You are on page 1of 58

m m

mATOM g
 NEUTRON mg

PROTON g


  ELEKTRON g

Gambar 1. Bagian Suatu Atom


 


  

m!" 
"

#"
#"
"!$" 
"%&$$
"%&$
'&( &) *

&  '


 " & 
+
"



 m$ m

½   ,$- ½  


 
 ""   
 
("*    
  " (*  
Õ 
 Õ   

!" 
 
!  
!! # #
!# 
!#" $ %
!#& ' 
!#   
( $
)$    
Õ$$ Õ $ Õ *

+

$    
, $ - 
-  .
. /
 0$  1
(2$   
3$ 4  4 
$ ½   ½ 5
 6$0 6 ½
*0 ,$2 , 
* 0 - 
-  .
. 7
+

$
+

$$ 0$02
2$
$$  80
8
Õ$0, $
$
$
0
0
0$$
2

$
 9 90
 00 
$

$:

Õ$$20 
$
02
  
$ #
#$ 
00 29  
 :

)$2$2
 
$

$

$

0$$2
 
$$:
 $## $$
 $

ñ+ $ "$& $&


 "$! "
,("%%*+,$- +

.+ 
 "$
&  "$ %
&" ",
( %* %$-"
 +
    ",

    ",


 
)- & !"
 " +
$""&  +

Gambar Alat Ukur Analog Gambar Alat Ukur Digital



$Õ$
 
(*" 
"  
"&"
% & "
"+
m!&"$"
% $$
!"$   &
&"$
"  & 
"$:

$+



 /(" ""


* "& & '(/*%
 +m!&"$ "" $
$  && 
 "'&  %+

$, 

½atatan : Dipasang Paralel dengan Hambatan yang akan diukur



 $0 2
0

 00

$

$9 $$990
2
 00$  0$$:
)$$ 00$  

 $  0 $ 2
0$0
 :,
 $
0$ 0$000
##:0
 :0##0   $
$8

0 
22
0
  
$ :2$ 00$ 
00  00$0

 :
Ú Ú     


Ú   
Ú Ú     
  
   
è  è  è 


 &
  
  $ $$'
 !      #
" # $
$% #
$$ !
#
& 


  
  
 
D Ú  D   
 D 
D Ú & D + D 
D Ú $$ D     D
 
D  ()*& D 
Ú  '%'
%
m

(8  $2




 ;$$$

$     0$

$:

<$
$ $ 0$
$020 0$ 
 $$$
    000

1 =& : *  2


$ 
1
 $ $


$ $$9$ $
2
 0$ $2

0  2:

12$$ >!! : *  


12$$
)02
   $$2

 2$0$2
9
$ $$0$ $$:
$00 


 $$0
$   
 $0 :
",% >? : *  
",%

 2
00
$ 000


$000:


 &?@90 
!A 
$0 !!
!!AA 

0092
 000

:

"#m$ / @!! :


"#m$ /
*   
 
 $
$ 0 0  
 B$ :
+ $$
#  $$$00 0
#
:  $$ 
:$0$$C2$
$ $##
:$0$$C2$
$ $
$$ 02 0$
$

 $$ 


2
  $$  $2

0  2$
$  00
$ $

2
0
:6$  6
:½  ½
:;  
?:/  /

$+ $$
 $0 8
$0 8##8$
 /+( /+ $$( $
 +$  $
 +$  
0 *
$0½$$2 *½  $

$0 0 


 ) $ $
 60##01
 60 01## $ $

 $0   $ $0$ 


D *8$$02$ $
$0
($
$
m 
m m
m $$
 $$
 $
!"$ $


  &  " m


3 (  $ "*
3 ( $"$ $$ *
3 %&( $"$ $$*
3 m ( $"$*
4D
4D 4/+(

D +½  ;+ $$½ 88


4'9/4


D '+½ '
;+ $$½ 88
4'9/+$


0 /+(
A /$0 !!.
!!. $2   
..
$$ #!!!½ @=! !½
A /
 $$ #
A Õ$+

 !9!!!"!½ !9 !½


A /20

A $   !9= =0


A ;$0 0;$
A ( $0
$ 9

 $/+(

$2
0

0
8 $  2 
00

0

  $ 
 $*08
 $080  $2
$ 
$0$$$ 0
$ 
:)
#

:)
# 
0$
 $08$0$0$  $9
90
 :
$$  - $ $$

$ ½2
008$  $:
*00  0 
 $:4 0 
 $00 
0$8  0$  $$9
$00 
 00$:4$$2
0
0  $08$ $

0
$0 $:
/
 $*08
 m  , m
  
      m2
 $08  20 $
2
0$0 0$0 :
( 0$0 9$200

$00$890

0 0$0 $$0
 
0 0$ 00:<$
0 0$
00 0$  $$:
/
 0 $2
0 $$
 




 $00  $0


$0 $0
 $8
)$ & !
""&$"
"+)!
" $ ,
&  $+$
& )"$"$
" & "%
$ &$


3 )

- $  
0$
8
 !-""
 !-""
%" "
$ " 
$"" "
"$") 
""$ 
""$%
+"
"$%& 
% 
+)
""" ! 
""
"" (
&  "*+
, m
 m 
  m2
 m
 $ 0  $2
 +/Õ'*++</
$ $0$  
22
0$  2
 $: $ 2
0
00$$
/<½<*</
$02 
00
0
 $
$
08 8:)
D
08 8:)
 D


 $ 
+/Õ'(3½</
0

$ 2
a   $ 2
$
a
 9$0$90
a
  9$0$90

:
<'13Õ+
$$ <(a  
$$ <( a     
 20


 0


0


 

 
0      
$ $9  0 09(/ :
$22

0$  
 

  0 
$0$

 
2
$:2$$ 0
0$ 

$ 2
$
Õ000  
$ $0
$;$0 $ 2

m 
0$  0
0
 

 0

0

0 $2
$
$0:

0$0 $0
 0:

 
0$$;$0$ $0

  $90
$2
 :
0$
00 002
89
$
20 $022
0
+/Õ'*++</ /<½<*</
2 )<'(Õ

m$m&

+/Õ'*++</ 2

)<'(Õ /8) +2


2
/<½<*</
ÕÕ/
+$
0 0 
: $2
0 $$ 9
$$ 9
  $
9$9$
9$9$

$9$$ $90$ :
: $2
0 $$ 9
$$ 9
    9$9$
;
Õ00 $
: ' $ 2- '-  $2
0
 0 $ 0 0$
: ' $ 2½  '½  $2
0 
0 $ 0  0$
)$




  $



)$ 

  $

m m m


  
 / $2

$1$
  


$Õ $
(8 0 
$$9
02


2$  0

$ 9   
0$ $0
$  $9  00
 $:
/<Õ*E-'+Õ+-/
""&)  ""$ &) 
  +4 ""$
"$%"" (ñ *+"
5"(oil
5"( oil*  (
*  (Normaly
Normaly
Open*  ,(
Open *  ,(Normaly
Normaly ½lose
½lose*+""
*+""
   $!" "
!&$  !"
!&
," ,!" +"""$"
"'$-

"

""$ & " 
  0  $&
!"  
"""" 
& " +&
&" & 
"$""" 
!$'"& 
 

"
//
 2 3
2 3  2 m   m

ñ+ m6  1 m    ,m  mm 


m  6( * 1 mm6 m4m
 m1 mm 1
    
(mm*  1 
 m , 
( 2  , *+

.+  7  


  m m#6  
 6#6  + 
 m  mm
 #62    m m 4 1
 4+

8+    52 , 


,   4   4 1 
 1 4   
 11 
  
 4 1 1  +

9+  652 2#


2#  4 1 11 4 1
m m 6   4   

 11 
    4 1 1  +
6 
 6 m   m
  m --
X m   m   -
mm   m  
 m   m   
 
 +

X m   m mm-


mm   m 
  m   
m    
  
( m *+
4m3
4m 34mm   m -

´  4
 m , 4 1
6 +m  4 , 4 1
6     1,  m   
4 1      +
´ m
m 1   
 +m  44m  m
m    1 m
 
  
 m 
  

 
m 
 +
´ m
m    m   
    m  
 1 
 m /<'½Õ'Õ*+Õ:
6 
6  

ñ+  4 1 2m 1m


     m 

m     1
  
 mm    m    
m    +, m
-m
 1 m mm 11 m m
 
+
.+  4 1m  1m
     m 

m     1
  
 m  m    m   
m 
 m  m+, m

 1    m 1 +
ºz{|}~ºz{|}}|}€z‚ƒ{€„ƒ…†z„‡ˆ}ˆ„‚ˆ{
}€„ˆ€z‰|Šz{‰z{‡ˆ…|ˆ{Š„ƒ}z}‹

ñ+  m   (  m  


m  *+  2mm
m   m  mmm 
 
m  , m
-  m  

  m m  +

.+  m ,   (  m  


m mm*+  2mm
 m   m  mm  
 6 m 1 m
  1 
  4   m +
, m
7  m  1 2 , +
ˆŒˆ ˆŒˆŠ„ƒ}z}|{‡Ž}€„|

ñ+    m 4  m  m 4


 m  m 6
 ,  m 4+, m
 
 m  1m m m
 11     m+

.+  m,

m,
 m  m 4
 m  m 6
 ,m   m 4+ 4 

m 6m    
  m+, m
 
 m 
  +

8+    m  


 

 ,  m 4   m m m
   6 4 

  4 1m   m 4+
  1m   m
Õ $ ½ F0

m $$ 2 


$  $92 
$ 2 
$00


 2
0   -'#(2+ $

:
+ $0
0 0
92
-'##(<Õ+*</90
-'
-66##(<Õ+*</
-66

  -66#(2+ $
  , m
  m m m

:(*/<½+-'*'<+Õ/+*'1 (-

/
 $  /
  $
:6-/Õ/(# /<</<-+-/,Õ<

/
 $  /
  $

½atatan: Motor 3 fasa


akan berbalik putarannya
jika salah satu fasa
dibalik sambungannya

ède f
) $