The Invention of the Telephone
• ‘In 1861 Johann Phillip Reis completed
the first non-working telephone. Tantalizingly close to reproducing speech, Reis's instrument conveyed certain sounds, poorly, but no more than that’. (Farley, 2006)
•Essentially Reis’ telephone worked on the
same principle as the telegraph by making a series of ‘on and off’ connections. This is fine for transmitting a single sound, as employed in Morse code which is either a short pulse (a dot) or a long pulse (a dash). However; ‘Turning the current off and on like a telegraph cannot begin to duplicate speech since speech, once flowing, is a fluctuating wave of continuous character; it is not a collection of off and on again pulses’ (Farley, 2006)
• ‘Reproducing speech practically relies
on the transmitter making continuous contact with the electrical circuit. A transmitter varies the electrical current depending on how much acoustic pressure it gets.’ (Farley, 2006)
In the early 1870s there was still no working telephone. Most inventors were working on improving the telegraph for which there was already a growing market. Elisha Grey and Alexander Graham Bell were two inventors who were trying to increase the number of telegraphs it was possible to send along a telegraph line, a patent for such an invention could earn the inventor millions
Elisha Grey was a successful inventor and master electrician who viewed the telephone an interesting goal. Bell had trained to become a professor of vocal physiology and taught the deaf, his entire upbringing had revolved around speech, sound and their mechanics.
• The race was on to produce a
multiplexing telegraph device. Alexander Graham Bell put forward the idea of the harmonic telegraph which would use tones of different pitches to send independent telegraphs. After receiving funding from several people he began his experiments in 1874
a young • In early 1875, Bell, with the help ofincreased the machinist named Thomas Watson pace of his experiments on the harmonic telegraph for his investors. He also worked hard on the telephone which had become his real focus.
a great inventor and • He visited Joseph Henry,D.C., Henry was the scientist in Washington
pioneer of electromagnetism and helped Samuel Morse develop the telegraph
ideas of • Henry said that Bell’s held "thetransmitting speech electronically germ of a great invention.“ and advised him to drop all other work in order to concentrate on the telephone
• Whilst working in earnest to invent a working
telephone, Bell told Watson "If I can get a mechanism which will make a current of electricity vary in its intensity as the air varies in density when a sound is passing through it, I can telegraph any sound, even the sound of speech." (Fagan, 1975) his inventions, Bell had finally cracked the secret to transmitting speech; variable current as opposed to on/off transmission
• Although he made no immediate breakthrough in
On June 2nd 1875 whilst testing a harmonic telegraph which refused to work it transmitted the sound of Watson plucking a tuned spring. Ordinarily the harmonic telegraph transmitted on and off, however on this fateful day a screw was done up too tight keeping a constant, varying current based on what he had found. It was named the ‘Gallows Telephone’ but unfortunately it didn’t work. Disheartened and running out of funds, Bell did few experiments for the remainder of 1875.
that had • Recognising the happy accident a telephone occurred, Bell had Watson build
The Patent War
• In February 1876 Bell’s patent for
the telephone was received and approved only hours before Elisha Gray filed a Notice of Invention thus undermining it. This one patent has arguably become the most litigated patent with some 600 cases brought against it. (Farley,
week • “Finally, on March 10, 1876, oneBoston, after his patent was allowed, in
Massachusetts, at his lab at 5 Exeter Place, Bell succeeded in transmitting speech. He was not yet 30. Bell used a liquid transmitter, something he hadn't outlined in his patent or even tried before, but something that was described in Gray's Notice.” (Farley, 2006)
The first working telephone using the liquid transmitter was not largely practical as the user had to bellow into the transmitter to get it to do anything. However, with a working prototype Bell was able to develop and improve on his design using better materials and techniques. The telephone slowly evolved from the liquid transmitter to the electromagnetic transmitter, but there was little to turn it from a curiosity item to a necessity as the technology was initially crude and the transmission quality was poor.
until Thomas Edison invented • It was not transmitter that the telephonean improved became practical. Bell and his trustees formed the first Bell Telephone company and began leasing telephones as Western Union, the largest telegraph company also incorporated the telephone. use • With Western Union’s and of the telephone, exchanges were built the telephone as we know it today took its first tentative steps from a curiosity item to a viable, useful invention in long distance communication
The rise of the modern telephone
• The Rotary Telephone first came
into use in 1916 despite its invention in 1904.
• Rotary telephones were worked
manually by dialling a number they replaced the old operator system, whereby an operator would have to connect you to whoever you wished to speak with.
(R.S Kimball 1946)
The Red Telephone Box
• The K2 design originated in a Post Office
competition in 1924 requiring designers to come up with plans for a new standard kiosk to succeed the various designs proliferating across the country.
• Previously kiosk design had been
determined by the individual telephone companies.
• The winning design, which arrived on the
streets of Britain in 1926, was a design by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, the architect responsible for Liverpool's Anglican Cathedral.
( http://heritage.elettra.co.uk/phonebox/k2.html 24/2/2011 )
• They are now a British icon.
• Although not many people use these icons today it bought using the
telephone on the go in to the forefront of the mind. phone developers around the world.
• This need for communication on the go must have been inspiration for
• After the II world war
phones became a design feature of the home. • The design industry boomed after the war, this period was known as ‘mid century modern’ it included architecture, interior and product design. • Looks and colour played a part in the design of phones:
The swap from switch board jobs....
... To customer services and sales.
‘The internet is a global network of computers linked together by the telephone system’ (Parson J, 2004) A very brief timeline. • 1960 The US military links up all its large computers, forming a network known as ARPANET • Late 1970s - Users can now interact with computer data by clicking on icons and windows on the screen with a screen and a mouse. • 1980 - ARPANET becomes the internet, as US military withdraw from the network and it is used increasingly by universities and colleges. • 1981 - The first IBM personal computers using MS-DOS became available. •1990 - Use of the Internet and email become widespread. • 2001 - A web server the size of a match head is produced. (Parson J, 2004) • 2001 - Broadband internet becomes widely available. • 2010 - Fibre optic broadband becomes available.
The effects of the internet • Increase in email, and therefore improved communication across large distances. • Improvements in business links. • Improvements in education possibilities. • E-commerce.
1G - 1st generation wireless technology. • The first cellular mobile phones released used 1G technology. 1G technology uses analog radio signal. 2G - 2nd generation wireless technology. • 2G was the first digital wireless service, all conversations were digitally encrypted. 2G also saw the introduction of text messaging and was first introduced in finland in 1991
Wireless Phone Technology
Motorola DynaT 8000X
3G - 3rd generation wireless technology. • Saw the increase in possible data transfer • This also allowed for mobile broadband for the use in laptops. • First released in Japan in 2001 but with limited area. It became more widespread in 2002 4G - 4th generation wireless technology. • Technically in two forms, of Samsung F480 Tocco 3G Phone ‘advanced’ 3G which allows for further increase in data transfer and a wider range.
The Smartphone Generation
‘Mobile is the future’ (Claudine Beaumont, Technology Editor at Mobile World Congress) The phone is no longer just a device - "it's your alter ego - it's fundamental to everything you do." ‘Google is now a "mobile first" business, with programmers and developers building mobile versions of applications and software before they built the desktop versions.’ (Eric Schmidt, Google's chairman and chief executive, 2010)
‘Any website designed to allow multiple users to publish content themselves. The information may be on any subject and may be for consumption by (potential) friends, mates, employers, employees, etc. The sites typically allow users to create a "profile" describing themselves and to exchange public or private messages and list other users or groups they are connected to in some way.’ (The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, Denis Howe 2010
We all know what it is right?...
... Just incase..
A regional head of security has been removed from his post following clashes with protesters in the Libyan town of al-Bayda on Wednesday which left several people dead, local media say. The move came as anti-government activists called for a "day of anger" via social networking sites.
• • • •
http://www.myinsulators.com/commokid/telephones/1950s Parson, Jane, Illustrated Family Encyclopaedia, 2004, Dorling Kindersley Ltd 2004 R.S Kimball, Popular Science Monthly, August 1946
Ericsson, Samsung Make LTE Connection OCTOBER 23, 2009 | Ray Le Maistre http://www.lightreading.com/document.asp?doc_id=18352 Accessed (27/02/2011)
Ericsson, Samsung Make LTE Connection OCTOBER 23, 2009 | Ray Le Maistre http://www.lightreading.com/document.asp? doc_id=183528& Accessed (27/02/2011) Fagen, M.D., ed. A History of Engineering and Science in the Bell System. Volume 1 The Early Years, 1875 -1925. New York: Bell Telephone Laboratories, 1975 R.S Kimball, Popular Science Monthly, August 1946 Parson, Jane, Illustrated Family Encyclopaedia, 2004, Dorling Kindersley Ltd 2004