silica to acceptable level. WBA: End point of WBA is detected by increase in the conductivity and lowering of pH. Therefore regeneration is done for WBA where SBA outlet caustic is injected to WBA with some modification to avoid silica precipitation in the WBA unit. .ft. The Regeneration of WBA need about 1%NaOH.

Regeneration of Anion Resin Bed: Regeneration of anion resin bed is done with 4% caustic at 12 lbs/cubic ft resins. (ii) Back Washing: Unit is filled with water and back washing is done at 4-9 g pm/sq. ft..02ppm. The following steps are observed at the time of regeneration. then the resin is allowed to settle for 10 minutes which separates the anion and cation resin.Regeneration of Mixed Bed MB is normally regenerated when the effluent conductivity is more than present value of silica is more than 0. (iii) . (i) Air Scrubbing: Water is drained to top of the resin bed and air scrubbing is done for 10 min.

(v) (vi) (vii) (viii) .(iv) Rinse of the Anion Resin Bed: For about an hour until effluent conductivity is below 10ms/cm. Regeneration of Cation Resin Bed: Regeneration of cation resin bed is done with 4% acid at a regeneration level 8-12lbs/cubic ft. Rinse of Cation Resin Bed: Till conductivity less than 10ms/cm (20 minutes) Mixing of the Resins: The water is drained down to the surface of the resin bed and mixing is done by air blowing for about 5 minutes then is allowed to settle. Final Rinse: After mixing the unit is refilled with water and put to final rinse till the effluent comes to the acceptable limit.

2 SiO2 : < 0.8 ± 7.Mixed Bed Outlet Water Quality Conductivity: 0. This CO2 can be removed in Degasser very cheaply.02 ppm DEGASSIFIER After the cation exchanger the effluent is acid and all the bicarbonate present in water is converted to CO2.2 ± 0. .3 micro S/cm pH : 6.

DM Water Storage .

DALTON¶S LAW: The total pressure exerted by a mixture of several gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of individual gas. According to Charle¶s law the partial pressure of each gas is determined by the amount of that gas in the mixture. X = P/H X = amount of gas dissolved in water. HENRY¶S LAW: The solubility of the gas in water is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas in contact with water. P = partial pressure of the gas in contact with water H = constant at that temperature .

When water reaches its saturation temperature all the uncombined gases are theoretically insoluble in it and may be removed. . Solubility of a gas may be decreased to effect more complete from water in several ways (i) (ii) (iii) By lowering the partial pressure by inserting another gas in contact with water. By decreasing the pressure. In case of removing CO2 from cation effluent principal is normally adopted. X = P/H P = Partial pressure of CO2 in atmosphere X = concentration of CO2 dissolved in water. By lowering the partial pressure by heating the water to boiling point corresponding to the pressure of the steam introduced.Solubility of the gases decreases as the temperature of the solvent is increased.

. During service. Regeneration is not 100% the bottom part of the bed contains more ions. During service when treated under leaves the bed it passes through the better regenerated bottom position and ion pick up is less. when the final treated water leaves the bed it passes through less regenerated portion of the bed and thus picks up more ions. Since like operation.COUNTER FLOW REGENERATION: In the conventional ion exchanger during service run. If regenerant is injected from bottom to top then the bottom portion of the bed will be better regenerated. water flows from top to bottom through the resin bed and the regeneration is done in the same direction. This gives a better quality of water and Regeneration level is low.

The requirements of CFR are as below: (1) The exchanger should have normal arrangement for down flow service. Resin must be free to shrink and swell during the cycle. . (2) (3) (4) Arrangement is to be made to hold the bed packed and immobile during up flow regeneration. Back washing is required time to time to regrade the bed and remove dirt & fines. For this 50 ± 100% free expansion space is to be provided.