Generally used in the form of piles.Uses of Timber ‡ 1. musical instruments etc. ceiling. scaffolding. door-window frames and leaves. posts. panelling and construction of partition walls ‡ Used as formwork of concrete. lintels. . ‡ It is employed for flooring. beams. transmission poles and fencing ‡ Furniture's. roof members. sport goods .

Hardwood ‡ A comparison of softwood and hardwood . Softwood 2.Classification Of trees ‡ Classified as 1.

± Hardwood like sal other than teak for permanent structure. . ± Softwood other than deodar used only for temporary structure.Classification of Timber ‡ Specification of Timber used in building construction is required to be one of four ± Hardwood like teak wood for permanent structures ± Softwood like deodar for permanent structures.

Classification of Teak .

.5 % of the piece.May have traces of SapWood.Wood should be free of Sapwood.Classification of Deodar ‡ For classification other than teak like deodar we adopt two classes ‡ First Class No individual hard and sound knot shall be more than 25 mm diameter with aggregate area of all live knots shall not exceed 1 percent of the area of the piece.No individual hard and sound knot shall be more than 40 mm in diameter and total area of the knot in piece should not increase 1. ‡ Second class .

rafter. The guide for selection of wood is that local wood traditionally used in the area of the country for each part of the building should always be selected for use of such part. It has to meet the requirement of first class deodar for use as beams.wood block for floors etc ‡ Secondary species : There are many other timbers classes as secondary species. Mango benteak comes in this class. .‡ Another hardwood that is classified as good is salwood.

Cross section of Exogenous Tree .

‡ Sapwood : The outer annual rings between heartwood and cambium layer is known as sap wood also called alburnum. This indicates recent growth and contains sap.‡ Pith innermost or central portion of Tree. It is larger in younger trees than in matured trees. ‡ Hearth wood : It consists of inner annular rings round the pith. . This is usually light in color and weight. The layer is moist and is less durable. strong. durable and darker in color. It is compact.

‡ Inner bark: It is the inner skin or layer covering the cambium layer. Protects the cambium layer from injury. . ‡ Medullary Rays : These are the thin radial fibers extending from pith to cambium layer.‡ Cambium Layer: Thin layer below bark but not yet converted into Sap wood as yet called cambium layer. ‡ Outer Bark : It consists of wood fibre and is the outermost cover or skin of the stem ‡ Annular Ring : The annular ring consists of cellular tissue and woody fibre arranged in distinct concentric circles or rings round the pith generally one in every year. These are formed due to deposition of barks.

Exogenous trees ‡ These trees grows outwards and increase in bulk by formation of successive annular rings on the outside under bark.Classification of Tress ‡ 1. Bamboo .Canes . Ex . Ex. Endogenous trees These tress grows inwards. teak ‡ 2. The stem of these trees are too flexible thus not suitable for engineering works .sal.Deodar.

Defects of Timber .

. They can be cup shake.40 mm Large Knots Dia 40 mm Shakes These are the cracks or splits in the felled logs due to many causes. These are source of weakness when used to carry compression.‡ Knots : These are section of branches of trees which will be present on the surface of wood in the form of hard dark pieces. heart shake or circumferential shrinkage.20 mm Medium Knots -.Dia 20 . Nail knots Dia less than 6 mm Small knots Dia 6 .

‡ Twisted grain or fibre : -These defect is caused in the tree itself due to action of wind. ‡ Rind Gall : Rind means bark and gall means abnormal growth. ‡ Presence of Sapwood ‡ Crack . Resin pockets. fissures. . These are generally caused by growth of layers over the wounds left after branches has been improperly cut. ‡ Upset or Rupture : .This is caused due to injury during growth of tree due to strong winds or bad felling of trees resulting in discontinuity of fibres. Hence peculiar curved swellings formed on the body of a tree are known as rindgalls.

Hot and cold open tank. It is a compound of arsenic . 4. Brush and spray is used(Solvents or emulsion are used for this) 2.Preservation of Timber ‡ Charring ‡ Painting with tar ‡ Treatment with preservation 1. . Copper and potassium chromate in the proportion of 1:3:4 by weight. Immersion: In this method the materials are immersed in the preservative solution for penetration 3. Pressure and vaccum treatment Important Preservative : ASCU .

‡ Natural & Artificial seasonong. ‡ Advantages of Seasoning Of Timber .Assignment ‡ What is seasoning. .

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