Persuasion

The ways you are convinced!

Disclaimer: the purpose of this lesson is not to convince you of anything. The purpose is to teach you to merely think critically about items as they are presented to you in the modern world.

Basic Elements of Persuasion
‡ Persuasion uses four basic concepts: repetition, simplicity, imagery and sentiment. ‡ There are three major categories of persuasive techniques:
o o o

Ethos Pathos Logos

Ethos (Credibility)
‡ The appeal based on the character of the speaker

Pathos (Emotional)
‡ An appeal to the person's emotions through images or word choice

Logos (Logical)
‡ The appeal to a logical argument. Giving reasons that substantiate claims and avoiding fallacies.

Three-in-One Ad
‡ What are the ethos, pathos and logos appeals of this advertisement?

Everyday Persuasion
‡ You use persuasion every day. ³Every time we communicate with someone we are doing so in an attempt to convey a particular response.´ ‡ You do it when you argue with your parents, when you write persuasive essays, when you ask for an extension on your homework or when you¶re trying to get your parents to buy the latest item you want.

Other places you might find persuasion:
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Movies Literature Songs Photography Advertisements Political cartoons Commercials Anything political

Specific Types (page 914)
‡ There are many specific types of persuasive techniques and they all depend on the ethos, pathos and/or logos appeals to make their point. These include, but are not limited to:
o o o o o o o o

Bandwagon - tapping into people's desire to belong Testimonial - using celebrities or satisfied customers to persuade Transfer - connects a product, a candidate, or a cause with a positive image or idea Appeal to pity - taps into people's emotions Appeal to fear - preys upon people's fear for their safety Appeal to vanity - uses flattery to win people over Words with positive associations - calls up favorable images, feelings or experiences Words with negative associations - brings to mind unpleasant images, feelings or experiences; often creates distrust or unease

Review
‡ Look at the following media and detemine o What is the claim? That is, what is the position or problem at hand. What are you trying to be convinced of? o What form of persuasive techniques are the following examples using? Ethos, pathos or logos? Can you be any more specific? (p. 914)

Movies
‡ HOOT!

Songs
³Imagine!´ by John Lennon

Imagine there's no Heaven It's easy if you try No hell below us Above us only sky Imagine all the people Living for today Imagine there's no countries It isn't hard to do Nothing to kill or die for And no religion too Imagine all the people Living life in peace You may say that I'm a dreamer But I'm not the only one I hope someday you'll join us And the world will be as one Imagine no possessions I wonder if you can No need for greed or hunger A brotherhood of man Imagine all the people Sharing all the world You may say that I'm a dreamer But I'm not the only one I hope someday you'll join us And the world will live as one

Political Cartoons

Television Commercials
‡ Marines

Literature: Persuasions in Text
‡ Look at models 1 and 2 "Break the Addiction" and "Stranded" on page 915 ‡ Analyze the Text "The Promise" on page 916.

Your Assignment Choices
‡ Assignment #1: Semantic Word Map
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Create a semantic word map for the words ethos, logos and pathos. For the examples (at the bottom of the map) you must find three unique images of print ads that use that type of appeal. Complete the ³Labeling Persuasions´ handout. Label each example as using ethos, logos or/and pathos appeals. Explain your reasoning in two to three sentences.

‡ Assignment #2: Example Chart
o

Assignment #1 - Semantic Word Map
Directions: 1. The term or concept is placed in a box in the middle of the page. 2. Directly above it is another box where the major classification to which it belongs is written. The box should answer, What is it? 3. To the right of the term or concept are a series of boxes that indicate its essential characteristics. These boxes answer the questions "What is it like?" or "What are its distinguishing characteristics?" You should have at least two boxes for this. 4. Below the term or concepts are a series of boxes that provide examples of the concept. For this you must print out small images of three unique examples of print ads that primarily use that type of appeal. Example of Semantic Word Map: http://academic.evergreen.edu/f/fordter/contentlit/semanticmath.htm

Assignment #2 ± Persuasive Examples handout
Directions: On a separate sheet of paper, label each image as appealing to pathos (emotions), logos (logic) or/and ethos (credibility). Write a short explanation, saying why you labeled it as such, giving specific examples from the ad to back up your explanation. Each explanation should be approximately two to three sentences. An example has been done for you 1. Pathos This print advertisement for the Boys and Girls Club largely relies on pathos appeals. The text on the hand says that In these hands the sound of a guitar or the sound of a gun a story of desperation or one of inspiration...sign language or gang signs all depending on who gives them a hand. The language makes you feel sympathetic for the child in need by appealing to pity.

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