Vitamin B12
also called cobalamin a water soluble vitamin with a key role in the normal functioning of the:
      brain and nervous system formation of blood involved in the metabolism of every cell DNA synthesis and regulation fatty acid synthesis energy production

produced industrially only through BACTERIAL-FERMENTATION SYNTHESIS It contains the biochemically rare element cobalt. .

which require an acid pH .Absorption & Distribution small amounts of unbound crystalline B12 can be absorbed through the mucous membrane Food protein-bound vitamin B12 is digested in the stomach by proteolytic gastric enzymes .

free B12 + IF = IF/B12 ABSORBED DUODENUM IF/B12 + Ileal Receptor = PORTAL CIRCULATION IF/B12 = TC-II/B12 TC-IIB12 + Cell Receptor (Endocytosis) .STOMACH B12 is freed from the proteins in food haptocorrins & cobalaphilins + free vitamin B12 = B12-R complex proteases digest R-proteins and release B12 then.

Source .

 Lacto-ovo Vegetarian ‚ is a vegetarian who does not eat animal flesh of any kind. but is willing to consume dairy and egg products. .

Vegan ‚ consumes no animal products ‚ will lack B12 unless they consume multivitamin supplements or B12-fortified foods .

generally limited to vegan children. and B12. were discovered by accident  Large amount of Iron intake . who are at risk due to higher needs of the vitamin no intake of animal products that contain it The cure.Vitamin B12 Deficiency B12 deficiency is the cause of pernicious anemia an anemic disease that was usually fatal and had unknown etiology when it was first described in medicine.

1% of this is lost per day Bile is the main form of B12 excretion .Vegans are generally encouraged to ingest B12 supplements total amount of vitamin B12 stored in body is about 2 5 mg in adult Around 50% of this is stored in the live Approximately 0.

 Dietary Reference Intake Vitamin B12 is believed to be safe when used orally in amounts that do not exceed the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) Vitamin B12 has extremely low toxicity .


and it is water-soluble A form of ascorbic acid is commonly known as vitamin C  a. Ascorbic acid A sugar acid with antioxidant properties Its appearance is white to light-yellow crystals or powder.(meaning "no") and scorbutus (scurvy) Also referred to as hexuronic acid Sources includes citrus fruits .

or heat destroys ascorbic acid. metals. potassium. and calcium salts are commonly used as antioxidant food additives . so it must be stored in a dark.used as a reductant in photographic developer solutions (among others) and as a preservative Exposure to oxygen. light. cold. and non-metallic container Ascorbic acid and its sodium.

eat it. and single-cell organisms All animals either make it. animals. or else die from scurvy due to lack of it .Ascorbic Acid Synthesis  Ascorbic acid is found in plants.

notably the guinea pig. and a few other species in all divisions of the animal kingdom.Primates. including humans. have lost the ability to synthesize ascorbic acid. and must obtain it in their food .

scurvy is sometimes referred to as Barlow's disease Other eponyms include Moeller's disease and Cheadle's disease.Ascorbic Acid Deficiency  SCURVY is a disease resulting from a deficiency of vitamin C common among sailors. pirates and others aboard ships at sea and soldiers In infants. Treated with Vitamin C .

 Manifestations formation of spots on the skin spongy gums bleeding from the mucous membranes spots are most abundant on the thighs and legs looks pale feels depressed partially immobilized. In advanced scurvy there are open. . suppurating wounds and loss of teeth.

Prevention  Diet that includes certain citrus fruits .

 Some vegetables .

 Animal Product .

 Other products .