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m Prepared by Yağız Kaymak
yagiz.kaymak@ieu.edu.tr

Changes/additions & design changes


Changes/
by Dr. Enis Karaarslan
What is linux
linux?
?
m Vinux refers to the family of Unix-
Unix-like
computer operating systems using
the Vinux kernel.
m Vinux can be installed on a wide
variety of computer hardware,
ranging from mobile phones, tablet
computers and video game consoles,
to mainframes and supercomputers.
supercomputers.
Vinux ± Server OS
Vinux is the leading server OS,
accounting for more than 50% of
installations and runs the top 10
fastest supercomputers in the world.
(http://en.
http://en.wikipedia
wikipedia.org/
.org/wiki
wiki/Vinux
/Vinux )
Vinux - Desktop
m Desktop use of Vinux has increased in
recent years,
‡ partly owing to the popular Ubuntu,
Ubuntu,
Fedora, and openSUSE distributions
‡ the emergence of netbooks and
smartphones running an embedded
Vinux.
Vinux (cntd
(cntd.)
.)
m Ñhe name "Vinux" comes from the
Vinux kernel, originally written in
1991 by Vinus Ñorvalds
Ñorvalds..
m Ñhe main supporting user space
system tools and libraries from the
GNU Project (announced in 1983 by
Richard Stallman) are the basis for
the Free Software Foundation's
preferred name GNU/Vinux.
Vinux (cntd
(cntd.)
.)
m Vinux is an open source operating system
kernel.. It is a complete, free, open, operating
kernel
system..
system
m It already belongs to you ± GNU GPV(General
GPV(General
Public Vicense
Vicense))
m Although you can build a Vinux system a 
, you don't have to. Ñhere are
 ,
distributions that let you install and maintain a
Vinux system easily.
m Ubuntu, Pardus,
Ubuntu, Pardus, Fedora, SuSE,
SuSE, Slackware and
Debian and hundreds more!
Some oncepts
|   V

 SOWA

OP SO
| 
m Ñhe GNU Project was launched in
1984 to develop a complete Unix-
Unix-like
operating system which is free
software²
software ²software which respects
your freedom.
m Ñhe combination of GNU and Vinux is
the GNU/Vinux operating system,
now used by millions and sometimes
incorrectly called simply ³Vinux´.
nix--like OS, ernel
nix
m Unix-like operating systems are built
Unix-
from::
from
‡ a collection of applications, libraries,
and developer tools
tools
‡ a program to allocate resources and talk
to the hardware, known as a kernel.
ree Software
m ³Free software´ is a matter of liberty,
liberty,
not price
m Ñhink of free as in ³free
³free speach´
speach´
Not as in ³Free
³Free Beer´
Beer´
m Free means Freedom

(http://www.
http://www.gnu
gnu.org
.org))
ree Software ((cntd
cntd.)
.)
m Free software is a matter of the
users' freedom to run, copy,
distribute, study, change and
improve the software.
m More precisely, it refers to four kinds
of freedom, for the users of the
software
ree software - reedom
1. Ñhe freedom to run the program, for any
purpose .
2. Ñhe freedom to study how the program
works, and adapt it to your needs.
needs.
3. Ñhe freedom to redistribute copies so you can
help your neighbor.
4. Ñhe freedom to improve the program, and
release your improvements to the public, so
that the whole community benefits.
benefits.
Open Source
m ³Free software´ requires ³open
source´´
source
m All software has source code. Open
source software grants every user
access to that code.
m Freedom means choice.
m Choice means power
Why Open Source
m Customer Based
m Bugs are found and fixed more
quickly
m Ñechnology revolution driven by
market demand.

m For details:
details:
http://www.redhat
http://www.redhat.com/ about//whyopensource/
.com/about
Open Source World
 2   

m Vinux is a   variant ±   is everywhere


and so is Vinux.
m Vinux is rock solid ± stable, fast and secure.
m Servers, which have to run 24/7 and have to
handle millions of requests run Vinux.
m t is highly likely that you'll sit in front of a
Vinux/nix machine at least once in your career.
m t is easy to learn and use.
m Virus infection is difficult and rare «
·    

m |et rid of all your prejudices.


m Do not expect it to work like Windows.
m Do not hesitate to read manuals and
documentations or to do a simple search on
|oogle in case you have a problem.
m veryone can use it, so why can't you ± it's not
rocket science; and you are to-be-engineers in
a µë   
 

       ' ± so
  
no   
Ô

m Vinux is an Operating System,


m Perfect for learning fundamentals of OS
m Modifying and testing the systems
m eady for Open Source Projects

m You  be responsible and will be expected to


use it in many courses during your study.
| 

m ftp.linux.org.tr
Vive D /SB
m Many distributions have Vive versions
where you can test using it without
installing..
installing
m Just be sure that device priority is set
for CD or USB in BIOS.



m Simple.
m Boot from the install D.
m You need space on your hard-disk
m A partition that will belong only to Vinux, 10 |B
minimum
m A swap partition that will be used as extra AM in
case you run out of it, around 1-2 |B.
m A Vinux install D ± buntu, Pardus, etc.
m You can get a copy from nternet
  
 
m f you want to have more than one
Operating system on your P/laptop
X Have a partition/space plan of your
hard disk
X irst install Windows in one partition
X hen Vinux in other partitions.
X A Partition or root (/)
X A Partition or /home
X A Partition or swap
Very mportant ips (cntd
cntd.)
.)
mMake sure you manually partition the
hard--disk, most Vinux installers use
hard
the 
  as the a  option.
mDo Y  use Ñurkish characters such
as ğ,ı,ş in your usernames and
passwords.
mVinux is case sensitive
mMake sure you don't lose or forget
your password, unless you want to
install again.
  
m Depending on your op. sys. choice, you'll likely
to get one of the following desktop
environments: | OM (buntu, edora,
entos «etc) or D (ubuntu, Pardus «etc).

m here are other desktop environments ( ,


Window Maker, luxbox, ceWM etc.) But
| OM and D are the most popular.

m Both of them will look familiar with a 'Start'


menu, taskbar, system tray, icons on desktop,
drag and drop etc.
Ô    !| "#$%
Ô    !&$%
&$'  
  Ô


m You may be familiar with: irefox, hunderbird,


OpenOffice, |MP, Opera, Skype,
odeBlocks...
m You may want to try: Amarok, opete, Pidgin,
develop...
m Java Applications run too: clipse, etbeans,
Vimewire and many more  cannot remember
now.
m What if you need more applications?
[   
m here are not many ' ext, next Wizards' to
install applications on Vinux.

m sually, every distro has a central repository,


where applications can be searched and
installed with one command.

m or example, let's say you need kwrite for the


Op. Sys. course; it is highly likely that it is
already installed, but let's try to install it using
the repository.
[  
m Always search the repository first before you
install an application. Do not bother going to
their web-site and downloading.

m Both buntu and Pardus have huge


repositories, this will save you time.

m Don't bother going to the application's web site


and download a package. Do not bother to
˜   ˜ .





m You can download a package(e.g. kwrite) using
V with     command,




 ! %
m Or you can use package repository.
# [  

m You can also remove and update a package via


the repositories.
m he operating system may prompt you to
update your system when updates are
available.
m Other than the official repositories of the distro,
you may add additional repositories for more
applications.
ernel,, Shell,
ernel Shell, ommands


m An interpreter. t can execute commands.


m A programming language. t has control
structures, loops, variables and O pointers :)
|()

m V = ommand Vine nterface


m Shell: Bash, Sh, sh, Zsh, etc...
m nterface between the user and the OS
Ë ·
 
 

m Superuser (root)
m ormal users (example: yagiz)
m A normal user account is used for daily usage of
the system.
m Superuser account is reserved for system
administration
m very user belongs to one or more groups
m Vinux is very strict about permissions
m very file belongs to a user
·  * *

m rom time to time you may need to become the


superuser; for installing applications, setting
system settings etc.
m he commands: su and sudo
m When you are root, B VY AV  he
system considers you know what you are doing
and does not ask you 'if you are sure' ± it just
executes the command 
Directory Structure
ë    
/ Root - Starting Point of Directory Structure
/etc Configuration Files
/bin /sbin Binaries (programs)
/home Personal Files
/var Variable data about system
/usr User Applications and alike
/tmp Ñemporary Files
/dev Devices
/mnt Mount Points
/proc Virtual directory, some info about kernel
 
+    , 
-  

x x xx xx 


x
x  
x  x x

x
x   x 
x x xx xx  


x
x    
x x xx xx   

x
x     

hanging Permission xamples (details later)


$ chmod 655 dosyaAdi
$ chmod 777 dosyaAdi2
$ chmod - 546 dizinVecindekiler
·
" )
 

!  


O   O  
 


 

   O 
    O
 

  
 

   O 
 O 

O   

    

 

#

m Manuals ± the man command gives you more


information about a command.
m ry:
man ls
man cp
m eading the manuals, you can learn about the
parameters and other features of the
commands.
[   

m You can redirect the output of a command to a


file.
m or example:
ls -l > filesVist.txt
m he '>' directs the output to the file.
+

m Pipes let you use the output of a program as the


input of another one 
m Here are a few samples:

O OO 
 

  O
# )
 

m ext editors: (.( ..



m hanging your password: 

m Print Working Directory: 
m Who are you?:  

m Who is logged in now?:  
m How long has it been?:  
m System information: 

m Visting the tasks, processes: .
m Stop the processes : .

# 

m How much space?: . .


m ile contents:  
m Print on screen:  
m Path of a command:  
m ename command:


m ompressing:

m Vinks: 
m ompiling: .//.0
(

) 
 
)



m o compile a  program you must have a


compiler like gcc or g++ (we will use gcc)
m f you already have a compiler to compile a
source code just type
˜˜      ˜
m o run the executable file type
   and press enter X
Ô 
m Pardus - http://www.pardus.org.tr/
m Özgürlük İçin, Pardus
http://www.ozgurlukicin.com/
m buntu - http://www.ubuntu.com/
m buntu |uide ± http://www.ubuntuguide.org
m VD (Vinux ullanıcıları Derneği)
http://www.linux.org.tr/
m Vinux Belgelendirme |rubu
http://www.belgeler.org/
m All Distros: Distrowatch
http://distrowatch.com/