History, Philosophy and Theory in Visualization ³Everything You Know is Wrong´

Science & Technology Studies
´Science and Technology Studies (STS) is a broad, interdisciplinary, and rapidly growing field that explores the relationship between science, technology and the ways they shape society and our understanding of the world.´

Liz Dorland
Departments of Biology and Chemistry

Will the real DNA please stand up?

A Philosopher's Call to End All Paradigms ³Steve Fuller says academics have no idea how new ideas are really created.´ Chronicle of Higher Ed, Sept. 15, 2000

Social Epistemology
³An intellectual movement of broad cross-disciplinary provenance that attempts to reconstruct the problems of epistemology once knowledge is regarded as intrinsically social. It is often seen as philosophical science policy or the normative wing of science studies. Originating in studies of academic knowledge production, social epistemology has begun to encompass knowledge in multicultural and public settings, as well as the conversion of knowledge to information technology and intellectual property.´ -- Steve Fuller 1. ³Classical epistemology, philosophy of science and sociology of knowledge have presupposed an idealized conception of scientific inquiry that is unsupported by the social history of scientific practices;´ ³Nevertheless, one still needs to articulate normatively appropriate ends and means for science, given science's status as the exemplar of rationality for society at large.´ ³The question for social epistemologists, then, is whether science's actual conduct is worthy of its exalted social status and what political implications follow from one's answer. Those who say "yes" assume that science is on the right track and offer guidance on whom people should believe from among competing experts, whereas those who say "no" address the more fundamental issue of determining the sort of knowledge that people need and the conditions under which it ought to be produced and distributed.´ www.warwick.ac.uk/~sysdt/socialepist.html

Collins - Golem Golinski - Making Natural Knowledge Feyerabend - Against Method, Farewell to Reason (Popper¶s student) Ludwig Fleck Rorty Jonassen and Dede vs Sweller Roth and Tobin

Theories of Learning

Multiple Representations Communities of Practice Instructional Design vs ??


http://onlyagame.typepad.com/only_a_game/philosophy/index.html Theories, Models and Predictive Hypotheses http://philosophy.wisc.edu/forster/papers/Kuhn/Kuhn.htm
Picture Theory: Essays on Verbal and Visual Representation. - book reviews Art in America, May, 1995 by Brian Wallis

"Chemical Industry, Upheld by Pure Science, Sustains the Production of Man's Necessities" Frontispiece (New York, 1937)

(W.J.T.) ³Mitchell, who has a fondness for inventing terms, calls this postmodern phenomenon "the pictorial turn" (in contrast to philosopher Richard Rorty's phrase, "the linguistic turn"). Mitchell defines the pictorial turn as:´ ³«a postlinguistic, postsemiotic rediscovery of the picture as a complex interplay between visuality, apparatus, institutions, discourse, bodies, and figurality. It is the realization that spectatorship (the look, the gaze, the glance, the practices of observation, surveillance, and visual pleasure) may be as deep a problem as various forms of reading (decipherment, decoding, interpretation, etc.) and that visual experience or "visual literacy" might not be fully
explicable on the model of textuality´ These interests are directed toward the goals of breaking down the distinctions between fields, stimulating debate, and directing attention to hybrid images (like the dialectical rabbit-duck logo) that "work through contradiction interminably." Such ambitions go well beyond those of most tenured radicals, but for junior postmodernists certain of Mitchell's positions will no doubt seem rather tame.

SSK: Sociology of Scientific Knowledge

Journals: Learning from Visualizations The Learning Sciences
³«narrative and meaning in our understanding of science and industry«.´

Debates: Constructivism vs Direct Instruction

Jastrow (1899) ³Duck-Rabbit´ (not Wittgenstein or Kuhn¶s) http://socrates.berkeley.edu/~kihlstrm/JastrowDuck.htm Eye Site: www.uic.edu/com/eye/LearningAboutVision/EyeSite/OpticalIllustions/

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