‡ Size and shape of landscape patches influence biotic diversity, home range size and shape, animal dispersal behavior and species abundance.

ÐLarge patches typically conserve a greater variety and quality of habitats. ÐThis benefits interior species which are often the most vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation. quality of habitat. ÐMinimum patch area requirements for species are highly dependent on species. . and landscape context. resulting in higher species diversity and abundance.


.ÐRedundancy is an essential component of ecosystems at all scales. species may not be seriously threatened or lost if one of the patches is destroyed or degraded. If several patches exist in an area.

Biodiversity will remain higher and negative edge effects will be reduced . one fragmented and one unified.ÐOf two patches having exactly the same area. the unified patch will be of far greater value.

Ð Ð Habitat Fragmentation will result in low number of species. Animals are isolated in one location . Habitat loss.

This potential interaction is dependent on species and their movement capabilities .ÐOpportunities for species to interact become greater as the distance between patches decreases.

can increase risk of parasitism and disease. . and can facilitate dispersal of invasive species. ÐCorridors can be dominated by edge effects.ÐConnecting patches with corridors can benefit biodiversity by providing access to other areas of habitat. enabling recolonization of patches. and providing habitat. increasing gene flow and population viability.

ÐA less convoluted patch will have a lower proportion of edge habitat and will provide greater benefits for interior species which are often species of concern. .

. is often more productive because of a greater number of species from each of the adjacent areas utilize the boundary between those areas to acquire sustenance. such as a forest and a grassland.Ð The idea in ecology that a transition area between two different ecological associations.

ÐAn example of an edge effect is the Estuary. . a coastal body of water where a river meets the ocean and thus a brackish mixing area of fresh water drainage with higher salinity marine water.


Means to support or keep in existence or the maintenance of resources .


ÐEnhance productivity and pollution. ÐDiversity is greatly minimized by humans .

increase pollution.Ð Ð Ð Pre-industrial.redesigned industrial phase. . Low-input sustainable agriculture.natural ecosystem Industrial. erosion and habitat.





.Unsustainable industrial agriculture can be redesigned to sustain soil quality by combining modern technology with natural ecosystem.

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