AVIATION HISTORY

Lecture 5: Helicopters

By Zuliana Ismail,2010

Introduction 
Helicopters truly are amazing aircraft, and how helicopters fly is what makes them such versatile machines, being perfectly suited to roles ranging from military use to fire fighting and search and rescue.  Helicopters have been around for centuries - well, the principle anyway - but it was Russian aircraft pioneer Igor Sikorsky who designed, built and in 1939 flew the first fully controllable single rotor / tail rotor helicopter - the fundamental concept that would shape all future helicopters.

Introduction 
Helicopter is an aircraft than can take-off

and land vertically.  Nowadays, they became one of the most versatile and vital vehicles in the world.

Early helicopters First flown in 1936

Rotor Blades Tail Rotor

Cockpit Landing Skids

Basic Helicopter 
Rotor Blades

Long, flat blades that spin & give a helicopter lift & thrust. It determine the helicopter direction. 
Tail Rotor

A small rotor at the back. Generate balance force (horizontal force) to help helicopter fly stably. It also used to change the helicopter¶s direction.

Basic Helicopter 
Engines
Used to power the helicopter. 

Cockpit
The area where the pilot sits and control the helicopter. 

Cabin
The area where passengers or other things are carried. 

Landing Skids
Long metal feet for helicopters stand on when they are on the ground.

How helicopter fly vertically?

How helicopter fly vertically? 

A helicopter doesn¶t require a runway to take-off into

the air, so the rotation of its rotor blades generates lift force.  When the lift force is greater than the helicopter¶s weight, it will fly up vertically.

How helicopter fly vertically? 
The helicopter engines will provide the power to turn the main rotor blades.  The rotor blades have an airfoil shape, so as the rotors turn, air velocity over the tops of the blades is higher than the below.  Thus, the pressure of the slower moving air flowing under the blade is greater than the above.  This difference in pressure pushes the blades up and gives the helicopter the lift it needs to fly.  When Lift force is greater than helicopter¶s weight, it will fly up vertically.  However, when the rotor blades turns, it also make the helicopter¶s body tend to spin also.  So, the tail rotor at the back is used to give balance force in order to prevent the helicopter¶s body to spin. 

For helicopter fly vertically, the pilot has to

push/pull the µcollective¶ control stick.  While, to move forward, backward, or to the side, the pilot uses the "cyclic" which is usually mounted between the legs.

How helicopter move forward

Thrust 

Direction of lift force can be changed by moves the µcyclic¶

in the required direction.  To move forward, pilot has to move the µcyclic¶ control stick to the front.  It will make the rotor blades tilted to the front, which lead to the differences of lift force generated.  As a result, it will create a forward force (thrust), which moves the helicopter forward.

How helicopter move backward
Thrust 

To move backward, pilot has to move the µcyclic¶ control stick to the back.  It will make the rotor blades tilted to the back, which lead to the differences of lift force generated.  As a result, it will create a backward force (thrust), which moves the helicopter backward.

Helicopter move side to side

Sideways force 

To move right, pilot has to move the µcyclic¶ control

stick to the right.  It will make the rotor blades tilted to the right, which lead to the differences of lift force generated.  As a result, it will create a sideways force, which moves the helicopter to the right.

Helicopter move side to side

Sideways force 

To move left, pilot has to move the µcyclic¶ control stick

to the left.  It will make the rotor blades tilted to the left, which lead to the differences of lift force generated.  As a result, it will create a sideways force, which moves the helicopter to the left.

Commercial

Construction

Sikorsky S-64 Skycrane lifting a mock-up house

Search & Rescue

The Uses of Helicopter Military

Firefighting

Bell 205 dropping water on fire

WAH-64 Apache attack helicopter

The Uses of Helicopter
Commercial Helicopters 
Mainly used for transport.

Construction Helicopters 
Helicopter that are used in construction to carry loads are called skycranes.  The heavy loads carried by skycranes are connected to long cables.  Are also used to place heavy equipment on the tops of tall buildings.

The Uses of Helicopter
Search and Rescue Helicopters 
Used for emergency medical assistance when an ambulance cannot easily or quickly reach the scene.

Firefighting Helicopters 
Used to combat fires.  These helicopters are often called Helitacks.  Helitacks carry water to perform water bombing onto the fire.

The Uses of Helicopter
Military Helicopters 
Are used mainly for attack and for transport.  Attack helicopters are equipped with missile or miniguns which are used to attack ground targets.  Transport helicopters are used to carry troops and supplies when transport via typical military cargo is not possible.

What are the advantages of the helicopter compare to airplane

Bell UH-1 Iroquois (Huey)- The most famous helicopter in the world with several unique characteristics

Serve as medical evacuation , instrument trainer and general utility aircraft

Advantages of Helicopter 
A normal airplane can fly forward, up,

down, left and right.  A helicopter can do all this plus has the ability to fly backwards, rotate 360 degrees on the spot and hover (can remain still)  Helicopters may be limited in their speed, but the incredible maneuverability mentioned above is what makes them so useful in so many situations.

Summary of helicopter advantages 
Can fly backwards (reverse)  Can rotate in the air (360 degrees)  Can hover (can remain in one place in the

air)
The capability to efficiently hover for extended periods of time, reverse and rotate allows a helicopter to accomplish tasks that airplane cannot perform.

Advantages of Helicopter

Advantages of Helicopter 
Flexible (doesn¶t require runway)

As helicopter do not need runway for take-off and landing, it can fly almost anywhere. Can deliver huge loads to areas that no other vehicle can reach. For example crowd areas, isolated areas and deep jungle.  Versatile (able to perform many functions) Helicopter functions include transportation, construction, fight fires, search and rescue, military uses and also can rescue people trapped in burning buildings.

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