Relationship Between Human Development Index & Socio-Economic factors


What is HDI?
‡ Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic used to rank countries by level of "human development" and separate developed (high development), developing (middle development), and underdeveloped(low development) countries. The statistic is composed from data on life expectancy, education and percapita GNI (as an indicator of standard of living) collected at the national level using the formula given in the Methodology section below. There are also HDI for states, cities, villages, etc. by local organizations or companies.

Origin Of HDI
‡ The origins of the HDI are to be found in the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Human Development Reports (HDRs). These were devised and launched by Pakistani Economist Mahbub ul Haq in 1990 and had the explicit purpose: ¶¶to shift the focus of development economics from national income accounting to people centered policies··. To produce the HDRs, Mahbub ul Haq brought together a group of well known development economists including: Paul Streeten, Frances Stewart, Gustav Ranis, Keith Griffin, Sudhir Anand and Meghnad Desai. But it was Amartya Sen·swork on capabilities and functionings that provided the underlying conceptual framework. Haq was sure that a simple composite measure of human development was needed in order to convince the public, academics, and policy-makers that they can and should evaluate development not only by economic advances but also improvements in human well-being. Sen initially opposed this idea, but he went on to help Haq develop the Human Development Index (HDI). Sen was worried that it was difficult to capture the full complexity of human capabilities in a single index but Haq persuaded him that only a single number would shift the attention of policy-makers from concentration on economic to human well-being. The HDI has been used since 1990 by the United Nations Development Programme for its annual Human Development Reports.


From left AMRATYA SEN n to the right is Mahbub UL HAQ

Dimension Of measure Of HDI
‡ Starting with the 2010 report the HDI combines three dimensions: ‡ A long and healthy life: Life expectancy at birth ‡ Access to knowledge: Mean years of schooling and Expected years of schooling ‡ A decent standard of living: GNI per capita (PPP US$) ‡ The HDI combined three dimensions up until its 2009 report: ‡ Life expectancy at birth, as an index of population health and longevity ‡ Knowledge and education, as measured by the adult literacy rate (with two-thirds weighting) and the combined primary, secondary, and tertiary gross enrollment ratio (with one-third weighting). ‡ Standard of living, as indicated by the natural logarithm of gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity.

The human development indices:
at the forefront of HD measurement development
‡ The HDI (Human Development Index)
- a summary measure of human development

‡ The GDI (Gender-related Development Index) - the HDI adjusted for gender inequality ‡ The GEM (Gender Empowerment Measure) - Measures gender equality in economic and political
participation and decision making

‡ The HPI (Human Poverty Index)


Captures the level of human poverty

‡ Others

Categories to distinguish Human development
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Countries fall into four broad human development categories, each of which comprises 42 countries (except for the second category, comprising 43 countries).The divisions are: Division comprising: Very high:42 countries High:43 countries Medium:42 countries Low:42 countries Due to the new methodology adopted in 2010 HD Report, its HDI figures appear lower than the HDI figures in previous reports. Starting in the report for 2007, the first category is referred to as developed countries, and the last three are all grouped in developing countries. The original "high human development" category has been split into two as above in the report for 2007. Some older groupings (high/medium/low income countries) have been removed that were based on the gross domestic product (GDP) in purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, and have been replaced by another index based on the gross national income (GNI) in purchasing power parity per capita.


Human Development Indicators
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Life expectancy at birth (Years) Literacy rate (%) Real GDP per capita in PPP Life expectancy at birth index Education index Income index Human development index Human development index (India)

World s HDI
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ World map indicating the Human Development Index (based on 2010 data, published on November 4, 2010)[1] 0.900 and over 0.850²0.899 0.800²0.849 0.750²0.799 0.700²0.749 0.650²0.699 0.600²0.649 0.550²0.599 0.500²0.549 0.450²0.499 0.400²0.449 0.350²0.399 0.300²0.349 under 0.300

China s HDI
‡ Map showing the HDI of the Greater China region 0.900 0.949 ‡ 0.850 0.899 ‡ 0.800 0.849 ‡ 0.750 0.799 ‡ 0.700 0.749 ‡ 0.650 0.699 ‡ 0.600 0.649 ‡ Data unavailable

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Some of the issues and themes currently considered most central to human development include: Social progress - greater access to knowledge, better nutrition and health services. Economics ² the importance of economic growth as a means to reduce inequality and improve levels of human development. Efficiency - in terms of resource use and availability. human development is pro-growth and productivity as long as such growth directly benefits the poor, women and other marginalized groups. Equity - in terms of economic growth and other human development parameters. Participation and freedom - particularly empowerment, democratic governance, gender equality, civil and political rights, and cultural liberty, particularly for marginalized groups defined by urban-rural, sex, age, religion, ethnicity, physical/mental parameters, etc. Sustainability - for future generations in ecological, economic and social terms. Human security - security in daily life against such chronic threats as hunger and abrupt disruptions including joblessness, famine, conflict, etc.

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List Of countries By HDI
‡ _countries_by_Human_Developme nt_Index