¾ It is the eighth leading cause of morbidity in the Philippines. the disease continues to be a major impediment to human and economic development in areas where it persists . ¾ According to DOH Secretary Reynaldo Duque. ´an average of three Filipinos die daily due to malaria despite the government·s intensified efforts to control the occurrence of the ailmentµ. ¾ Malaria has become a health threat. ¾ Although malaria endemicity is now generally moderate to low.

and around 10 million people who live in these areas are at risk of getting the disease.¾ This disease is still endemic in 65 of the 79 provinces in the country. ¾ Morbidity trend suggest that there might be a cause and effect relationship between the activities which aim to eradicate malaria and its incidence .

Some of these are in to animals. . Like birds. chimpanzees.‡ Malaria is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium (phylum apicomplexa).reptiles. and rodents. monkeys. ‡ There are several species of Plasmodium Parasites but only four of them are significant to the cause of malaria diseases to humans.

The females of the Anopheles genus of mosquito prefer to feed at night. They usually start searching for a meal at dusk.€ Only female mosquitoes feed on blood. thus males do not transmit the disease. . and will continue throughout the night until taking a meal.

Malaria parasites can also be transmitted by blood transfusion. The disease is transmitted to humans when an infected Anopheles mosquito bites a person and injects the malaria parasites (sporozoites) into the blood.€ € € The Parasite·s primary hosts and transmission vectors are female mosquitoes of the Anopheles genus. . although this is rare.

€ flu-like illness with fever € recurrent chills € profuse sweating € joint pain (athralgia) € malaise € anemia caused € hepatomegaly € spleenomegaly by hemolysis .

falciparum malaria can develop bleeding problems.€ People with severe P. Cerebral malaria (coma. coma. or altered mental status or seizures) can occur with severe P. central nervous system problems. about 15%-20% die. even with treatment. falciparum infection. shock.  . liver or kidney failure. and can die from the infection or its complications. It is lethal if not treated quickly.

This initial time period is highly variable as reports suggest that the range of incubation periods may range from four days to one year. € The usual incubation period may be increased when a person has taken an inadequate course of malaria prevention medications. € The .period between the mosquito bite and the onset of the malarial illness is usually one to three weeks (seven to 21 days).

Early diagnosis of the disease and prompt treatment. This was achieved through: x diagnostic centers which serve as cites of microscopy x diagnosing by a MedTech or other trained personnel x promotion of the existence of diagnostic centers .Since 2007. The Department of Health has developed a malaria control program as a measure to help eradicate the spread of the disease. Some of the program strategies are: 1.

Controlling the spread of mosquitoes This was achieved through: ¾ giving out insecticide-treated mosquito nets ¾ indoor spraying which targets houses and not only communities ¾ on stream seeding ¾ on stream clearing .2.

3. Implementation of community-based malaria control This was achieved through: ¾ social mobilization ¾ education sessions .

€ . particularly during the vector·s peak biting hours from 9pm to 3am. € Avoiding outdoor night activities.Wearing of clothing that covers arms and legs in the evening. € Planting of Neem tree or other herbal plants as advocated by the DOH. € Using mosquito repellants.

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and taking into account other health priorities. using the resources available. . Complete elimination of the malaria parasite (and thus the disease) would constitute eradication.¾ The goal of malaria control in malaria-endemic countries is to reduce as much as possible the health impact of malaria on a population. ¾ Malaria control does not aim to eliminate malaria totally. it is not currently a realistic goal for most of the countries where malaria is endemic. While eradication is more desirable.

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¾ Prevention of Disease by administration of antimalarial drugs to particularly vulnerable population groups such as pregnant women and infants. "intermittent preventive treatment" (IPT) with antimalarial drugs given most often at antenatal consultations during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy.  Administration of antimalarial drugs to vulnerable population groups does not prevent infection. which happens through mosquito bites. But drugs can prevent disease by eliminating the parasites that are in the blood. for example. which are the forms that cause disease. They may receive. .  Pregnant women are the vulnerable group most frequently targeted.

where these trees mainly grow.€ The first effective treatment for malaria was the bark of cinchona tree.  . It was first used by the inhabitants of Peru. there are several antimalarial drugs available for treatment:  Chloroquine  sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (Fansidar®)  mefloquine (Lariam®)  atovaquone-proguanil (Malarone®)  quinine  doxycycline  artemisin derivatives  primaquine. Today. which contains QUININE.

~ end of presentation ~ .

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