AVIATION HISTORY

Lecture 3: Early Aviation

By :Zuliana Ismail, 2010

Aviation Timeline

Contents 
1903-1914: Before WW 1(11yrs)  1914-1918 (4yrs): World War 1  1919-1938 (19yrs):Golden Age  1939-1945 (6yrs): World War 2  1945-1950 (5yrs): Cold War

Aviation Pioneer
Fathers of Aviation 
George Cayley  Otto Lilienthal  Wilbur & Orville Wright

Major Manufacturers 
Wright Bro. Company  Henry & Maurice Farman  Anthony Fokker  Geoffrey de Havilland

Aircraft Inventor @ Pilot  Louis Blériot  Glenn Curtiss  Charles Lindbergh  Amelia Earhart

Aviation Before World War 1
1903-1914

1900-Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin- used an engine to fly balloons Airship or Dirigible

Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin 
Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin was

FerdinandAdolfAugustHeinrichGrafvonZeppelin(1838-1917).

the inventor of the rigid airship, or dirigible balloon.  Ferdinand von Zeppelin spent nearly a decade developing the dirigible.  The first of many rigid dirigibles, called zeppelins in his honor, was completed in 1900.  Zeppelin airships-elongated bags filled with gas , fitted with engines, propellers and rudder

Airship
Air is pushed backward by Airship¶s propellers. Backward momentum is produced.

Buoyant Force

Forward Momentum Backward Momentum 

Magnitude equal backward momentum 

Causes the airship moves forward Airship is powered by engines which are attached to the gondola.

Gondola is the cabin suspended from an airship or balloon and can carry passengers

How Airship Works 
Upward motion is based on the principle of    

Archimedes. When airship rises, density of air inside the airship decreases. When up thrust equal to weight of airship, airship will float in atmosphere. Descend of airship is controlled by the release of Helium gas inside it. Direction of the airship is not dependent on the wind but it¶s direction was controlled by rudder.

1st commercial air service
ƒ In 1910, a zeppelin provided the first commercial

air service for passengers. ƒ It provided air service between Europe and America in the 1920s and 1930s ƒ One such airship was 3 times larger than a Boeing 747 and cruised at 68 mph.

Destruction of zeppelin¶s airship
ƒ The zeppelin¶s airship named ³Hindenburg´

explodes, May 6, 1937 at Lakehurst Naval Air Station. ƒ The Hindenburg marked the end of large scale Zeppelin travel.

Critical Thinking

WHY AIRSHIP CANNOT BECOME AN AIRLINER ?

The Disadvantages of Airship
ƒ ƒ ƒ

ƒ

It is impossible to construct balloons of sufficient strength. Thus, balloons unable to withstand routine operation under all weather conditions. Critical challenge to maintain the shape of gas bags. If the bags were only partially filled, the balloons hang down loosely. Extremely difficult to control. Can be hazardous during landing in high winds.
ƒ

The large Hindenburg was equally successful until it was destroyed by fire while attempting a landing in 1937 in Lakehurst, New Jersey.

1906: Santos-Dumont makes the first successful European airplane flight.

14-bis, the plane in which Santos-Dumont made his historic 1907 flight. His plane flies a distance of about 200 feet in Paris.

1908: Piloting his plane, the June Bug , Glenn Curtiss was first American to fly a distance over one kilometer.

Glenn Curtiss ± Father of Naval Aviation 
Curtiss was

responsible for the first aircraft to take off from and land on the decks of ships at sea.  Curtiss' motives in developing the seaplane was to sell airplanes to the U.S. Navy.

1909: Louis Blériot becomes the first to fly across the English Channel. 

It took 37

minutes for him to fly across the English Channel in 1909.

1909: Monoplanes Era 
Monoplanes developed and used for

relatively short-distance flights.

1914: 1st scheduled air service in Florida 
1st scheduled air service was seaplane.

Types of Airplane 
A monoplane is an aircraft with one main set of wing surfaces. Since the late 1930s it has been the "ordinary" form for a fixed wing aircraft.  A biplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with two main wings. The Wright brothers' Wright Flyer used a biplane design, as did most aircraft in the early years of aviation.  A triplane is a fixed-wing aircraft equipped with three sets of wings, each roughly the same size and mounted one above the other. The best-known triplane is Fokker Dr.I during WW1.

Aviation Before WW 1: 1903-1914 
1903: The Wright Brothers make history as the first to fly a powered aircraft.  1906: Brazilian-born Alberto Santos-Dumont makes the first successful European airplane flight.  1908: In a field near Paris, Henry Farman becomes the first to officially fly a one-kilometer circular course, the worldµs longest distance at the time.  1908: Piloting his plane, the June Bug, Glenn Curtiss wins a silver trophy and national acclaim for becoming the first American to officially fly a distance over one kilometer.  1910: Zeppelin provides the first commercial air service for passengers.

Aviation Before WW 1: 1903-1914 
1909: After several failed attempts, French aviator

Louis Blériot becomes the first to fly across the English Channel. Flying his Blériot XI, he covers the 23-mile distance in 37 minutes.  1912: Harriet Quimby becomes the first woman to fly across the English Channel.

WORLD WAR 1
1914-1918 (4yrs)

WW1: The Era of Military Aircraft 
Aircraft use for military .  Increased demand for military aircrafts, more

powerful motors and larger aircrafts were developed.  Aerodynamic fuselage design; monoplane, biplane and triplane designs are all considered viable aircraft.

WW 1 Era is the Key Developments 
World War 1 saw the rise of the aircraft as a weapon system and the changing face of war.  The aircraft changed the modern battlefield

De Havilland DH-4 biplane, a Britishdesigned two-seater bomber massproduced for use in World War I.

The Sopwith Camel was one of the best-known British fighter airplanes of World War I.

World War One Aircrafts 
During WW 1, pilots became famous for their air to air combats, the most well-known is Red Baron, who shot down 80 planes in air to air combat with several different planes.

Fokker Dr.I replica at the ILA 2006, the "Red Baron" triplane

Aviation During WW 1: 1914-1918
1916: William Boeing's fascination with aviation leads to the creation of his own airplane manufacturing business. Over the next several decades, the company would evolve into the world's largest commercial airline manufacturer. 1918: The United States officially establishes air mail service with flights between New York City, Philadelphia and Washington D.C.

GOLDEN AGE
1919-1938
‡Advancement in aircraft technology. ‡Aviation focus on Airmail Services ‡Building of the Airways ‡Birth of the Airlines ‡Birth of Commercial Aviation ‡Birth of Air Traffic Control ‡Charles Lindbergh Made an Historic Flight ‡Birth of Instrument Flying

Golden Age - Between Wars 
Large advancement in aircraft technology.  Wood and canvas converts to aluminums.  Aircraft Engine development.  After WWI, experienced fighter pilots were

eager to show off their new skills.  Air shows spread up around the country, with air races and acrobatic stunts.

Air mail services 
It was the Post Office and airmail delivery

that gave the commercial airlines their true start. Office had used mostly railroads to transport mail between cities. official airmail flight, U.S. Post Office airplanes were delivering 14 million letters and packages a year. 

In the early part of the 20th century, the Post 

By 1925, only seven years after the first

1925: Contract Act of 1925 (Kelly Act) 
Congress passes the Air Mail Act of 1925 (also

known as the Kelly Act), permitting the government to hire private air carriers to deliver the mail. 
The government contracts that were

subsequently awarded helped determine which airlines would dominate commercial aviation airlines including United Airlines, American Airlines and TWA.

Question  



Even during the initial stage, civil aircraft were used for airmails. But the pilots dared not fly at night due to obvious reasons. What were the reasons? How did the problems solved?

1921: Birth of Rotating Beacons 
In 1921, the Army deployed

rotating beacons . 
The beacons, visible to

pilots every 10 seconds 
Thus, made it possible to fly

the route at night

Rotating light beacon: in a line between Columbus and Dayton, Ohio, a distance of about 80 miles.

Building of the airways 
Airmail routes become Airways  Lighted airway beacons²every 10 miles

(1926)  Intermediate Airfields - every 50 miles  Airway Communication Stations (1928)  No ATC

Intermediate Airfield

Birth of the Airlines 1926: Ford Tri-motor: First all-metal aircraft designed for passengers

1926: Ford¶s Trimotor 
Ford Trimotor also called as the Tin Goose .  Can carried 12/13 passengers and could fly up 6,000

feet (1,829 kilometre), but it s climb to that altitude was slow & drop repeatedly before it reached its cruising altitude. was hot in summer and cold in winter, 

With no air conditioning and little heating, the plane  With no circulation system, its environment was

uncomfortable by the smell of hot oil and metal. 

Opening a window was the only way to escape the

smell.

Airlines Growth 
1927: Long-distance passenger craft

developed that had constant radio contact with the ground.  The Lockheed Vega takes to the skies. Allan Lockheed finally finds success with the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation.

1927: Charles Lindbergh
First flying across the Atlantic ocean (New York-Paris) in using the Spirit of St. Louis 

Six people tried to do

it but all died.  However, Charles Lindbergh flew solo across the Atlantic ocean successfully.  His journey cover 3,610 miles (5,815km) and took about 33 and 1/2 hours.

Parts of the µSpirit of the St. Louis´

Question 
Flying based on concept of ³See and

Avoid´ and with no any help of flying instruments, What could be the problems faced by Lindbergh during his historic flight (33 and ½ hours)?

Challenges faced by Lindbergh
1. No sleep during flight He had not slept in nearly twenty-four hours when he took off, so fighting sleep was the most difficult part of the flight. It is difficult to keep awake on long flight . He had to put his face outside the cockpit to allow air to blast his face and eyes.

2. Bad weather Lindbergh faced many challenges including flying over storm, fighting icing (cold), and flying blind through fog. Due to fog also he flew in poor visibility which very risky.

Challenges faced by Lindbergh
3. No radio, and no proper communication and no navigator instruments. It is difficult to know aircraft direction and hardly to know the condition of the plane. If there was a problem, it is no way to get help. 4. No proper water survival gears ± if ditched in the sea might not survive. 5. The aircraft was highly unstable, requiring constant vigilance by the pilot. Very stressful to pilot.

Charles Lindbergh Impact 
Aviation became a more established.  Aviation becomes respectable and the

popular Lindbergh goes on world tours to promote aviation and Pan-American Airways.

1929-Birth of Air Traffic Control (ATC) 
First airport controller (1929)

Archie League at St. Louis Airport, 1929

1934: Amelia Earhart and Lockheed Electra 10" mysteriously disappeared while on a "round the world flight.

1933: Boeing 247: First of the modern airliners 
(Boeing 247) developed. It could carry 13

passengers and travel at 155 mph.

Donald Douglas, the first - and youngest - aeronautical engineers in America

The company's first successful aircraft, the Cloudster, made its first flight on February 24, 1921. Later that year, the company would change its name to simply The Douglas Company.

Douglas Airplane: Early Commercial Aviation 
(1933): DC-2,12 passengers  (1935): DC-3, 21 passengers

DC-3

DC-3

DC-3 first aircraft to make money 
In 1935, DC-3 first aircraft to make money

carrying passengers rather than mail.  It seated 21 passengers and its 1,000 horsepower engine made it possible to fly coast to coast in 16 hours.  It proved air transport could be profitable.  90% of air traffic was flying on these aircraft by 1940.

Birth of Air Traffic Control 1929-1933 
Light gun  Control tower  First radio-equipped control tower²Cleveland (1930)

Cleveland Airport, Ohio

Birth of Instrument Flying 
Jimmy Doolittle¶s first ³blind flight´

(September 24, 1929) 
LFR (Low Frequency Radio Range) Four-

Course Navigation System (early 30s) First instrument airways. The end of ³see and avoid´

Four-course range station

Birth of Instrument Flying
New Flying Instruments developed to enable flying during night and bad weather 
Visual radio direction finder  Artificial horizon (Attitude Indicator)  Barometric altimeter (Altitude Meter)

World War 2
1939-1945

Aviation During World War 2 
Drastic increase in the of aircraft    

development and production Aircraft faster and more maneuverable Stronger in design Weapon systems are more sophisticated Roles are dedicated: Fighter Bomber Attack Reconnaissane

Aviation During World War 2 
1936: Spitfires (fast maneuverable fighter

airplanes) developed for use in WWII.  1943: Helicopters are mass-produced for WWII.

A Supermarine Spitfire was a typical World War II fighter.

Focke-Wulf Fw 190, German fighter plane of World War II.

1939: Boeing 314, the largest passenger transport of its time, carrying 74 passengers and included a lounge, a dining salon, and a bridal suite. The seats could convert into 40 bunks. The manufacturer sold 12 planes to Pan American Airways, which made its first transatlantic flight

Question 
Even though aircraft flight was discovered

in early 1900s, civil aviation did not go into the major industry until after the Second World War in 1945. WHY?

Reasons of civil aviation did not go into the major industry until after the second world war«.
‡ Since world war one government focused only on military aviation. ‡ Economy problem and no support from government for civil aviation industry. ‡ No demand for using aircraft as main transportation. People not traveling much. ‡ Safety reason. People not confident with the safety in using aircraft for travel. ‡ Limited numbers of available airliners, aircraft manufacturers and pilots at that time. ‡ Uncomfortable. The available airliner services at that time are not comfortable for passengers.

Cold War
1945 ± 1950

1945 ± 1950: The Cold War 
Most ex-military aircraft were used in the

business of transporting people and goods.  Many companies existed, with routes that crossed North America, Europe and other parts of the world.  Heavy and super-heavy bomber airframes (e.g., B-29, Lancaster, DC-3) easily converted into commercial aircraft

1940s 
In 1946, The DC-6 was the aircraft that

greatly reduced traveling time with greater comfort for passengers and made air travel economically viable.  1947: Airplanes fly faster than the speed of sound.  1947: Radar is developed to keep track of aircraft from the ground.

1950s 
Further barriers of distance were eliminated in 1948 and 1952 as the first jet crossing of the Atlantic occurred and the first nonstop flight to Australia occurred.  1950s: The airliner begins to replace other means of transportation as the primary means of long-distance travel.  By 1952, the British state airline introduced into service the first jet airliner, the De Havilland Comet (the plane suffered a series of highly public failures)

1960s 
In 1967, the X-15 set the air speed record for an airplane at 4,534 mph or Mach 6.1 (7,297 km/h).  1968: Aircraft are developed that can take off and land vertically, without the use of a runway (Harrier ³Jump Jet.´).  1969: The Concorde is developed and used as the first supersonic airliner. (It crosses the Atlantic Ocean in less than 3 hours.)  1969, Boeing came out with its vision for the future of air travel (Boeing 747). This plane is still one of the largest aircraft ever to fly, and it carries millions of passengers each year.

1970s 
Commercial aviation progressed even further

in 1976 as British Airways provide supersonic service across the Atlantic (Concorde).  A few years earlier the SR-71 Blackbird had set the record for crossing the Atlantic in under 2 hours.

Lockheed SR71 Blackbird

1980s 
1981: Space Shuttle is developed as a

reusable space ship that can land after reentry into Earth¶s atmosphere.

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