Lecture 2: AIRSIDE

By: Zuliana Ismail

Learning Outcome
Student is able to:
Describe runway types and identifications. Describe taxiway types and how to identify. Explain airport signs, airport lightings Describe about weather facilities. Explain main navigational aids system.


AIRSIDE is an area on the airport surface intended to be used for Aircraft Operations. AIRSIDE SERVICES Facilities associated with the movement of the airplanes on the airports surface.

Airside Facilities





1. Runways

A defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and take-off of aircraft.

Runway Markings
NonNon-Instrument Runway (NI) Precision Runway (P)

NonNon-Precision Runway (NP)

Runway Markings
Non-Instrument runway
Intended solely for aircraft operation using visual approach procedure

Non precision Instrument
Having an instrument approach procedure using air navigation facility with only horizontal guidance

Precision Instrument marking
Having an instrument approach procedure using a precision instrument landing system, ILS or precision approach radar (PAR) which provides both horizontal and vertical guidance to the runway

Precision Runway (P)
Aiming point

Touchdown zone



Runway Markings
Runway Threshold: Helps identify the beginning of the runway that is available for landing. Runway Designators: Shows the magnetic heading Runway Centerline Marking: Provides alignment guidance during takeoff and landings. Runway Aiming Point Marking: Serves as a visual aiming point for a landing aircraft. Runway Touchdown Zone Markers: Identify the touchdown zone for landing operations


RWY Designators
Identified by a two digit number according to their magnetic heading. ‡ The angle is measured from magnetic north and is divided by 10 and rounded to the nearest integer. Example: RWY with a magnetic heading of 340° is marked as RWY 34. Each runway can be used in either direction, and hence has two numbers, each 18 apart. Example: (34-18=16), so the other runway marked as RWY 16


RWY Designators
Each digit is pronounced separately for clarity in radio communications. Example: Runway 36 is pronounced as Three Six. For two parallel RWYs, R for Right and L for Left are added to distinguish btw the RWS. For multiple runways each runway is identified by Left (L), Center (C) and Right (R). Example: 26L and 26R.

What is the airport with the most number of runways all over the world?

DallasDallas-Fort Worth Airport

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.


w w w w w w w

17L/35R 17C/35C 17R/35L 18L/36R 18R/36L 13L/31R 13R/31L

DallasDallas-Fort Worth Airport: 7 Runways

O¶Hare International Airport ± Chicago, Illinois, United States

Munich Airport: Two Parallel Runways

Runways Length
Runway lengths depend on the size of aircraft to operate and the weather conditions. The bigger the aircraft the longer the runway (take-off and landing distances) The hotter the weather the longer the runway
**The longest public-use runway in the world is at Qamdo Bangda Airport in China. It has a length of 5,500 m (18,045 ft). **The world s widest paved runway is at Ulyanovsk Vostochny Airport in Russia and is 105 m (344 ft) wide.

Runways Length
For aircraft weights below approximately 90,718 kg, a runway length ~ 1,829 m Larger aircraft (Boeing 747, 767, 777, and 787; Airbus A300, A330, A340, A350, and A380; McDonnell Douglas DC-10 or MD-11; and the Lockheed L1011) will usually require runway length at least 2,438 m.


Runway Lighting Summary

Importance of Lighting

Lighting systems are important for a/c landing during night time.

Lighting systems from the cockpit window during bad weather. Poor visibility is mainly due to heavy snowfall

Runway Lighting
Lighting systems from the cockpit window

Runway Edge Lighting: ‡White ‡Turn Yellow in last 610m

Runway Center line Light System : ‡White ‡Alternate white and red in last 610 m ‡Red in last 310m

Why the lighting colour change?


Runway Pavements
The surface sections of roads and runways are known as pavements . To serve its purpose, a pavement must have adequate load-carrying capability, good ride ability and must allow safe operation of aircraft.

Concrete Pavement Concrete surfaces from 23 to 40 cm (9 to 16 inches) thick. Can remain useful for 20 to 40 years. Commonly used at large airports. It is constructed by aligning a series of concrete slabs connected by joins,

Asphalt Pavement Asphalt surfaces are from 5 to 10 cm (2 to 4 inches) thick. Can remain useful between 15 to 20 years. Commonly used at most smaller airports. Pavements are less expensive to construct.


2. Taxiway

Strip for aircrafts to move slowly (taxi) between the runway and apron, runway and runway & apron and apron.

Generally, width smaller than runway Lightings for night flying Can be one or multiple in bigger airport. Taxiways should be provided to permit the safe surface movement of aircraft. Sufficient entrance and exit taxiways for a runway should be provided to make the movement of airplanes to and from the runway smooth and to provide more rapid exit taxiways when traffic volumes are high. 28

Taxiway Types


Taxiway Types
There are four types of taxiways: Parallel taxiways: aligned parallel next to runway Entrance taxiways: perpendicular to the runway & located near the departure end of runways. High-speed taxiways: to allow aircraft quickly free-up the runway. (Also known as Rapid Exit) , located at various points along the runway to allow landing aircraft to efficiently exit the runway after landing. By-pass taxiways: located near apron, to allow aircraft by-pass other aircraft at aircraft parking area.

High-speed taxiways
‡ Also known as Rapid Exit runway. ‡ To provide exit paths from runway for arriving aircraft. ‡ The intersection angle less than 90deg.


Taxiway Identification
Taxiways can be identified through: Taxiway markings (centerline in yellow color, no azimuth) Taxiway signs (have location sign) Taxiway lightings (centerline light in green color, edge light in blue color) Taxiway size and pavement strength (width smaller than runway, pavement thickness less than runway)

Taxiway Lighting

Taxiway centre line: green Taxiway edge lights: blue

Taxiway Lighting
‡ Many airports are equipped with taxiway lighting to facilitate the movement of aircraft on the airfield at night or in poor visibility conditions. ‡ Taxiway lighting includes taxiway edge lights, taxiway centerlines lights.

Taxiway Markings
Taxiway Centerline : single continuous yellow line . All taxiways should have centerline markings. Aircraft should be kept centered during taxi to guarantee wingtip clearance with other aircraft or other objects

Taxiway Centerline

Taxiway Markings
Surface Painted Signs: to assist pilot in confirming the designation of the taxiway (location or direction)

Surface Painted Signs


RWY/TWY Markings

What The Importance of RWY/TWY Markings?
To provide information that is useful to a pilot during takeoff, landing, and taxiing. To enhance safety and improve efficiency: Same airport markings for all airports make pilots became familiar.



An area to accommodate aircraft for purposes of parking , loading or unloading passengers, mail or cargo, fuelling, or 41 maintenance.

3. Apron
Also known as RAMP Apron sizes depend on the aircrafts handled by the airport. The bigger the airport handling capacity the bigger the apron Provide FBO services
Fitted with underground refueling system Fitted with water supply system Fitted with sewer disposal system


Fixed Base Operators (FBO)
The FAA defines an FBO as A commercial business granted the right by the airport sponsor to operate on an airport and provide aeronautical services such as fueling, hangaring, tie-down and parking, aircraft rental, aircraft maintenance & flight instruction, etc

KLAS: KL Airport Services Sdn Bhd
KL Airport Services Sdn Bhd or better known as KLAS is independent ground handler that provides a comprehensive range of services to various commercial airlines operating into and through Malaysian Airports..

KLAS: KL Airport Services Sdn Bhd KLAS offers the highest standards of quality & efficiency for the following services: 1. Ground Handling: Passenger and baggage handling, Aircraft handling, Flight operations 2. Cargo Handling : Import, Export 3. In-Flight Catering Service: Provide foods 4. Aircraft Maintenance & Engineering Service: Aircraft check

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