1 1

Seminar Seminar
on on
Power QuaIity Improvements Power QuaIity Improvements
Using MuItipuIse Converters Using MuItipuIse Converters

Prof. Bhim Singh, Prof. Bhim Singh, Senior Member, IEEE Senior Member, IEEE
Department of Electrical Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering
Ìndian Ìnstitute of Technology Delhi Ìndian Ìnstitute of Technology Delhi
New Delhi New Delhi- -110016, Ìndia 110016, Ìndia

Multipulse Multipulse converters converters are are converters converters providing providing
more more than than six six pulses pulses of of DC DC voltage voltage per per cycle cycle from from
AC AC input input..
Or Or the the converter converter having having more more steps steps in in AC AC input input
current current than than that that of of six six pulse pulse bridge bridge rectifier rectifier supply supply
current current..
Bridge Bridge rectifier rectifier is is the the basic basic block block required required for for AC AC- -
DC DC conversion. conversion. however. however. full full- -wave wave and and half half- -wave wave
rectifiers rectifiers are are also also used used up up to to 120 120kW kW ratings ratings..
Phase Phase shifting shifting transformers transformers are are used used to to derive derive
multiple multiple phase phase supply supply from from three three- -phase phase AC AC mains mains
using using different different combinations combinations of of transformer transformer
windings windings such such as as star. star. delta. delta. zigzag. zigzag. fork. fork. polygon. polygon.
etc etc..
What are Multipulse AC-DC Converters?

Problems in AC Problems in AC- -DC Converters DC Converters
%e %e major major probIems probIems in in AC AC- -DC DC converters converters are are
injection injection of of armonics armonics at at input input and and output output ..
Harmonics Harmonics cause cause dieIectric, dieIectric, termaI termaI or or
voItage voItage stress, stress, wic wic cause cause premature premature ageing ageing
of of eIectricaI eIectricaI insuIation insuIation..
VoItage VoItage distortion distortion at at point point of of common common
coupIing coupIing takes takes pIace pIace due due to to te te voItage voItage drop drop
of of armonic armonic currents currents fIowing fIowing troug troug system system
impedances impedances..
Capacitor Capacitor bank bank overIoading overIoading due due to to system system
resonance resonance..

Problems in AC Problems in AC- -DC Converters DC Converters
Interference Interference on on teIepone teIepone and and
communication communication Iines Iines due due to to noise noise induced induced
from from te te power power conductors conductors..
Poor Poor power power factor factor..
Equipment Equipment damage damage from from voItage voItage spikes spikes
created created by by ig ig frequency frequency resonance resonance
resuIting resuIting from from notcing notcing..

Power Quality Standards in AC Power Quality Standards in AC- -DC DC
Converters Converters
ÌEEE Standard ÌEEE ÌEEE Standard ÌEEE- -19. 19.
established in 1981 as the "Recommended Practices and established in 1981 as the "Recommended Practices and
requirements for Harmonics Control in Electrical Power System¨ requirements for Harmonics Control in Electrical Power System¨
giving limits on current and voltage distortion and revised in giving limits on current and voltage distortion and revised in
199 199
ÌEC 61000 ÌEC 61000
The electric equipments have been categorized in four groups: The electric equipments have been categorized in four groups:
Class Class- - A, B, C and D, for the purpose of harmonic current A, B, C and D, for the purpose of harmonic current
limitation limitation..
ÌEEE ÌEEE- -11 11
ÌEEE ÌEEE- -11 (issued in 00 gives necessary guidelines for 11 (issued in 00 gives necessary guidelines for
specifications for the use of passive shunt harmonic filters in low specifications for the use of passive shunt harmonic filters in low
and medium voltage electric power systems and medium voltage electric power systems
6 6
Current Distortion Limits for General Distribution
Systems(120 V Through 69 000 V). IEEE-519 Std.
Maximum Harmonic current Distortion in Percent of I
L
Individual Harmonic order (Odd Harmonics)
I
SC
/ I
L
<11 11AhA17 17AhA23 23AhA35 35Ah TDD
<20` 4.0
2.0 1.5 0.6 0.3 5.0
20<50
7.0 3.5 2.5 1.0 0.5 8.0
50<100
10.0 4.5 4.0 1.5 0.7 12.0
100<1000
12.0 5.5 5.0 2.0 1.0 15.0
>1000
15.0 7.0 6.0 2.5 1.4 20.0
Even harmonics are limited to 25º of the odd harmonic limits above.
Current distortion that results in a dc offset. e.g.. half-wave converters. are not allowed
`All power generation equipment is limited to these values of current distortion.
Regardless of actual I
SC
/ I
L
Where.
I
sc
÷ maximum short-circuit current at PCC.
I
L
÷ maximum demand load current (fundamental frequency component) at PCC

Maximum Harmonic current Distortion in
Percent oI I
L

Individual Harmonic order (Odd Harmonics)
I
SC
/ I
L
·11
11AA17 17AA AA5 5A
TDD
· . 1. .75 . .15 .5
·5 .5 1.75 1.5 .5 .5 4.
5·1 5. .5 . .75 .5 6.
1·1 6. .75 .5 1. .5 7.5
~1 7.5 .5 . 1.5 .7 1.
Even armonics are limited to 5° oI te odd armonic limits above.
Current distortion tat results in a dc oIIset, e.g., alI-wave converters, are
not allowed
ll power generation equipment is limited to tese values oI current
distortion,
Regardless oI actual I
SC
/ I
L

Were,
I
sc
÷ maximum sort-circuit current at PCC.
I
L
÷ maximum demand load current (Iundamental Irequency component) at
PCC

Current Distortion Limits for General Subtransmission
Systems (69001 V through 161 000 V). IEEE-519 Std.
8 8
Limits for Class A equipment. IEC-61 Std.
Harmonic order
n
Maximum permissible armonic
Current
Odd armonics
.
5 1.14
7 .77
9 .4
11 .
1 .1
15·÷n·÷9 .15 15/n
Even Harmonics
1.
4 .4
6 .
·÷ n ·÷ 4 . /n

9 9
Advantages of Multi Advantages of Multi- -pulse AC pulse AC- -DC DC
Converters Converters
The The performance performance parameters parameters such such as as total total- -
harmonic harmonic- -distortion distortion (THD) (THD) of of AC AC mains mains
current current and and ripple ripple factor factor of of output output DC DC
voltage voltage improve. improve. simultaneously simultaneously..
The The improvement improvement is is independent independent of of supply supply
frequency frequency variation. variation. unlike unlike passive passive filters filters..
Minimal Minimal or or no no control control required required as as Diodes Diodes
and/or and/or thyristors thyristors are are mainly mainly used used..
Economic. Economic. maintenance maintenance free free and and efficient efficient..
10 10
Phase shifting transformers are used to derive
multiple phase supply from three-phase AC
mains using different combinations of
transformer windings such as star. delta.
zigzag. fork. polygon. etc.
11 11
Application Potential Application Potential
on on- -IsoIated UncontroIIed IsoIated UncontroIIed
Rectifiers Rectifiers ::
ront end of Switched mode ront end of Switched mode
powers like powers like- -SMPS, UPS, SMPS, UPS,
AC AC- -DC motor drives, dc DC motor drives, dc
servo drives. servo drives.
aircraft aircraft VSC VSC (Voltage (Voltage
source source controlled controlled
frequency frequency systems systems and and
aircraft aircraft maintenance maintenance
systems systems using using 60 60Hz/ Hz/00 00Hz Hz
converter converter systems systems..
IsoIated UncontroIIed IsoIated UncontroIIed
Rectifiers Rectifiers : :
Railways working on DC. Railways working on DC.
The welding equipment The welding equipment
working on high frequency working on high frequency
1 1
Application Potential Application Potential
on on- -IsoIated ControIIed IsoIated ControIIed
Rectifiers: Rectifiers:
DC motor drive system DC motor drive system
with regenerative with regenerative
capacity. capacity.
Some power supplies of Some power supplies of
large rating also use non large rating also use non- -
isolated dual converters isolated dual converters
IsoIated ControIIed IsoIated ControIIed
Rectifiers Rectifiers ::
HVDC systems. HVDC systems.
Battery energy storage Battery energy storage
systems. systems.
Adjustable speed Adjustable speed
synchronous motor drive synchronous motor drive
of large power ratings for of large power ratings for
applications such as applications such as
mining. mining.
Arc furnaces Arc furnaces
1 1

harmonic filters
Reactive
power
(closed loop
control
TS
CAD
licker (open
loop control
T1
high
voltage
bus
medium voltage bus
PLL

-
Reg
actuator
Ì
arc
V
arc
V
arc
-
+
V
arc
L
d
low voltage side
Reg AD
Ì
dc
current control of a thyristor bridge
TCR
TA
TB

(TFS ÷ Thyristor firing scheme; CAD ÷ Conduction Angle Determinator; FAD ÷ Firing Angle
Determinator; PLL ÷ phase Locked Loop
Typical power supply system of DC arc furnaces
1 1
v
b
v
c
v
a

+
-
Load
Ìnterphase transformer
Rectifier
transformer .
kV / 606 V,
.MVA
. kV Bus
00 V
A model of twelve pulse railway rectifier
system
1 1
Diode
Rectifier
Smoothing
Capacitor
Ìnverter
Rectifier
&
ilter
Arc
Load
Control
Circuits
Premier Stage Secondary Stage
00 V,
-phase
supply
Block schematic of welding inverter
power supply system
16 16
~ ~
~
~ ~
~
A
B
C
a
b
c
A'
B'
C'
N
N
L
c
L
c
L
c
Ì
d
Rectifier (or source side
converter
Ìnverter (or machine side
converter
+
-
-
+
v
d1
v
d
L
d
T

i
c
i
a
Motor
Ìnverter
Phase delay
and firing
circuit
DC supply
Motor
del
*
or del
'*
f
del
*
or del
'
Rotor position
and f
*
Rotor
position
sensor
ield
Load commutated
current source inverter
Ied syncronous motor
Brusless
DC motor
1 1
Six-Pulse Converter with Capacitor Filter
THD ÷62.3º
18 18
Six-Pulse Converter with Inductor-Capacitor Filter
THD ÷32.7º
19 19
PASSIVE WAVESHAPING
LOW COST
RUGGED STRUCTURE
LESS LOSSES
HIGH EFFICIENCY
LESSER RATING TRANSFORMER REQD IN
AUTOTRANSFORMER BASED TOPOLOGIES
0 0
MUL1IPULSLCONVLR1LRS MUL1IPULSLCONVLR1LRS
CLASSIFICATION OF MULTIPULSE AC-DC CONVERTERS
based on phase shift
Pulse Based Configurations
Twelve-Pulse Converters 0
0
and 30
0
Phase Shift
Twelve-Pulse Converters Based on +15
0
and -15
0
Phase Shift
Twenty-Four-Pulse Converters Based on 15
0
Phase Shift
Eighteen -Pulse Converters Based on +20
0
and -20
0
Phase Shift
Thirty-Pulse Converters Based on 12
0
Phase Shift
Phase Shift = 60 Phase Shift = 60
00
/ Number of Six / Number of Six- -Pulse Converters Pulse Converters
1 1
ull-
Wave
C-DC Converters wit
reduced armonics
Controlled
(Bi - directional)
multi-pulse
converters
Uncontrolled
(Uni-directional)
multi-pulse
converters
Non-Isolated
multi-pulse
converters
Non-Isolated
multi-pulse
converters
Isolated
multi-pulse
converters
Isolated
multi-pulse
converters
Bridge-
converter
ull-
Wave
Bridge-
converter
ull-
Wave
Bridge-
converter
ull-
Wave
Bridge-
converter
CLASSIFICATION OF MULTIPULSE AC-DC CONVERTERS

Non Non- -Ìsolated Multipulse AC Ìsolated Multipulse AC- -DC DC
Converters Converters

utotransformer Connection Based Configurations
Star Connected Autotransformer
Delta Connected Autotransformer
Polygon Connected Autotransformer
Delta-Polygon Connected Autotransformer
Hexagon Connected Autotransformer
T- Connected Autotransformer
Zigzag Autotransformer

MUL1IPHSL CONVLR1LRS
CLSSIIIC1ION OI MUL1I-PHSL C-DC CONVLR1LRS
Nine-Phase C-DC Converters
Iifteen-Phase C-DC Converters
Phase Number Based Configurations

CONVENTIONAL WYE DELTA TRANSFORMER
LARGE KVA RATING OF TRANSFORMER
MORE COST
DIFFICULT TO MAKE IDENTICAL WYE
AND DELTA WINDINGS
6 6

MODLLING ND DLSIGN OI MUL1IPULSL
C-DC CONVLR1LRS
1welve-Pulse Converters Based on +J5
0
and -J5
0
Phase Shift
Star Connected utotransformer
Va@ ~ K
1
V
a
- K
2
V
b
VaJ ~ K
1
V
a
- K
2
V
c
V
a
~V\0
0
. V
b
~V\-120
0
. V
c
~ V \ 120
0
V
a
@
~ V \-15
0
. V
b
@ ~ V\-105
0
.
V
c
@
~ V \135
0
V
a
@
~ 0.816 V
a
- 0.298 V
b
V
a
J
~ 0.816 V
a
- 0.298 V
c
V
b
'
V
a V
a
' V
a
¨
V
b
V
b
¨
V
c
'
V
c
V
c
¨
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0

1

8 8
3 Phase. 415V.50 Hz
i
sa
IGBT Based Inverter
A
B
C
C
d
-

a'
b'
c'
a''
b"
c"
Autotransformer
Z
s
Z
s
Z
s
V
b
'
V
a
V
a
¨
V
a
'
V
b
V
b
¨
V
c
'
V
c
V
c
¨
N
3
phase.VC
IMD

V
dc

6 Pulse Diode Bridge Rectifier
i
sb
i
sc
L
d
IPT
IPT
6 Pulse Diode Bridge Rectifier
9 9
AC MAINS CURRENT WAVEFORM AND ITS HARMONIC SPECTRUM
FULL LOAD
LIGHT LOAD (20º)
Magnetics Rating ÷ 36º
THD ÷ 9.89º
THD ÷ 15.22º
0 0
K1@ ~ 0.8 and K2@ ~ 0.2928.
RETROFIT ARRANGEMENT
V
a
J
~ 0.8 V
a
- 0.2928 V
c
V
a
@
~ 0.8 V
a
- 0.2928 V
b
Va@ ~ K
1
V
a
- K
2
V
b
VaJ ~ K
1
V
a
- K
2
V
c
1 1
uII Load uII Load Ligt Load Ligt Load

1welve-Pulse Converters Based on +0
0
and 30
0
Phase Shift
Delta Connected utotransformer
V
b
'
V
a
'
V
c
'
V
c
V
a
V
b
De.igv ot .vtotrav.torver
V
a
@
~V
a
- K
1
V
ca
- K
2
V
bc
V
a
~V\0
0
. V
b
~V\-120
0
. V
c
~ V\120
0
V
a
@
~ V \-30
0
. V
b
@
~ V\-90
0
. V
c
@
~ V \150
0
K
1
~0.0843
K
2
~ 0.229
V
a
@
~ V
a
- 0.0843 V
bc
- 0.229 V
ca

3
phase.VC
IMD
IGBT Based Inverter
A
B
C
3 Phase. 415V. 50 Hz

V
dc
Cd
-

-
a
b
c
a'
b`
c'
Autotransformer
Z
s
Zs
Zs
V
b
'
V
a
'
V
c
'
V
c
V
a
V
b
Ld
THD ÷ 9.51º
THD ÷ 15.66º
uII Load uII Load Ligt Load Ligt Load

Shortfalls in 12-Pulse Converters
High THD of ac mains current
Not within IEEE Standard 519 limits
Use of 18-pulse converters
THD of ac mains current well within IEEE
Standard limits
Near unity power factor operation

CONFIGURATIONS
6 6
V
b
'
V
a
V
a
¨
V
a
'
V
b
V
b
¨
V
c
'
V
c
V
c
¨
N
K
1
K

V
b
'
V
a V
a
'
V
a
¨
V
b
V
b
¨
V
c
'
V
c
V
c
¨
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1

V
a
@
~ K
1
V
a
- K
2
V
b
V
a
J
~ K
1
Va- K
2
Vc
V
a
~V\0
0
. V
b
~V\-120
0
. V
c
~ V \ 120
0
V
a
@
~ V \-20
0
. V
b
@ ~ V\-100
0
.
V
c
@
~ V \140
0
K
1
~0.¯421
K
2
~ 0.395
V
a
@
~ 0.¯421 V
a
- 0.395 V
b
V
a
J
~ 0.¯421 V
a
- 0.395 V
c

8 8
Magnetics Rating ÷ 41º
THD ÷ 2.71º
THD ÷ 4.19º
uII Load uII Load Ligt Load Ligt Load
9 9
V
b
'
V
a
'
V
c
'
V
c
V
a
V
b
V
a
¨
V
b
¨
V
c
¨

.

4

.

4
.177 .177

0
0
0
0
K1
K
V
bc
V
ab
V
ca
V
b
¨
V
a
¨ V
a
'
V
c
'
V
c
¨
V
b
'
V
c
V
b
V
a
V
a
@
~ V
a
- K
1
Vca - K
2
V
bc
V
a
J
~V
a
- K
1
V
ab
- K
2
V
bc
V
a
~V\0
0
. V
b
~V\-120
0
. V
c
~ V \ 120
0
V
a
@
~ V \-20
0
. V
b
@ ~ V\-100
0
. V
c
@
~ V \140
0
K
1
~ 0.0402
K
2
~ 0.1¯¯
V
a
@
~ V
a
- 0.0402 V
ca
- 0.1¯¯ V
bc
V
a
J
~V
a
- 0.0402V
ab
- 0.1¯¯ V
bc
0 0
IGBT Based Inverter
A
B
C
3 Phase. 460V. 60 Hz
6 Pulse Diode Bridge Rectifier
C
d
-
6 Pulse Diode Bridge Rectifier

a'
b'
c'
a''
b"
c"
Autotransformer
Z
s
Z
s
Z
s
a
b
c
3
phase.VC
IMD

V
dc

IPT
IPT
i
sa
i
sb
i
sc
L
d
V
b
'
V
a
'
V
c
'
V
a
V
b
V
a
¨
V
b
¨
V
c
¨
V
c
1 1
Magnetics Rating ÷ 22.55º
THD ÷ 4.17º
THD ÷ 5.56º
uII Load uII Load Ligt Load Ligt Load


CONFIGURATIONS

V
a1
~ K
1
V
a
\0
0
- K
2
V
b
\-120
0
V
a2
~ K
3
V
a
- K
4
V
b
\-120
0
V
a3
~ K
1
V
a
\0
0
- K
2
V
c
\120
0
V
a4
~ K
3
V
a
\0
0
- K
4
V
c
\120
0
V
a1
~ V \¯.5
0
. V
b1
~ V\-112.5
0
. V
c1
~ V\12¯.5
0
V
a2
~ V \22.5
0
. V
b2
~ V\-9¯.5
0
. V
c2
~ V\122.5
0
V
a3
~ V \-¯.5
0
. V
b3
~ V\-12¯.5
0
. V
c3
~ V\112.5
0
V
a4
~ V \-22.5
0
. V
b4
~ V\-142.5
0
. V
c4
~ V\9¯.5
0
'
a
'
b
'
a
'
a4
'
b
'
c
7.5

7.5

.5

.5

'
a1
'
b1
'
b
'
b4
'
c1
'
c
'
c
'
c4
'
a
K
1
~0.916. K
2
~ 0.15069.
K
3
~ 0.¯028 and K
4
~ 0.44189
'
b1
'
a
'
a1
'
b
'
c
N
'
a
'
a
'
a4
'
b
'
b
'
b4
'
c1 '
c
'
c
'
c4

1

4

'
a
'
a
.5

7.5

'

1

1
'

'

4

4
'
'
a
'
a
'
'
a
'
'
b
'
c
K
4
`
~ 0.4256
K
1
@
~0.882
4
K
2
@
~ 0.1451
K
3
`
~ 0.6¯¯
V
a1
`
~0.916V
a
\0
0
- 0.15069V
b
\-120
0
V
a2
`
~0.¯028V
a
\0
0
- 0.44189V
b
\-120
0
V
a3
`
~0.916V
a
\0
0
- 0.15069V
c
\120
0
V
a4
`
~0.¯028V
a
\0
0
- 0.44189V
c
\120
0
6 6
IGBT Based Inverter
A
B
C
3 Phase. 415V.
50 Hz AC Mains
6 Pulse Diode Bridge Rectifiers
C
d
-
+
Z
s
Z
s
Z
s
3
phase.V
CIMD
+
V
dc
IPT
i
sa
i
sb
i
sc
L
d
+
IPT
+
+
a
1
b
1
c
1
a

b

c

a

b

c

a
4
b
4
c
4
'
b1
'
a
'
a1
'
b
'
c
N
'
a
'
a
'
a4
'
b
'
b
'
b4
'
c1 '
c
'
c
'
c4
Autotransformer

THD ÷ 3.45º
THD ÷ 6.56º
uII Load uII Load Ligt Load Ligt Load
8 8
CURRLN1 INJLC1ION IN 1WLLVL-PULSL
C-DC CONVLR1LRS
9 9
3 Phase. 415V. 50 Hz
i
sa
IGBT Based Inverter
A
B
C
C
d

a'
b'
c'
a''
b"
c"
Autotransformer
Z
s
Z
s
Z
s
V
b
'
V
a
V
a
¨
V
a
'
V
b
V
b
¨
V
c
'
V
c
V
c
¨
N
3
phase.VC
IMD

V
dc

Inter Phase
Transformer
6 Pulse Diode Bridge Rectifier
i
sb
i
sc
ZSBT
D1
D
ZSBT
L
d
6 Pulse Diode Bridge Rectifier
'
d1 '
d
0 0
THD ÷ 3.83º
THD ÷ 5.25º
uII Load uII Load Ligt Load Ligt Load
1 1
Nine-Phase C-DC Converters
Delta Connected utotransformer
!ase s19 ~ 360
0
´ Number o1 ou95u9 5ases
'
a1
'
a
'
b
'
c
'
a
'
b1
'
b
'
c1
'
c

1

V
a1
~ V
a
- K
1
V
ca
- K
2
V
bc
V
a2
~V
a
- K
1
V
ab
- K
2
V
bc
V
a
~V\0
0
. V
b
~V\-120
0
. V
c
~ V\120
0
V
a1
~ V \40
0
. V
b1
~ V\-80
0
. V
c1
~ V\160
0
V
a2
~ V \-40
0
. V
b2
~ V\-160
0
. V
c2
~ V\80
0
K
1
~0.156 K
2
~ 0.293
V
a1
~ V
a
- 0.156V
ca
- 0.293 V
bc
V
a2
~ V
a
- 0.156V
ab
- 0.293V
bc
'
a

4

4

'
bc
'
ab
'
ca
'
a1
'
c
'
b
'
a
'
b1
'
b
'
c1
'
c
4

4

4

4
4

4

4

IGBT Based Inverter
A
B
C
3 Phase. 415V. 50 Hz
6 Pulse Diode Bridge Rectifiers
C
d
-
+
+
a
1
b
1
c
1
a
b

c

Autotransformer
Z
s
Z
s
Z
s
a
b
c
3
phase.VC
IMD
+
V
dc
+
IPT
IPT
i
sa
i
sb
i
sc
L
d
'
a1
'
a
'
b
'
c
'
a
'
b1
'
b
'
c1
'
c

THD ÷ 3.79º
THD ÷ 7.39º
uII Load uII Load Ligt Load Ligt Load

Iifteen-Phase C-DC Converters
Star Connected utotransformer
'
b1
'
a
'
a1
'
b
'
c
N
'
a
'
a
'
a4
'
b
'
b
'
b4
'
c1
'
c
'
c
'
c4

1

4
'
a
'
b
'
a
'
a4
'
b
'
c
'
a1
'
b1
'
b
'
b4
'
c1
'
c
'
c
'
c4
'
a

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0
V
a1
~ K
1
V
a
\0
0
- K
2
V
b
\-120
0
V
a2
~ K
3
V
a
\0
0
- K
4
V
b
\-120
0
V
a3
~ K
1
V
a
\0
0
- K
2
V
c
\120
0
V
a4
~ K
3
V
a
\0
0
- K
4
V
c
\120
0
V
a
~V\0
0
. V
b
~V\-120
0
. V
c
~ V\120
0
V
a1
~ V \24
0
. V
b1
~ V\-96
0
. V
c1
~ V\144
0
V
a2
~ V \48
0
. V
b2
~ V\-¯2
0
. V
c2
~ V\168
0
V
a3
~ V \-24
0
. V
b3
~ V\-144
0
. V
c3
~ V\96
0
V
a4
~ V \-48
0
. V
b4
~ V\-168
0
. V
c4
~ V\¯2
0

a
1
A
B
C
6 Pulse Diode Bridge Rectifiers
C
d
-
Z
s
Z
s
Z
s
+
V
dc
i
a
i
b
i
c
+
IPT
b
1
c
1
a

b

c

a

b

c

a
4
b
4
c
4
'
b1
'
a
'
a1
'
b
'
c
N
'
a
'
a
'
a4
'
b
'
b '
b4
'
c1
'
c
'
c
'
c4
utotransIormer
a
b
c
IPT
+
+
+
+
Load
i
i
1
i

i

i
4
i
5
6 6
Magnetics Rating ÷ 76º
THD ÷ 2.38º

%ree-Pase UnidirectionaI 12-PuIse Converter
v
a
v
b
v
c
i
a
i
b
i
c
L
a
L
b
L
c
a

c

a
1
c
1
b
1
o
15
b

o
15
utotransIormer

L
i1
L
i
v
dc
Load
i
dc

a
b
c
a

c

c
1
b
1
b

a
1
C
d
Extended Delta Connection Based 1 Extended Delta Connection Based 1- -Pulse C Pulse C- -
DC Converter DC Converter
8 8
%ree-Pase UnidirectionaI 18-PuIse Converter
o

o

utotransIormer
v
a
v
b
v
c
i
a
i
b
i
c
L
a
L
b
L
c
o

L
i1
v
dc
Load
i
dc

L
i
C
d
Extended Delta Connection Based Extended Delta Connection Based
1 1- -Pulse C Pulse C- -DC Converter DC Converter
9 9
Extended Delta Connection Based Extended Delta Connection Based
1 1- -Pulse C Pulse C- -DC Converter DC Converter
L
O
A
D
60 60
Harmonic Spectrum oI 1 Harmonic Spectrum oI 1- -pulse C pulse C- -DC DC
converter converter
61 61
A A six six- -puIse puIse diode diode- -bridge bridge fed fed vector vector- -controIIed controIIed
induction induction motor motor drive drive (VCIMD) (VCIMD) and and te te
controIIer controIIer..
6 6
Dynamic response oI 6-pulse diode rectiIier Ied 'CIMD wit load
perturbation--supply pase voltage '

, source current i
s
, motor currents
I
abc,
speed w
r
, developed electromagnetic torque T
e
and DC link voltage '
dc
.
6 6
Input current waveIorm and armonic spectrum oI
6-pulse C-DC converter at Iull-load.
6 6
Twelve-pulse C-DC converter based on Iork-transIormer
conIiguration.
6 6
Three-phase supply voltage applied to the input of autotransformer as

s c

s b

s a
1 ' ' , 1 ' ' , ' ' \ \ \
K1+ K1
Output voltages of this configuration are expressed as
b a 1 a1
' ' '
c a 1 a
' ' '

1
÷.165,

÷ .15,

÷ .9
66 66
Non Non- -Isolated Iork Isolated Iork- -connection based 4 connection based 4- -Pulse C Pulse C- -DC converter DC converter

IPR
-pase
C
Mains
~
~
~
i

L
O

D
¹
-
'
DC
i
DC
DB1
DB
DB
DB4
6 6

a
b
c
a
1
a

a

a
4
b
1
b

b
b
4 c
1
c

c

c
4

4

7

6

5
n
'

'
B
'
C
DB1
DB
DB
DB4

7
.
5
S
7
.
5
S
7.5S
7.5S
a
b c
n
a
1
7.5S
7.5S
15S
15S
1
5
S
1
5
S
15S
15S
a

a

a
4
b
1
b

b

b
4
c
1
c

c

c
4
Pasor representation oI transIormer Ior 4-
pulse C-DC converter aving Iork connected
windings.
Winding arrangement oI transIormer Ior
4-pulse C-DC converter aving Iork
connected windings.
68 68

s c1

s b1

s a1
17.5 ' ' , 5 . 97 ' ' , 5 . ' ' \ \ \

s c

s b

s a
.5 ' ' , 5 . 11 ' ' , 5 . 7 ' ' \ \ \

s c

s b

s a
47.5 ' ' , 5 . 17 ' ' , 5 . 7 ' ' \ \ \

s c4

s b4

s a4
6.5 ' ' , 5 . 14 ' ' , 5 . ' ' \ \ \
Te Iour sets oI required voltages Ior te
converters DB1 to DB4 are:
69 69
b 6 b 5 a 4 a1
' ' ' '
a 7 b 5 a 4 a
' ' ' '
15 - ' '
a a
H \
45 - ' '
a1 a4
H \

÷ 1 -
4

4
÷.79,
5
÷ .157,
6
÷ .91,
7
÷ .1,

÷.971
Te output voltages can be expressed as Iollows:
0 0
Matlab model oI 4-pulse C-DC converter wit 'CIMD load.
1 1

15
0ul13
11
0ul33
13
0ul12
12
0ul32
11
0ul11
10
0ul31
9
0ul23
8
0ul22
Z
0u l13
ê
0ul12
5
lr3
1
lr2
3
0ul21
2
0ul11
1
lr1 1÷
1
÷2
2
÷3
3
÷1
1
÷5
5
֐
ê
÷Z
Z
÷8
8
PrC

1
÷2
2
÷3
3
÷1
1
÷5
5
֐
ê
÷Z
Z
÷8
8
Pr8

1
÷2
2
÷3
3
÷1
1
÷5
5
֐
ê
÷Z
Z
÷8
8
PrA
Matlab model of auto-transformer for the 24-pulse AC-DC converter
system simulation.



-4
-

4
'

(
'
)


I
a
c
(

)

-5

5
I
a
b
c

(

)


1

Time(sec)
w
r
(
r
p
s
)

-5

5
1
15
T
e
(
N
-
m
)
.5 .1 .15 . .5 .

5
Time (sec.)
'
d
c

(
'
)
Dynamic response oI 4-pulse diode rectiIier Ied 'CIMD wit load
perturbation----- supply pase voltage '

, source current i
s
, motor currents I
abc
,
speed w
r
, developed electromagnetic torque T
e
and DC link voltage


.76 .77 .7 .79 .
-4
-

4
I

(

)
time (s)
1 4 6 4 6

4
6

1
THD ÷ .1°
°

M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
Harmonic order
Input current waveIorm and armonic spectrum
oI 4-pulse C-DC converter at Iull-load.

Topo Topo- -
logy logy
Load Load C Mains C Mains
Current I Current I
ac ac
() ()
° THD oI ° THD oI
I I
ac ac
at at
Distortion Distortion
actor actor
D D
Displacement Displacement
Power actor Power actor
DP DP
Power Power
actor actor
P P
DC 'oltage DC 'oltage
(') (')
Ligt Ligt ull ull Ligt Ligt ull ull Ligt Ligt ull ull Ligt Ligt ull ull Ligt Ligt ull ull Ligt Ligt ull ull
Load Load Load Load Load Load Load Load Load Load Load Load Load Load Load Load Load Load Load Load Load Load
66- -
pulse pulse
10.58 10.58 8.701 8.701 19.12 19.12 74.68 74.68 31.24 31.24 0.9110 0.9110 0.9491 0.9491 0.9798 0.9798 0.9768 0.9768 0.8926 0.8926 0.9271 0.9271 552.9 552.9 542.8 542.8
1 1- -
pulse pulse
5.224 5.224 8.578 8.578 18.87 18.87 9.697 9.697 8.98 8.98 .9946 .9946 .9946 .9946 0.9893 0.9893 0.9898 0.9898 0.9840 0.9840 0.9845 0.9845 555.7 555.7 549.4 549.4
4 4- -
pulse pulse
3.036 3.036 8.378 8.378 18.74 18.74 3.974 3.974 3.221 3.221 .999 .999 .9991 .9991 0.9931 0.9931 0.9891 0.9891 0.9921 0.9921 0.9882 0.9882 578.2 578.2 570.7 570.7
COMPRISON O POWER QULITY PRMETERS
O DIERENT C-DC CON'ERTERS.

Comparison oI power quality parameters oI
1-pulse and 4-pulse C-DC converters wit varying load
T
o
p
o
l
o
g
y
T
o
p
o
l
o
g
y
Load Load THD of THD of
VV
ac ac
(% (%
AC AC
Mains Mains
Curren Curren
t Ì t Ì
ac ac
(A (A
THD of THD of
ÌÌ
ac ac
(% (%
Distort Distort- -
ion ion
actor, actor,
D D
Displace Displace
ment ment
Power Power
actor, actor,
DP DP
Power Power
actor, actor,
P P
DC DC
Voltage Voltage
(V (V
Load Load
Curre Curre
nt Ì nt Ì
dc dc
(A (A
Ripple Ripple
actor actor
, R , R
(% (%
1

1

--
p
u
l
s
e
p
u
l
s
e
0% 0% .81 .81 8.8 8.8 9.69 9.69 0.996 0.996 0.989 0.989 0.980 0.980 . . 10.8 10.8 0.006 0.006
0% 0% .9 .9 11.0 11.0 9. 9. 0.998 0.998 0.989 0.989 0.986 0.986 . . 1.1 1.1 0.00 0.00
60% 60% .981 .981 1.8 1.8 9.6 9.6 0.998 0.998 0.9899 0.9899 0.988 0.988 .6 .6 16.8 16.8 0.00 0.00
80% 80% .6 .6 16. 16. 9.19 9.19 0.996 0.996 0.9900 0.9900 0.98 0.98 1.0 1.0 19.8 19.8 0.00 0.00
100% 100% . . 18.8 18.8 8.98 8.98 0.996 0.996 0.9898 0.9898 0.98 0.98 9. 9. . . 0.00 0.00

--
p
u
l
s
e
p
u
l
s
e
0% 0% .08 .08 8.8 8.8 .9 .9 0.9990 0.9990 0.991 0.991 0.991 0.991 8. 8. 10. 10.
0.000 0.000

0% 0% .86 .86 10. 10. .6 .6 0.9988 0.9988 0.99 0.99 0.9910 0.9910 6. 6. 1.1 1.1
0.000 0.000
1 1
60% 60% .0 .0 1.1 1.1 .6 .6 0.999 0.999 0.9910 0.9910 0.990 0.990 . . 16. 16. 0.00 0.00
80% 80% .8 .8 16.00 16.00 .6 .6 0.9990 0.9990 0.9901 0.9901 0.9891 0.9891 . . 19.66 19.66 0.00 0.00
100% 100% .06 .06 18. 18. .1 .1 0.9991 0.9991 0.9891 0.9891 0.988 0.988 0. 0. .0 .0 0.00 0.00
6 6
MTLB model oI te proposed autotransIormer
Ior 4-pulse C-DC converter
T
o
p
o
l
o
g
y
Load C Mains
Current I
ac
()
° THD oI
I
ac
at
Distortion
actor
D
Displacement
Power actor
DP
Power
actor
P
DC 'oltage
(')
Ligt ull Ligt ull Ligt ull Ligt ull Ligt ull Ligt ull
Load Load Load Load Load Load Load Load Load Load Load
6
-
p
u
l
s
e
1.5 .71 19.1 74.6 1.4 .911 .9491 .979 .976 .96 .971 55.9 54.
1

-
p
u
l
s
e
5.4 .57 1.7 9.697 .9 .9946 .9946 .99 .99 .94 .945 555.7 549.4

4
-
p
u
l
s
e
.6 .7 1.74 .974 .1 .999 .9991 .991 .991 .991 .9 57. 57.7

Input current waveIorm oI 1-pulse
C-DC converters at ligt load and
its armonic spectrum
8 8
Dynamic response oI 4-pulse diode rectiIier Ied 'CIMD wit load
perturbation--supply pase voltage '

, source current i
s
, motor
currents I
abc
, speed w
r
, developed electromagnetic
torque T
e
and DC link voltage.
9 9
Input current waveIorms oI 4 pulse C-DC converter at
Iull load and its armonic spectrum.
80 80
Comparison oI magnetic ratings in diIIerent
C-DC converters
Sr. Sr.
No. No.
Topology Topology Main Main
TransIormer TransIormer
rating rating
(° oI load) (° oI load)
Interpase Interpase
transIormer rating transIormer rating
(° oI load} (° oI load}
Total Total
magnetic rating magnetic rating
(° oI load) (° oI load)
1 1 1 1- -pulse pulse 8.68 8.68 .0 .0 6.18 6.18
- -pulse pulse 9. 9. .6 .6 6.6 6.6
81 81
POLYGON CONNECTED AUTOTRANSFORMER BASED
24-PULSE AC-DC CONVERTER

1

4
'
a
'
b
'
c
'
a1
'
a
'
a
'
a4
'
b1
'
b
'
b
'
b4
'
c1
'
c
'
c
'
c4

B C

1

4
N
E
'
a
'
b
'
a
'
a4
'
b
'
c
7.5

7.5

.5

.5

'
a1
'
b1
'
b
'
b4
'
c1
'
c
'
c
'
c4
'
a
8 8
V
a1
= V
a
- K
1
V
bc
K
2
V
ca
(1)
V
a2
= V
a1
- K
3
V
bc
K
4
V
ca
(2)
V
a3
= V
a
K
1
V
bc
- K
2
V
ab
(3)
V
a4
= V
a3
K
3
V
bc
- K
4
V
ab
(4)
Assume the following set of voltages:
V
a
=V\

, V
b
=V\-12

, V
c
= V\12

(5)
V
a1
= V \7.5

, V
b1
= V\-112.5

, V
c1
= V\127.5

(6)
V
a2
= V \22.5

, V
b2
= V\-97.5

, V
c2
= V\122.5

(7)
V
a3
= V \-7.5

, V
b3
= V\-127.5

, V
c3
= V\112.5

(8)
V
a4
= V \-22.5

, V
b4
= V\-142.5

, V
c4
= V\97.5

(9)
K
1
=.7249, K
2
= .576,
K
3
= .123 and K
4
= .459
DESIGN
8 8
K
1
cos 6

K
2
K
3
cos 6

K
4
K
1
cos 6

K2 K
3
cos 6

= 1 (1)
2K
2
2K
4
K
1
K
3
= 1 (11)
= .6987 (12)
V
a1
=V
a
- .71V
bc
.855V
ca
(13)
V
a2
=V
a3
- .123 V
bc
.459 V
ca
(14)
V
a3
=V
a
.71 V
bc
- .855 V
ab
(15)
V
a4
=V
a
.123 V
bc
- .459 V
ab
(16)
8 8
IGBT Based Inverter
A
B
C
3 Phase. 415V.
50 Hz
6 Pulse Diode Bridge Rectifiers
C
d
-
+
Autotransformer
Z
s
Z
s
Z
s
3 Phase.
VCIMD
+
V
dc
IPT
i
sa
i
sb
i
sc
L
d
+
IPT
+
+
a
1
b
1
c
1
a

b

c

a

b

c

a
4
b
4
c
4
'
a
'
b '
c

B C
8 8
'
a
'
b
'
a1
'
a
'
a
'
a4
'
b1
'
'
b
'
'
b
'
'
b4
'

1

4

1
'

'

4
'
7.5

7.5

.5

.5

7.5

'
.5

.5

K
1
`
÷ 0.0546
K
2
`
÷ 0.0347
K
3
`
÷0.1175
K
4
`
÷ 0.04314
N
`
÷ 0.6722
86 86
8 8
Dynamic response of 6-pulse diode rectifier fed VCIMD with
load perturbation.
88 88
89 89 namc res5onse o1 24-5ulse ac-dc con·er9er based 5ro5osed
armonc m9a9or 1ed V(IM 9 load 5er9urba9on.
90 90
Magnetics Rating ÷ 27.5º
91 91
Load Load
(º) (º)
THD (º) THD (º) CF CF
of I of I
s s
DF DF DPF DPF PF PF V V
dc dc
(V) (V)
I I
s s
V V
t t
20 20 5.22 5.22 1.76 1.76 1.43 1.43 .998 .998 .989 .989 .988 .988 557 557
40 40 4.65 4.65 1.90 1.90 1.43 1.43 .999 .999 .990 .990 .989 .989 553 553
60 60 4.41 4.41 2.31 2.31 1.43 1.43 .999 .999 .989 .989 .989 .989 551 551
80 80 4.05 4.05 2.51 2.51 1.44 1.44 .999 .999 .988 .988 .988 .988 547 547
100 100 3.20 3.20 2.73 2.73 1.44 1.44 .999 .999 .988 .988 .988 .988 546 546
9 9
Comparison oI power quality indices oI a 'CIMD Ied
Irom diIIerent converters
Sr Sr..
No No
Topo Topo
logy logy
THD THD
of of V V
s s
( (ºº)f )f
FL FL
Supply Current Supply Current
I I
s s
(A) (A)
Total Total
Harmonic Harmonic
Distortion of Distortion of
I I
s s
(º) (º)
Distortion Distortion
Factor Factor
Displacement Displacement
Factor Factor
Power Factor Power Factor DC Link DC Link
Voltage(V) Voltage(V)
Average Average
L L LL LL
( ( ° °) )
L L LL LL
( ( ° °) )
L L LL LL
( ( ° °) )
L L LL LL
( ( ° °) )
L L LL LL
( ( ° °) )
L L LL LL
( ( ° °) )
11.. A A 66..53 53 12 12..52 52 44..02 02 30 30..77 57 57..22 ..955 955 ..868 868 ..980 980 ..959 959 ..937 937 ..833 833 545 545 556 556
22.. BB 22..80 80 10 10..62 62 22..33 33 33..26 26 55..17 17 ..998 998 ..999 999 ..989 989 ..988 988 ..987 987 ..987 987 570 570 578 578
33.. C C 22..73 73 10 10..59 59 22..31 31 33..20 20 55..22 22 ..998 998 ..999 999 ..989 989 ..988 988 ..988 988 ..988 988 546 546 557 557
9 9
An Isolated Fork Connected
1ransformer Based 24-Pulse AC-
DC Converter
9 9
Six Six- -pulse pulse diode diode bridge bridge rectifiers rectifiers with with delta delta and and star star- -
connected connected transformers transformers supply supply are are commonly commonly used used..
6-pulse C-DC converter using delta/star transIormer.
9 9
i

1:a
~
~
~
- pase
C
Mains
6-pulse C-DC converter using
delta/star transIormer
Twelve-pulse C-DC
converter based on Iork-
transIormer conIiguration-
96 96
Twenty Iour-pulse C-DC converter based on
Iork-transIormer conIiguration-
9 9
Delta/fork transformer winding arrangement
for -pulse AC-DC converter.
98 98
Pasor representation oI transIormer Ior 4 Pasor representation oI transIormer Ior 4- -pulse pulse
C C- -DC converter aving Iork connected secondary DC converter aving Iork connected secondary
winding winding
99 99

s C

s B

s
1 ' ' , 1 ' ' , ' ' \ \ \
Tree-pase supply voltage applied to te primary oI transIormer as
Secondary phase voltages for the transformer with transformation ratio 'a' (a Va/VA
our sets of required voltages for the converters DB1 to DB are
C c B b a
' a ' , ' a ' , ' a '

s c1

s b1

s a1
17.5 ' ' , 5 . 97 ' ' , 5 . ' ' \ \ \

s c

s b

s a
.5 ' ' , 5 . 11 ' ' , 5 . 7 ' ' \ \ \

s c

s b

s a
47.5 ' ' , 5 . 17 ' ' , 5 . 7 ' ' \ \ \

s c4

s b4

s a4
6.5 ' ' , 5 . 14 ' ' , 5 . ' ' \ \ \
100 100
1÷.79, ÷ .157, ÷ .9116, 4÷ .115
b b a 1 a1
' ' ' '
a 4 b a 1 a
' ' ' '
15 - ' '
a a
H \
45 - ' '
a1 a4
H \ 45 - ' '
a1 a4
H \
45 - ' '
a1 a4
H \
k' rating ÷ .5 _ ('winding I winding)
TU÷ PDC/_ ('sec . Isec)
101 101
MTLB model oI te 4-pulse C-DC converter
;
÷
-
\|r2
;
÷
-
\|r1
l r1
l r2
l r3
0ul 11
0ul 21
0ul 12
0ul 13
0ul 22
0ul 23
0ul 31
0ul 11
0ul 32
0ul 12
0ul 33
0ul 13
Fo (|
21 -pu |se
l30-Xe (
T(arsl o(re (
LOAD
3cop e2
3cop e
1
2
LT3
1
2
LT2
1
2
LT1
1
2
LT
|
÷
-
l|r3
|
÷
-
l|r2
|
÷
-
l|r1
|
÷
-
l|r
A
8
C
÷
-
081
A
8
C
÷
-
083
A
8
C
÷
-
082
A
8
C
÷
-
081
N
A
8
C
3-Pr
; A
|A
|8
|C
10 10
MTLB model oI te proposed transIormer
Ior 4-pulse C-DC converter
1 5
0u l 1 3
1 1
0u l 3 3
1 3
0u l 1 2
1 2
0u l 3 2
1 1
0u l 1 1
1 0
0u l 3 1
9
0u l 2 3
8
0u l 2 2
Z
0u l 1 3
ê
0u l 1 2
5
l r 3
1
l r 2
3
0u l 2 1
2
0u l 1 1
1
l r 1

1
÷2
2
÷3
3
÷1
1
÷5
5
֐
ê
÷Z
Z
÷8
8
P r C

1
÷2
2
÷3
3
÷1
1
÷5
5
֐
ê
÷Z
Z
÷8
8
P r 8

1
÷2
2
÷3
3
÷1
1
÷5
5
֐
ê
÷Z
Z
÷8
8
P r A
10 10
Comparison oI power quality parameters oI
1-pulse and 4-pulse C-DC converters wit varying load
Topology Topology Load Load THD oI THD oI
' '
ac ac
(°) (°)
C Mains C Mains
Current I Current I
ac ac
() ()
THD oI THD oI
I I
ac ac
(°) (°)
Distortion Distortion
actor, D actor, D
Displacement Displacement
Power actor, Power actor,
DP DP
Power Power
actor, actor,
P P
DC DC
'oltage 'oltage
(') (')
Load Load
Current Current
I I
dc dc
() ()
Ripple Ripple
actor, actor,
R (°) R (°)
1 1- -Pulse Pulse
4° 4° .5 .5 11.1 11.1 1.7 1.7 .9945 .9945 .9915 .9915 .96 .96 97. 97. 6.47 6.47 1. 1.
6° 6° .656 .656 16.77 16.77 9.97 9.97 .994 .994 .995 .995 .95 .95 95.5 95.5 9.4 9.4 .95 .95
° ° .17 .17 .1 .1 9.66 9.66 .994 .994 .99 .99 .99 .99 9. 9. 5.1 5.1 .59 .59
1° 1° .679 .679 7.4 7.4 9.4 9.4 .995 .995 .976 .976 .97 .97 9.9 9.9 64.64 64.64 .7 .7
4 4- -Pulse Pulse
4° 4° 1.55 1.55 11.4 11.4 4.461 4.461 .999 .999 .9915 .9915 .994 .994 99. 99. 6.6 6.6 . .
6° 6° 1.9 1.9 16. 16. 4.54 4.54 .99 .99 .991 .991 .999 .999 97. 97. 9.7 9.7 .554 .554
° ° .65 .65 .1 .1 4.14 4.14 .999 .999 .995 .995 .9914 .9914 96. 96. 5.67 5.67 . .
1° 1° .71 .71 7.7 7.7 .74 .74 .997 .997 .99 .99 .991 .991 94. 94. 65.5 65.5 .447 .447
10 10
Comparison oI power quality parameters oI Comparison oI power quality parameters oI
te 1 te 1- -Pulse and 4 Pulse and 4- -Pulse C Pulse C- -DC converters DC converters
wit 6 wit 6- -Pulse C Pulse C- -DC Converter DC Converter
T
o
p
o
l
o
g
y
T
o
p
o
l
o
g
y
Load Load C Mains C Mains
Current I Current I
ac ac
() ()
° THD oI ° THD oI
I I
ac ac
at at
Distortion Distortion
actor D actor D
Displacement Displacement
Power actor Power actor
DP DP
Power Power
actor P actor P
DC 'oltage DC 'oltage
(') (')
Ligt Ligt
Load Load
ull ull
Load Load
Ligt Ligt
Load Load
ull ull
Load Load
Ligt Ligt
Load Load
ull ull
Load Load
Ligt Ligt
Load Load
ull ull
Load Load
Ligt Ligt
Load Load
ull ull
Load Load
Ligt Ligt
Load Load
ull ull
66
--
p
u
l
s
e
p
u
l
s
e
4.7 4.7 5.94 5.94 7.99 7.99 7.64 7.64 4.1 4.1 .96 .96 .971 .971 .994 .994 .975 .975 .95 .95 .947 .947 9.6 9.6
1

1

--
p
u
l
s
e
p
u
l
s
e
.679 .679 5.756 5.756 7.4 7.4 1.1 1.1 9.4 9.4 .99 .99 .995 .995 .99 .99 .97 .97 .94 .94 .9 .9 . . 9.9 9.9

4

4
--
p
u
l
s
e
p
u
l
s
e
.71 .71 5.777 5.777 7.7 7.7 4.7 4.7 .7 .7 .99 .99 .99 .99 .94 .94 .99 .99 .9 .9 .991 .991 . . 94. 94.
10 10
WaveIorms oI 6-pulse C-DC
converter at Iull-load.
Input current waveIorm oI 6-pulse
C-DC converter at Iull-load and
its armonic spectrum.
106 106
Input current waveIorm oI 1-pulse
C-DC converters at ligt load and
its armonic spectrum
WaveIorms oI 1-pulse C-DC
converter at Iull-load.
10 10
Input and output voltage and current
waveIorms oI 4-pulse C-DC
converter at Iull load.
Input current waveIorms oI 4 pulse
C-DC converter at Iull load
and its armonic spectrum.
108 108
Comparison oI magnetic ratings in
diIIerent C-DC converters
Sr. Sr.
No. No.
Topology Topology Main Main
TransIor TransIor
mer mer
rating rating
(° oI load) (° oI load)
Interpase Interpase
transIormer transIormer
rating rating
(° oI load} (° oI load}
Total Total
magnetic magnetic
rating rating
(° oI (° oI
load) load)
11 66- -pulse pulse 1.7 1.7 - - 1.7 1.7
1 1- -pulse pulse 1.7 1.7 . . 116.6 116.6
4 4- -pulse pulse 16.6 16.6 7.6 7.6 11.99 11.99
109 109
A 3ô-Pulse AC-DC Converter for
Line Current Harmonic Reduction
110 110
A 6-pulse AC-DC converter using
delta/star transformer
Proposed delta/fork transformer
based 6-pulse AC-DC converter.
111 111
Graphical representation of delta/polygon
transformer secondary for 6-pulse AC-
DC converter and phasor diagram.
Delta/fork transformer winding arrangement
for 6-pulse AC-DC converter.
11 11
H \ H \ H \
H \ H \ H \
H \ H \ H \
5 7 ' ' , 5 ' ' , 195 ' '
, 155 ' ' , 115 ' ' , 75 ' '
, 5 ' ' , 5 ' ' , 45 ' '
R B19 R B1 R B17
R B16 R B15 R B14
R B1 R B1 R B11
H \ H \ H \
H \ H \ H \
H \ H \ H \
5 ' ' , 5 4 ' ' , 5 ' '
, 165 ' ' , 15 ' ' , 5 ' '
, 45 ' ' , 5 ' ' , 5 ' '
R B9 R B R B7
R B6 R B5 R B4
R B R B R B1
)' ( ' '
sB 5 4 s 1 B11

' )' ( '
sB 4 s 1 B1

' ' ) ( '
sB 6 s 1 B1

sC 6 s 1 B
' ' ) ( '
' )' ( '
sC 4 s 1 B1

)' ( ' '
sC 5 4 s 1 B

.16 , 154 .
.66, .191, .6471, .9,
6 5
4 1


11 11
;
÷
-
\a o 2
;
÷
-
\a o 1
L 0A0
3co p e 2
3co p e 1
|
÷
-
l |r 3
|
÷
-
l |r 2
|
÷
-
l |r 1
|
÷
-
l |r
Corr1
Corr2
Corr3
l PR2
Corr1
Corr2
Corr3
l PR
C1
C2
C3
C1
C5

CZ
C8
C9
C10
C11
03
C1
C2
C3
C1
C5

CZ
C8
C9
C10
C11
01
l r1
l r2
l r3
0ul 1
0ul 2
0ul 3
0ul 1
0ul 5
0ul ê
0ul Z
0ul 8
0ul 9
0ul 81
0ul 82
0ul 83
0ul 81
0ul 85
0ul 8ê
0ul 8Z
0ul 88
0ul 89
Fo(|
3 êp u |se
Xe (
3 ê-p u |se Fo (| Xe (
N
A
8
C
3 -Pr 3o u (ce
MTLB model oI te 6-pulse C-DC converter
11 11
21
0ul89
20
0ul88
19
0ul8Z
18
0ul8ê
1Z
0ul85

0ul81
15
0ul83
11
0ul82
13
0ul81
12
0ul9
11
0ul8
10
0ulZ
9
0ulê
8
0ul5
Z
0ul1
ê
0ul3
5
0ul2
1
0ul1
3
lr3
2
lr2
1
lr1

1

2

3

1

5
ê÷
ê

Z
÷8
8
÷9
9
÷10
10
÷11
11
PrC

1

2

3

1

5
ê÷
ê

Z
÷8
8
÷9
9
÷10
10
÷11
11
Pr8

1

2

3

1

5
ê÷
ê

Z
÷8
8
÷9
9
÷10
10
÷11
11
PrA
MTLB model oI te proposed transIormer
Ior 6-pulse C-DC converter
11 11
Load Load THD THD
VV
ac ac
(% (%
AC AC
Mains Mains
Current Current
ÌÌ
ac ac
(A (A
THD of THD of
ÌÌ
ac ac
(% (%
Distortion Distortion
actor, actor,
D D
Displace Displace
- -ment ment
actor, actor,
DP DP
Power Power
actor, actor,
P P
DC DC
Voltage Voltage
(V (V
Load Load
Current Current
ÌÌ
dc dc
(A (A
Ripple Ripple
actor (% actor (%
0% 0% 0.1 0.1 .8 .8 .01 .01 0.999 0.999 0.998 0.998 0.999 0.999 0.9 0.9 1.6 1.6 0. 0.
0% 0% 1.0 1.0 11.6 11.6 .169 .169
0.999 0.999
0.99 0.99 0.9969 0.9969 01.8 01.8 6.8 6.8 0.9 0.9
0% 0% 1.1 1.1 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8
0.9998 0.9998
0.996 0.996 0.996 0.996 01. 01. .8 .8 0. 0.
60% 60% 1.19 1.19 1.09 1.09 1.60 1.60
0.9998 0.9998
0.996 0.996 0.9960 0.9960 00.8 00.8 0.10 0.10 0. 0.
80% 80% 1.10 1.10 .68 .68 1.1 1.1
0.9999 0.9999
0.991 0.991 0.990 0.990 99.6 99.6 . . 0.1 0.1
100 100
% %
1.1 1.1 8.1 8.1 1.19 1.19 0.9998 0.9998 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 98. 98. 66.0 66.0 0.61 0.61
Comparison oI power quality parameters oI proposed
6-pulse C-DC converters wit varying load
116 116
Comparison oI power quality parameters oI Comparison oI power quality parameters oI
te 6 te 6- -Pulse C Pulse C- -DC converters Wit 6 DC converters Wit 6- -Pulse Pulse
C C- -DC Converter at Iull DC Converter at Iull- -load and ligt load load and ligt load
Topolog Topolog
yy
%THD %THD
VV
ac ac
% THD of % THD of
ÌÌ
ac ac
, at , at
Distortion Distortion
actor actor
Displaceme Displaceme
nt actor nt actor
Power Power
actor actor
DC Voltage DC Voltage
(V (V
ull ull
Load Load
Light Light
Load Load
ull ull
Load Load
Light Light
Load Load
ull ull
Load Load
Light Light
Load Load
ull ull
Load Load
Light Light
Load Load
ull ull
Load Load
Light Light
Load Load
6 6- -puIse puIse .06 .06 .81 .81 .9 .9 .981 .981 .99 .99 .9698 .9698 .960 .960 .919 .919 .9 .9 9. 9. 9. 9.
36 36- -puIse puIse 1.1 1.1 1.19 1.19 .01 .01 .9998 .9998 .999 .999 .9 .9 .998 .998 .99 .99 .999 .999 98. 98. 0.9 0.9
11 11
The instantaneous values of
input phase voltage (v
A
,
input AC mains current (i
A
,
primary winding currents (i
AB
and i
CA
, winding-currents of
secondary (i
K1
to i
K6
, a bridge
output current (i
dc1
of 6-
pulse AC-DC converter.
118 118
Input current waveIorm oI 6-pulse
C-DC converter at ligt-load and
its armonic spectrum
Input current waveIorm oI 6-pulse
C-DC converter at Iull-load and
its armonic spectrum
Ìnput and output voltage and current waveforms
of 6-pulse AC-DC converter at light load
Ìnput current waveform of 6-pulse AC-DC
converters at light load and its harmonic spectrum
119 119
Ìnput and output voltage and current
waveforms of 6-pulse AC-DC
converter at full load.
Ìnput current waveforms of 6 pulse AC-DC
converter at full load and its harmonic spectrum.
10 10
Test result showing input power, voltage
along with current waveforms and input
current harmonic spectrum at
(a light load and (b full-load.
11 11
Sr. Sr.
No. No.
Topology Topology Main Transformer Main Transformer
rating rating
(% of load (% of load
ÌPT ÌPT
rating rating
(% of (% of
load load
Total Total
rating of rating of
magnetics magnetics
,,
(% of load (% of load
1 1 6 6- -pulse pulse 108.0 108.0 - - 108.0 108.0
6 6- -
pulse pulse
1. 1. 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.0
Comparison oI magnetic ratings in
diIIerent C-DC converters
1 1
Load Load
(kW (kW
THD V THD V
ac ac
(% (%
AC Mains AC Mains
Current Current
ÌÌ
ac ac
(A (A
THD of THD of
ÌÌ
ac ac
(% (%
DP DP P P VV
dc dc
(V (V
ÌÌ
dc dc
(A (A
1.1 1.1 1.0 1.0 .0 .0 . . 1.0 1.0 0.999 0.999 168.6 168.6 .6 .6
.16 .16 1.0 1.0 .8 .8 . . 1.0 1.0 0.999 0.999 160.9 160.9 1.86 1.86
.08 .08 1.0 1.0 .9 .9 . . 1.0 1.0 0.999 0.999 11. 11. 18.0 18.0
.09 .09 1.0 1.0 10.8 10.8 .1 .1 1.0 1.0 0.998 0.998 1. 1. .1 .1
.9 .9 1.0 1.0 1.9 1.9 .1 .1 1.0 1.0 0.996 0.996 1. 1. 1.09 1.09
6.0 6.0 1.0 1.0 1. 1. .0 .0 1.0 1.0 0.996 0.996 1.8 1.8 . .
Test results sowing power quality parameters oI
6-pulse C-DC converter
1 1
The propose 36-pulse AC-DC converter is realized
by three 2.2kVA. single-phase transformers and the
design details are as follows:
lux Density: .Tesla, Current Density: ./mm,
Turns per volt: .
E-Laminations: Lengt÷.5cm, Widt÷16cm
I-Laminations: Lengt÷.5cm, Widt÷ 4cm
EIIective rea oI
cross-section oI core÷5cm (7.6 cm X .6cm)
1 1
TransIormer winding details
WindingNumber oI turns Gauge oI wire (SWG)
Winding Winding
voltage voltage
No. of No. of
Turns Turns
Gauge of Wire Gauge of Wire
(SWG (SWG
VV
AC AC
6 6 1 1
KK
1 1
*V *V
R R
1 1 1 1
KK

*V *V
R R
68 68 1 1
KK

* V * V
R R
0 0 1 1
KK

*V *V
R R
69. 69. 1 1
KK

* V * V
R R
16 16 1 1
KK
6 6
* V * V
R R
10. 10. 1 1
1 1
TT- -Connected Isolated TransIormer Connected Isolated TransIormer
Based C Based C- -DC Converter DC Converter
16 16
A A Six Six- -Pulse Pulse TT- -Connected Connected AC AC- -DC DC Converter Converter
1 1
WaveIorms oI 6-pulse C-DC converter at Iull-load.
18 18
Input current waveIorm and armonic spectrum oI
6-pulse C-DC converter at Iull-load.
.5 .6 .7 .
-45

45
I

(

)
time (s)
1 4 6 4

4
6

1
THD ÷ .9°
°

M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
Harmonic Order
19 19
Twelve-pulse C-DC converter based on T-transIormer
conIiguration.
10 10
Connection diagram oI T Connection diagram oI T- -connected transIormer Ior isolated connected transIormer Ior isolated
4 4- -pulse C pulse C- -DC converter. DC converter.
11 11
Winding arrangement and pasor representation oI transIormer Ior
1 and 4-pulse C-DC converter aving T-connected windings.
1 1
Design of Transformer for 12-Pulse and 24-Pulse AC-DC
Converters
Te voltages across primary winding oI te T-connected transIormers
'TP1÷ .66 'LP
'MP1÷ 'MP÷.5 'LP
Te secondary voltage produced is related to primary voltage by te transIormation
ratio.
a

÷ 'LP / 'LS
Te secondary produces two sets oI tree-pase voltages tat are displaced Irom
respective primary voltages by ¹15° and -15°. Te various winding voltages in terms
oI secondary voltage 'LS can be determined Irom ig. by Iollowing relations.
'TS1÷ 1'LS
'TS÷ 'LS
'TS÷ 'TS÷ 'LS
'TS5÷ 'TS6÷ 4'LS
'MS1÷ 'MS÷ 5'LS
'MS÷ 'MS÷ 6'LS
'MS4÷ 'MS7÷ 7'LS
'MS5÷ 'MS6÷ 'LS
1 1
Te values oI constants 1 to are:
1÷.5577, ÷.7, ÷.19, 4÷.1196,
5÷.1494, 6÷.577, 7÷.917, ÷.4
1 1
MTLB model oI T-transIormer based
4-pulse C-DC converter
1 1
Matlab model of T-transformer for the 24-pulse
AC-DC converter system simulation.
16 16
WaveIorms oI 1-pulse T-connected C-DC converter at Iull-load - supply
pase voltage '

, supply line currents I

, I
B
and I
C
, output DC link current (I
DC
)
and voltage ('
DC
).
1 1
Input current waveIorm and armonic spectrum
oI 1-pulse T-connected C-DC converter at Iull-load.
.4 .5 .6 .7 .
-5

5
I

(

)
time (s)
1 4 6 4

4
6

1
THD ÷ 6.14°
°

M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
Harmonic Order
18 18
WaveIorms oI 4-pulse T-connected C-DC converter at Iull-load - supply
pase voltage '

, supply line currents I

, I
B
and I
C
, output DC link current (I
DC
)
and voltage ('
DC
)
19 19
.5 .6 .7
-5

5
I

(

)
time (s)
1 4 6 4

4
6

1
THD ÷ .57°
°

M
a
g
n
i
t
u
d
e
Harmonic Order
Input current waveIorm and armonic spectrum
oI 4-pulse T-connected C-DC converter at Iull-load.
10 10
Comparison oI Power Quality Parameters
oI 1-Pulse and 4-Pulse C-DC Converters.
T
o
p
o
l
o
g
y
T
o
p
o
l
o
g
y
Load Load THD THD
of of VV
AC AC
( (% %
AC AC
Curren Curren
tt ÌÌ
AA
(A (A
THD THD of of
ÌÌ
AA
( (% %
Distortio Distortio
n actor, n actor,
D D
Displace Displace- -
ment ment
actor, actor,
DP DP
Power Power
actor actor
P P
DC DC
Voltag Voltag
e (V e (V
Load Load
Current Current
ÌÌ
dc dc
(A (A
Ripple Ripple
actor % actor %
1

1

--
P
u
l
s
e
P
u
l
s
e
0 0 0.81 0.81 8.80 8.80 9.6 9.6 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.980 0.980 00. 00. 0.09 0.09 1.9 1.9
0 0 1.81 1.81 1.0 1.0 .61 .61 0.991 0.991 0.99 0.99 0.901 0.901 98. 98. 0.16 0.16 1.8 1.8
0 0 1.681 1.681 1.19 1.19 .00 .00 0.991 0.991 0.968 0.968 0.96 0.96 9.0 9.0 9.88 9.88 1.9 1.9
60 60 1.91 1.91 . . 6.99 6.99 0.99 0.99 0.90 0.90 0.969 0.969 96. 96. 9. 9. 1.696 1.696
80 80 .0 .0 .8 .8 6.8 6.8 0.99 0.99 0.91 0.91 0.909 0.909 96. 96. 9. 9. 1. 1.
100 100 .80 .80 1.8 1.8 6.1 6.1 0.99 0.99 0.98 0.98 0.916 0.916 9.8 9.8 98.8 98.8 1. 1.

--
P
u
l
s
e
P
u
l
s
e
0 0 1.0 1.0 8.8 8.8 .69 .69 0.998 0.998 0.9980 0.9980 0.996 0.996 01. 01. 0.10 0.10 0.06 0.06
0 0 1.60 1.60 16.99 16.99 .9 .9
0.9988 0.9988
0.9969 0.9969 0.99 0.99 00. 00.
0.0 0.0
0. 0.
0 0 1.8 1.8 1.1 1.1 . . 0.9989 0.9989 0.996 0.996 0.99 0.99 99.9 99.9 9.98 9.98 0.68 0.68
60 60 .0 .0 . . .18 .18 0.9989 0.9989 0.9961 0.9961 0.990 0.990 99. 99. 9.8 9.8 0.80 0.80
80 80 . . . . .81 .81 0.9990 0.9990 0.99 0.99 0.99 0.99 98. 98. 9. 9. 0.986 0.986
100 100 .8 .8 1. 1. .0 .0 0.9991 0.9991 0.99 0.99 0.996 0.996 9. 9. 99.09 99.09 1.190 1.190
11 11
Comparison oI power quality parameters oI
1-pulse and 4-pulse C-DC converters wit varying load
T
o
p
o
l
o
g
y
T
o
p
o
l
o
g
y
° °
THD THD
oI oI
' '
ac ac
C Mains C Mains
Current I Current I
aa
() ()
° THD oI ° THD oI
I I
aa
Distortion Distortion
actor actor
Displacement Displacement
actor actor
Power Power
actor actor
DC 'oltage DC 'oltage
(') (')
Ligt Ligt
Load Load
ull ull
Load Load
Ligt Ligt
Load Load
ull ull
Load Load
Ligt Ligt
Load Load
ull ull
Load Load
Ligt Ligt
Load Load
ull ull
Load Load
Ligt Ligt
Load Load
ull ull
Load Load
Ligt Ligt
Load Load
ull ull
Load Load
66
--
p
u
l
s
e
p
u
l
s
e
4.4 4.4 .99 .99 4.7 4.7 7.56 7.56 .9 .9 .964 .964 .9716 .9716 .9945 .9945 .9777 .9777 .957 .957 .9499 .9499 .7 .7 9.7 9.7
1

1

--
p
u
l
s
e
p
u
l
s
e
.4 .4 . . 41.5 41.5 9.6 9.6 6.14 6.14 .995 .995 .9977 .9977 .95 .95 .97 .97 .97 .97 .9716 .9716 . . 95. 95.

4

4
--
p
u
l
s
e
p
u
l
s
e
.5 .5 .5 .5 41.77 41.77 5.469 5.469 .57 .57 .995 .995 .9991 .9991 .99 .99 .9945 .9945 .9965 .9965 .996 .996 1.5 1.5 97. 97.
1 1
Converter SpeciIications
C Supply: 415', 5Hz.
Source impedance: Z
s
÷ i.17 oms (÷°)
DC Load: ', kW, L
dc
÷1mH
TransIormation ratio oI transIormers:
6-pulse C-DC Converter: 1: .51
1-pulse C-DC Converter: 1: .5
4-pulse C-DC Converter: 1:.5
1 1
1. Power quality is improved signiIicantly by
employing te proposed T-connected isolation
transIormer based 4-pulse C-DC converter.
. Te input line current as rd and 5t armonics
as te dominant armonics in 4-pulse C-DC
converter.
. Total armonic distortion oI input current remains
below ° and power Iactor remains above .99 at
varying loads.
4. It meets te requirements oI IEEE-519 standard.
5. Only two single-pase transIormers are used.
1 1
Multipulse ull Wave AC Multipulse ull Wave AC- -DC DC
Converters Converters
1 1
Star Connected Multipulse Star Connected Multipulse
ull Wave 6 ull Wave 6- -Pulse AC Pulse AC- -DC DC
Converter Converter
16 16
Star Connected Multipulse Star Connected Multipulse
ull Wave 1 ull Wave 1- -Pulse AC Pulse AC- -DC DC
Converter Converter
1 1
Star Connected Multipulse Star Connected Multipulse
ull Wave 18 ull Wave 18- -Pulse AC Pulse AC- -DC DC
Converter Converter
18 18
Star Connected Multipulse Star Connected Multipulse
ull Wave ull Wave - -Pulse AC Pulse AC- -DC DC
Converters Converters
19 19
Multipulse Controlled C Multipulse Controlled C- -DC DC
Converters Converters
10 10
A 8 A 8- -pulse controlled AC pulse controlled AC- -DC converter derived DC converter derived
from six from six- -pulse converter by pulse multiplication pulse converter by pulse multiplication
%ree-Pase 24-PuIse BidirectionaI Mid Point Reactor Converter.
v
a
v
b
v
c
i
a
i
b
i
c
v
dc
Load
i
dc
C
p
C
q
TransIormer
TransIormer
11 11
Pulse multiplication in series connected isolated Pulse multiplication in series connected isolated
AC AC- -DC converter using auxiliary circuit DC converter using auxiliary circuit
%ree-Pase UnidirectionaI 24-PuIse Converter
T
r
v
dc
Load
i
dc

v
a
v
b
v
c
i
a
i
b
i
c
L
a
L
b
L
c
TransIormer

T
r
!
C
p
C
q
1 1
Pulse Multiplication in parallel connected bridges using Pulse Multiplication in parallel connected bridges using
DC ripple reiniection Tecnique DC ripple reiniection Tecnique
%ree-Pase 48-PuIse BidirectionaI Converter
v
dc
Load

v
a
v
b
v
c
i
a
i
b
i
c
TransIormer

L
d
o

o

i
dc
1 1

L
O
A
D
L
v1
v
Ì
0
-phase
supply
Pulse multiplication in 12-pulse controlled
rectifier using multi-tap interphase reactor
1 1
N
o
N
K
v
SK
v
K
T
K
T
m
a
V
M
N
o
N
m
v
SK
v
m
T
K
T
m
a
V
M
V
y1
.
V
y
.
V
y1
.
V
x
.
V

.
V
1
.
V
z
.
V
z1
.
V
zn
.
q
q
-
0
0
/n
/n
/n
V
M
.
q
-
V
yn
.
V
y(n-1
.
V
yn
.
V
y1
.
V
x
.
V

.
V
1
.
V
z1
.
V
zn
.
q
q
-
0
0
/n
/n
/n
V
y(n-1
.
V
z(n-1
.
V
M
.
q
0
0
Tapped
IPT
1 1
3| ru|al| or lo( | so|aled 12x3-Pu|se
Corl(o||ed ope(al| or
Corl| ruous
;
÷
-
\| r3
;
÷
-
\| r2
;
÷
-
\| r1
;
÷
-
\| r
d
A
8
C
÷
-
ur| ;2
d
A
8
C
÷
-
ur| ;1
C orr1
C orr3
C orr2
3uosvsl er 1
3l ep2
A
8
C
a2
o2
c 2
a3
o3
c 3
3l a(0e| T (
C orr3
C orr1
C orr2
C orr1
3(c&3(cX
3cope 2
3cope 1
RL3
RLl 3
RLl 2
|
÷
-
l | r1
|
÷
-
l | r
-K-
0a| r
a| pra
F| (| rdArd| e
0
Corslarl
c 1
2
8(ea|e(
a|pra_ded
A
8
C
8|oc |
P
P0
12p| s0er
Matlab model for pulse multiplication in 12-pulse
controlled rectifier using multi-tap interphase reactor
16 16
.5 .1 .15 .
-
-1

1

Time (s)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
(

)
,

'
o
l
t
a
g
e
/

5
(
v
o
l
t
s
)
0. 15 0. 1ê 0. 1Z 0. 18
-10
-5
0
5
10
T|re |s )
FFT W|rdoW: 2 ol 9. 209 c v c |es ol s e|ec l ed s |dra|
0 20 10 ê0
0
0. 05
0. 1
0. 15
0. 2
0. 25
la(ror|c o(de(
Furdarerl a| |50lz ) = 9. 211 . Tl0= 3. 9Zº
V
a
d
Simulation resultsfor pulse multiplication in 12-pulse
controlled rectifier using multi-tap interphase reactor
1 1

L
O
A
D
T
m
T
pq
C
p
C
q
Ì
0
Pulse multiplication in 12-pulse rectifier with
series connected bridges for high voltage
applications
18 18
Controlled Multi Controlled Multi- -pulse (1 pulse pulse (1 pulse
19 19
Controlled Multi Controlled Multi- -pulse (1 pulse pulse (1 pulse
160 160
Controlled Multi Controlled Multi- -pulse (1 pulse pulse (1 pulse
161 161
Controlled Multi Controlled Multi- -pulse (1 pulse pulse (1 pulse
Control Circuit Control Circuit
16 16
Controlled Multi Controlled Multi- -pulse (1 pulse pulse (1 pulse
Analysis Analysis
16 16
Controlled Multi Controlled Multi- -pulse (1 pulse pulse (1 pulse
Simulated Waveforms Simulated Waveforms
16 16
Controlled Multi Controlled Multi- -pulse (1 pulse pulse (1 pulse
Simulated Waveforms Simulated Waveforms
16 16
Controlled Multi Controlled Multi- -pulse (1 pulse pulse (1 pulse
Experimental waveforms Experimental waveforms
166 166
Controlled Multi Controlled Multi- -pulse pulse
HVDC Application HVDC Application
16 16
Controlled Multi Controlled Multi- -pulse pulse
HVDC Application HVDC Application
168 168
Controlled Multi Controlled Multi- -pulse pulse
HVDC Application HVDC Application
169 169
Controlled Multi Controlled Multi- -pulse pulse
HVDC Application HVDC Application
inverter mode of inverter mode of
opeartion opeartion
10 10
Controlled Multi Controlled Multi- -pulse HVDC Application pulse HVDC Application
Control Control
11 11
Controlled Multi Controlled Multi- -pulse (6 pulse pulse (6 pulse
1 1
Controlled Multi Controlled Multi- -pulse (6 pulse pulse (6 pulse
1 1
Controlled Controlled
Multi Multi- -pulse pulse
(6 pulse (6 pulse
1 1
Controlled Multi Controlled Multi- -pulse (6 pulse pulse (6 pulse
conventional method conventional method
1 1
Controlled Multi Controlled Multi- -pulse (6 pulse pulse (6 pulse
modified method modified method
16 16
Selection Criterion oI Multipulse C Selection Criterion oI Multipulse C- -DC DC
Converters Converters
Number oI pases in C mains Number oI pases in C mains
Required level oI power quality in input (permitted P, C, Required level oI power quality in input (permitted P, C,
THD) THD)
Type oI output DC voltage (constant, variable, etc.) Type oI output DC voltage (constant, variable, etc.)
Power Power- -Ilow (unidirectional and bi Ilow (unidirectional and bi- -directional) directional)
Number oI quadrants (one, two or Iour) Number oI quadrants (one, two or Iour)
Nature oI DC output (isolated, non Nature oI DC output (isolated, non- -isolated) isolated)
Requirement oI DC output (Controlled and Uncontrolled) Requirement oI DC output (Controlled and Uncontrolled)
Required level oI power quality in DC output (voltage ripple, Required level oI power quality in DC output (voltage ripple,
voltage regulation) voltage regulation)
Type oI DC loads (linear, nonlinear, etc.) Type oI DC loads (linear, nonlinear, etc.)
1 1
Selection Criterion oI Multipulse C Selection Criterion oI Multipulse C- -DC DC
Converters Converters
Cost Cost
Size Size
Weigt Weigt
EIIiciency EIIiciency
Noise level (EMI, RI, etc.) Noise level (EMI, RI, etc.)
Rating (W, kW, MW, etc.) Rating (W, kW, MW, etc.)
Reliability Reliability
Number oI DC outputs Number oI DC outputs
Environment (ambient temperature, altitude, pollution Environment (ambient temperature, altitude, pollution
level, umidity, types oI cooling, etc.) level, umidity, types oI cooling, etc.)
18 18
REFEREACES
1. IEEE Standard Practices and Requirements for General Purpose
Thyristor DC Drives. IEEE Std. 597. 1983.
2. IEEE Guide for Specification of High-Voltage Direct Current Systems
Part I-Steady State Performance. IEEE Std. 1030. 1987.
3. IEEE recommended practice for efficiency determination of
alternating- current adjustable-speed drives. Part I - load
commutated inverter synchronous motor drives. IEEE Std. 995-
1987.
4. IEC 61000-3-2. Power Quality Measurement Methods. 2000.
IEEE Guide for Application and Specification of Harmonic Filters.
IEEE Standards 1573. 2003.
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WiIey WiIey- -Interscience, Interscience, 1965 1965..
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19 19
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