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A theory is a set of concepts, definition relationship and assumption that project a systematic view of phenomena. A Nursing theory is a conceptualization of some aspect of nursing communicated for the purpose of describing, explaining, predicting and / or prescribing nursing care(Maleis 1997)
Components of Theory: Concepts Definitions Phenomeno n Assumptions (or) Propositions .
Concepts are mental formulation of an object (or) event that come from individual perceptual experience ( Alligood & marriner tomey 2002) Definitions: The definitions with in the descriptions of a theory convey the general meaning of the concepts in a manner that fits the theory. .Concepts: A theory consists of interrelational concepts.
.Assumptions : Assumptions are statements that describe concepts (or) connect two concepts that are factual. Phenomenon: A fact (or) situation that is observed to exist (or) happen.
a conceptual model consists of four concepts which are generally considered central to the discipline of Nursing. This serves as an organizing frame work around which conceptual development proceeded Person Nursing Health Environment/Situation .NURSING’S PARADIGM: According to Fawcett.
Person: Refers to the recipient of nursing care. Environment / Situation: It includes all possible conditions affecting the client and the setting is which health care needs occur. including individual clients. families and the community. the clinical setting and the healthcare profession. Nursing: It is the diagnosis and treatment of human responses to actual (or) potential health problem (ANA 1995) . Health: It is defined in different way by the client.
Classification of theories in Nursing According to range/scope/abstractness. theories are classified in to 1) Meta theories 2) Grand theories 3) Middle range theories 4) Practice theories .
They attempt to explain broad area within a discipline and may incorporate numerous other theories. . Focuses on broad issues such as the processes of generating knowledge & theory development. There are the most complex and broadest in scope. 2) Grand theories This describes the comprehensive conceptual framework.1) Meta theories Meta theories describe the philosophical basis of the discipline.
concrete ideas (practice theories) Middle range theories are substantively specific and encompass a limited number of a real world. 4)Practice theories Practice theories are also called micro theories. prescriptive theories (or) situation theories .3) Middle range theories Middle range theory lies between the nursing models and more circumscribed.
client – centered nursing care. • She used the problem – solving approach • Her typology of nursing problem was first published in 1960 in patient – centered approaches to nursing • .Introduction: Abdellah was motivated to develop her typology by a desire to promote comprehensive.
.Concept of Abdellah’s Theory Abdellah’s theories would state that nursing is the use of the problem solving approach based on the three major concepts of health. nursing problems and problem solving.
Health She defined health as the dynamic pattern of functioning whereby there is a continued interaction which internal and external force that results in the optional use of necessary resources that serve to minimize vulnerabilities Nursing Problems It may be overt as an apparent condition or convert as a hidden (or) concealed one. Because convert problems can be emotional. Sociological and interpersonal in nature. they are often missed (or) perceived incorrectly .
it involves Indentifying the data Selecting pertinent data Formulating Hypotheses Testing Hypotheses through the collection of data Revising Hypotheses . This can be accomplished by problem solving approach.Problem solving Quality professional Nursing care requires that nurses be able to identify & solve. overt & convert nursing problems.
Focus of care pendulum Nursing Disease Centered Centered Client centered .