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Defining Communication Process of Communication Communication Model Objectives of Communication Principles of effective communication Importance of Business Communication Importance of Feedback

Communication is the process of exchanging information. . It takes a wide variety of forms from two people having a face to face conversation to hand signals to message sent over the global telecommunication networks. usually through a common system of symbols.

email. and letter writing . online chat. Ex: telephone conversation.Direct exchange between individuals who can be designated into roles as source and audience Types: ` FACE-TO-FACE : occurs between two persons ` MEDIATED: occurs when a device such as a telephone or computer is placed in between the source and audience.

TYPES: ` FACE-TO-FACE: group meetings.Happens within and between groups. may be external or internal . messages with or without the use of microphones ` MEDIATED: some forms of media or communications technologies are used to disseminate messages. lectures. organizations and institutions.

BC and film ` OTHER FORMS: music recordings. allow large-scale dissemination of messages to audiences who are dispersed over a wide geographical area. is highly impersonal.Directed to the general public and. FORMS: ` TRADITIONAL TRI-MEDIA: print. therefore. advertising and other strategies for mass marketing and publicity .

The words were spoken with different tonalities and subjects were asked to guess the emotions behind the words as spoken. three conveying neutrality (maybe. by a ratio of 3:2. Study 1 Subjects were asked to listen to a recording of a female saying the single word 'maybe' in three tones of voice to convey liking. ` . ` Study 2 Subjects listened to nine recorded words. dear and thanks). brute and terrible). really and oh) and three conveying disliking (don t. the photos and both in combination. The experiment finding was that tone carried more meaning than the individual words themselves. The photos got more accurate responses than the voice. The subjects were then shown photos of female faces with the same three emotions and were asked to guess the emotions in the recorded voices. three conveying liking (honey. neutrality and disliking.The studies Mehrabian and his colleagues were seeking to understand the relative impact of facial expressions and spoken words.

` 38% happens through voice tone.Mehrabian concluded the following formula from these studies: Total Liking = 7% Verbal Liking + 38% Vocal Liking + 55% Facial Liking This is subsequently generalized to mean that in all communications: ` 7% happens in spoken words. ` 55% happens via general body language. .

It can be defined as The use of effective language to convey a clear business message to achieve a predetermined objective. . The message conveyed should be clear. The predetermined purpose should be achieved.` ` ` Language used should be effective.

` ` ` ` Business communication encompasses not only communicating with external contacts but also with employees within the organization. This will aid the business in being well-organized and every matter whether it is a problem. an inquiry or a sales letter will be attended to properly and promptly. It does not mean that only a client s inquiry should be responded promptly but also feedbacks or problems arising inside and outside the business as well. This is done to have a balance within the internal and external factors. whether they are employees or other external contacts. . especially in relation to dealing with people.

Lesser Misundersta nding

Better quality of documents

Enhanced Professional image

Increased awareness among employees

Effective Communication

Increased productivity

Stronger Decision Making Quicker Problem Solving Healthier business relationships

Improved customer relations


Control communication acts to control member behavior in several ways. Organization have authority hierarchies and formal guidelines that employees are required to follow. Motivation communication fosters motivation by clarifying to employees what is to be done, how well they are doing, and what can be done to improve performance. Emotional expression communication, provides a release for the emotional expression of feelings and for fulfillment of social needs. Information it provides the information that individuals and groups need to make decisions by transmitting the data to identify and evaluate alternative choices.





The communication process includes: sender or encoder, receiver or decoder, message, channel or medium, feedback, and environment.

transmitted. and decoded Step 6 Receiver Sends Feedback Step 2 Sender Encodes Idea Step 3 Channel Sender Transmits Message Step 4 Receiver Gets Message Step 5 Receiver Decodes Message .Step 1 Sender Has An Idea Feedback also needs to be encoded.

but information about history and attitude toward the receivers as well. how to send it. The sender bears the burden in this process. communicating not only the content of the message. and what if any response is required.` Sender or Encoder The sender initiates a communication-and determines the intent of the message. .

their cultural background. The message the sender encodes may not be the message received. Feedback may help to prevent misunderstandings.` Receiver or Decoder Receivers comprise the target audience of a message transmitted by the sender. . Receivers interpret messages based upon their frame of reference: includes their life experiences. and the values and beliefs they hold.


.` Message Contains ideas expressed to other individuals Messages generally take one or more of three forms: informative. persuasive. and actuative.

either verbally and face-to-face. . The medium can impact the message positively or negatively.` Channel or Medium The channel conveys the message to the receiver. so the sender must choose the best medium for assuring effective communication. or in another mediated fashion.

the decoder. allowing the sender to become a receiver and vice versa. .` Feedback Reports back to the sender that the receiver. received and understood the message. Feedback makes communication a two-way process.

but neg.` ` ` ` ` ` Feedback should occur immediately Supervisory feedback should complement work-related behavior Positive feedback produces the best results. feedback can be better than no feedback Verbal feedback should accompany and support or verify nonverbal signals Workers remember what they hear first and last in a message Feedback allows us to learn how people think and feel about things .

and timing. lighting.` Environment The environment in which the communication process occurs may influence the probability of success or failure This environment includes room color. . temperature. as well as organizational climate and superior-subordinate and peer relationships. furniture.

visual or any other. E. and in case of business houses this information is mostly about the product or services that they have to offer..g. But the mode of communication may be verbal.` Information.The main objective of a business is to pass on information and making people more informed.all the advertisement activity that we see around as are an attempt to inform and pass the information on to others. written. .

So if the communication is done properly and is successful in motivating the workers and workers are motivated enough the work gets done easily. efficiently and they will work independently and with out supervision.communication in business is also necessary to increase the motivation in the workers.` Motivation. .

.Another very important objective of business communication (internal) is to keep the moral of the workers high so that they work with vigor and confidence as a team. This is a major factor that can have very serious impact on the success of a business house.` Raising Morale .

We should always be careful while handing out written orders and should always keep a copy of the order so that follow up action can be taken. Written orders are given when the nature of work is very important or the person who would perform the task is far away. end or modifying an activity. . Order may be written or verbal.` Order and instructions An order is an oral or written command directing the start. This form of communication is internal and is carried out within a business house.


Education and training- Now communication can also be used in business to increase the circle of knowledge. The objective of education is achieved by business communication on three levels (a) Management (b) employees (c) general public


Principle of clarity: The message must be as clear as possible. No ambiguity should creep into it. The message can be conveyed properly only if it has been clearly formulated in the mind of the communicator. Principle of objective: the communicator must know clearly the purpose of communication before actually transmitting the message. The objective may be to obtain information, give information, initiate action, and change another person s attitude and so on. If the purpose of communication is clear it will help in the choice of mode of communication.



Principle of understanding the receiver: understanding is the main aim of any communication. The communication must crate proper understanding in the mind of the receiver. Principle of consistency: the message to be communicated should be consistent with plans, policies, programmes and goals of the enterprise. The message should not be conflicting with previous communications. It should not create confusion and chaos in the organisation.


` Principle of completeness: the message to be communicated must be adequate and complete. otherwise it will be misunderstood by the receiver. Principle of feedback: this principle calls for communication a two-way process and providing opportunity for suggestion and criticism. his reactions must be known to the sender of message. ` . Since the receiver is to accept and carry out the instructions.


the American political scientist states that a convenient way to describe an act of communication is to answer the following questions ` Who ` Says What ` In Which Channel ` To Whom ` With what effect? .Harold Dwight Lasswell.

According to Lasswell there are three functions for communication: ` Surveillance of the environment ` Correlation of components of society ` Cultural transmission between generation Advantages ` It is Easy and Simple ` It suits for almost all types of communication ` The concept of effect .

` ` ` Feedback not mentioned Noise not mentioned Linear Model .

They developed a model of communication which was intended to assist in developing a mathematical theory of communication. Their goal was to ensure the maximum efficiency of telephone cables and radio waves. .` ` ` They were Engineers working for Bell Telephone Labs in the United States.

which produces a message. where the message arrives. which encodes the message into signals x A channel. which 'decodes' (reconstructs) the message from the signal. x A destination. noise is a dysfunctional factor .C & W's original model consisted of five elements: x An information source. to which signals are adapted for transmission x A receiver. x A sixth element. x A transmitter.

the signal is the sound waves. and the transmitter and receiver are the telephone handsets. my mouth is the transmitter.For the telephone the channel is a wire. Noise would include crackling from the wire. . the signal is an electrical current in it. Noise would include any distraction you might experience as I speak. and your ear is the receiver. In conversation.

Levels of problems in the analysis of communication x The technical problem: how accurately can the message be transmitted? x The semantic problem: how precisely is the meaning 'conveyed'? x The effectiveness problem: how effectively does the received meaning affect behaviour? .

and x quantifiability. . leading to further theory and research.x simplicity. x generality. It also drew serious academic attention to human communication and 'information theory'.

It conceives of a linear and literal transmission of information from one location to another. . it is relatively static and linear.` ` Not analogous to much of human communication.


` ` ` ` The idea of source was flexible enough to include oral. The notions of encoding and decoding emphasized the problems we all have (psycho-linguistically) in translating our own thoughts into words or other symbols and in deciphering the words or symbols of others into terms we ourselves can understand. for they were the targets. written. The model recognized that receivers were important to communication. stressing the transmission of ideas. . or any other kind of symbolic generator-of-messages. electronic. Message was made the central element.

. attitudes. preventing interference. and radar systems. beliefs. But even with the right symbols.` ` ` Tends to stress the manipulation of the message the encoding and decoding processes it implies that human communication is like machine communication. values. but of reaction. like signal-sending in telephone. Problems in meaning or meaningfulness often aren t a matter of comprehension. people misunderstand each other. television. of agreement. of shared concepts. and sending efficient messages. computer. It even seems to stress that most problems in human communication can be solved by technical accuracy-by choosing the right symbols.

` It is a Circular Model. so that communication is something circular in nature .

there is an interpretation goes on.` ` ` Encoder Who does encoding or Sends the message (message originates) Decoder Who receives the message Interpreter Person trying to understand (analyses. Based on this interpretation only the message is received. perceive) or interpret Note: From the message starting to ending. .

each person acts as both sender and receiver and hence use interpretation. interpret and decoding. encoding.` It can happen within our self or two people. It is simultaneously take place e.g. Technical Language. It happens mostly because of words and phrases for e.g. Semantic noise is a concept introduced here it occurs when sender and receiver apply different meaning to the same message. So certain words and phrases will cause you to deviate from the actual meaning of the communication. ` .

Shows how a situation can change It shows why redundancy is an essential part There is no separate sender and receiver.` ` ` ` ` Dynamic model. sender and receiver is the same person Assume communication to be circular in nature Feedback central feature. .

participation. . there is more emphasis on signs and symbols. Communication is seen as timeless and unchanging. fellowship the maintenance of society in time. James Carey in 1975 was the first to challenge this.not the act of imparting information but the representation of shared beliefs . He suggested an alternative view of communication as ritual in which communication is linked to sharing. association. Medium and message are harder to separate.` ` ` ` ` Early models were based on a transmissive or transportation approach (ie assuming that communication was one-way).

The tree is both medium and message. .` The Christmas tree represents the model it symbolises ideas and values of friendship and celebration but has no instrumental purpose.

an exercise of the power one has over others. ` ` ` It focus on the fact that communication is.` It takes communication as a means to liberation. It considers the inequalities among classes.economic and social groups. a factory. .castes. participation in collective life and creation of awareness. It is a reflection of the power relation in family. or b/w sender and receiver of mass communication. at times.

e.hasya rasa(jocular mood). To be Sahridayas.` ` ` ` Indian Sage Bharat Muni calls sadharanikaran the key process in communication.karun rasa (Compassionate mood) and so on .e. He said that the right communication is between the sahridayas(i. those whose hearts are attuned to each other s).common learning and be adapted to each other. bhayanak rasa(fierce mood). the sender and receiver have to have a common culture.i. His Rasa theory states that human mind has nine permanent moods and these can be aroused to create nine rasas.

This theory emphasises the receiver s mental conditioning by which he/she can in tune with the msg. western models stress expression. . While Indian model focusses on the interpretation by the receiver.` ` ` The message by producing the desired mood in the audience achieves sadharanikaran(unity of spirit).

` Principle of time: information should be communicated at the right time. . The communicator must consider the timing of communication so that the desired response is created in the minds of the receivers.


Perception and reality .` ` ` Barriers to Communication Effective Listening Types and essentials of effective listening.

Status Barriers .` ` ` ` ` Mechanical Barriers Physical Barriers Psychological Barriers Semantic and language Barriers.

etc. .` ` ` Anything that prevents successful communication from occurring Complex and multi-layered Can be technical or generated by the medium used.

4. A weak microphone or poor sound spread of the meeting place. Atmospherics on radio or T. 3. Electricity/computer breakdown. Poor printing quality or paper. Defective telephone lines. 2. spread of link. . especially in cloudy weather.V.Some Possible mechanical failures are: 1. 5. overlap of colors.

` Background noise reduces audibility. ` ` . Distance Time taken for the message to reach its destination.

Emotional states of the person. Poor retention power is a barrier. Loyalty to a brand or organisation.A prejudice is the judgment formed without proper information. One s Prejudice. Fixed images about other people. A wandering mind. Ideological loyalties. The age of the listener. .` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` A person of weak hearing or eyesight. A person s educational level. Gender Barriers.

The world is full with errors. as a result of differences in semantic (meaning) understanding.Semantics is the study of how words convey meanings. A basic principle of communication is that the symbols the sender uses to communicate messages must have the same meaning in both the sender s and receiver s minds You can never be sure that the message in your mind will be clearly sent to your receiver. .

Opinions are given as facts.` ` ` ` The Sender s and receiver s experience with the word differ.One may want to say that student of that particular college is rowdy but in order to avoid naming names. Words from one environment are taken out and put into an environment where they don t fit. example. one may abstract generalise and put the blame on the college students as a whole. . An Abstract word is used when concrete word is required.

Also when idioms are meant to be understood in the idiomatic sense but are taken in the literal sense. .` ` Complex phrases and long constructions are used.

sometimes due to their previous regional habits distort pronunciations. . Speakers with different accents find it hard to understand in India while Americans may have hard time making sense of Indianised English.` ` ` As for language barriers. Lack of proper language skills may lead to wrong choice of words. we all experience how different regional groups. Example: He is good at Batting. He is good at betting.

she crossed the track at the wrong place and suffered a setback. she was disqualified and lost her gold medal for having crossed the track at the place where she should not have gone.` Shiny Abraham at the 1986 Asian Games at Seoul. the colour of the flag. Whereas in our country the red flag indicates danger. Race. in South Korea white flag is used for the same purpose. Despite coming first by a very wide margin in the 800 m. Misinterpreting the white flag which had been put up at that point. i. .e.. According to her she mistook the symbol.

they could not see why they should pay those college teachers $5000 a year just for talking 12 to 15 hours a week Faculty representatives made no headway in their negotiations until one of them who had some farming experience. "a college teacher is a little like a bull.` A very interesting example of a communication made effective by the use of words appropriate to the environment in which they were used is provided by the following incident that took place in one of the agricultural states of the USA. got an inspiration.A proposal for raising the salaries of the faculty members of an agricultural college was under discussion."Gentlemen". he told the members of the administrative body. The farmers' bloc was totally against giving the raise to the college teachers . It's the importance of what he does!" . It's not the amount of time he spends.

Planning and clarifying ideas Four strategies can be followed for clarity of ideas: a) Test thinking b) Collect ideas and suggestions from others c) Support the decision of those responsible for carrying out the communication d) Increase the level of motivation Create a climate of trust and Confidence Time your message carefully .

.Reinforce Words with Action Use Feedback Use of simple and meaningful language Communication should be directed to a purpose and person.

. and Why Is It Important? Perception A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. ‡ The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviorally important. not on reality itself.What Is Perception. ‡ People¶s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is.

` ` ` To etter ersta ow eople a e attri tions a out events. . e on t see reality. e interpret what we see and call it reality. The attri ution process uides our ehaviour. re ardless of the truth of the attri ution.

` ` ` The Perceiver The Target The Situation .

Factors That Influence Perception E X H I B I T 2±1 .

` ` ` ` ` ` Attribution Theory Selective Perception Halo Effect Contrast Effects Projection Stereotyping .

Consistency: responds in the same way over time. Consensus: response is the same as others to same situation.Person Perception: Making Judgments About Others Attribution Theory When individuals observe behavior. Distinctiveness: shows different behaviors in different situations. they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused. .

` Self-Serving Bias The tendency to attribute one s successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors.` Fundamental Attribution Error The tendency to underestimate external factors and overestimate internal factors when making judgments about others· behaviour. .

Attribution Theory E X H I B I T 2±2 .

Observation Interpretation Distinctiveness (How often does the person do this in other situations?) High (Seldom) Attribution of cause External Internal Lo w (Frequently) High (Frequently) Individual behaviour Consensus External (How often do other people do this in Internal rnal similar situations?) Lo w (Seldom) High (Frequently) Consistency Internal (How often did the person do this in the past?) External Lo w (Seldom) .

experience. background. ` Contrast Effects A person¶s evaluation is affected by comparisons with other individuals recently encountered. and attitudes. . ` Halo Effect Drawing a general impression about an individual based on a single characteristic.` Selective Perception People selectively interpret what they see based on their interests.

` ` Projection Attributing one¶s own characteristics to other people. ` Prejudice An unfounded dislike of a person or group based on their belonging to a particular stereotyped group. Stereotyping Judging someone on the basis of your perception of the group to which that person belongs. .

.` Self-Fulfilling Prophecy A concept that proposes a person will behave in ways consistent with how he or she is perceived by others.

` The art of hearing and understanding what someone is saying. Listening: It is an active process. ` . one is engaged in processing the date. reconstructing the data and also giving meaning to the data. While listening. It involves the conscious desire to determine the meaning of what is heard.

or engage in a critical evaluation. ` Informative Listening ` Relationship Listening ` Appreciative Listening ` Critical Listening ` Discriminative Listening .Different situations require different types of listening. We may listen to obtain information. improve a relationship. gain appreciation for something. make discriminations.

. For example. Listeners are successful insofar as the meaning they assign to messages is as close as possible to that which the sender intended.` ` ` ` Informative listening is the name we give to the situation where the listener s primary concern is to understand the message. we listen to lectures or instructions from teachers and what we learn depends on how well we listen. In the workplace. Much of our learning comes from informative listening. we listen to understand new practices or procedures and how well we perform depends on how well we listen.

reports. if we listen poorly. Concentration is difficult.` ` 1. 2. increasing your vocabulary will increase your potential for better understanding. Vocabulary. and speeches. we aren t equipped with the information we need. You can remember times when another person was not concentrating on what you were saying and you probably can remember times when you were not concentrating on something that someone was saying to you. We listen to instructions. briefings. Concentration. . There are three key variables related to informative listening.

Sometimes listeners are too ego-involved. 2. or interest. energy.` Concentration: There are many reasons people don t concentrate when listening. 4. 3. 5. they lack curiosity. 1. Others just refuse to discipline themselves 6. Many people simply have not learned to concentrate while listening. Listeners are preoccupied with something other than the speaker of the moment. or too concerned with their own needs to concentrate on the message being delivered. Lacking the motivation to accept responsibility for good listening. .

It allows you to recall experiences and information necessary to function in the world around you. Without simple memory of the meaning of words. a. More specifically. or make common decisions in life without memory of your past experiences. you could not communicate with anyone else. react to new situations. It allows you to understand what others say.Memory: you cannot process information without bringing memory into play. memory helps your informative listening in three ways. ` . c. You would be unable to drive in heavy traffic. you could not understand the meaning of messages. Without memory of concepts and ideas. b.

Although relationship listening requires you to listen for information.` ` ` ` ` The purpose of relationship listening is either to help an individual or to improve the relationship between people. the emphasis is on understanding the other person. But it can also be used when you listen to friends or acquaintances and allow them to get things off their chests. Therapeutic listening brings to mind situations where counselors. or other professionals allow a troubled person to talk through a problem. . Therapeutic listening is a special type of relationship listening. medical personnel.

and empathizing. or attending behavior. Nonverbal cues are crucial in relationship listening. Much has been said about the importance of paying attention . Attending.` 1. . In relationship listening. attending behaviors indicate that the listener is focusing on the speaker. Three behaviors are key to effective relationship listening: attending. supporting. that is. your nonverbal behavior indicates that you are attending to the speaker or that you aren t! on.

A pleasant tone of voice. gentle touching. smiles. or yes all are positive attending behaviors.Eye contact is one of the most important attending behaviors. frowns. ` Head nods. I see. and concern for the other person s comfort are other attending behaviors. and vocalized cues such as uh huh. ` .

for example. Supporting: Many responses have a negative or nonsupportive effect. or indicating that you consider yourself superior then other behaviors that will have an adverse effect on the relationship.2. interrupting the speaker. Giving advice. . attempting to manipulate the conversation. turning the conversation toward yourself. and demonstrating a lack of concern for the other person. changing the subject.

(2) belief expressing confidence in the ability of the other person. 3. The caring. . (3) patience being willing to give others the time they need to express themselves adequately. and feel as the other feels.Three characteristics describe supportive listeners: (1) discretion being careful about what they say and do. hear as the other hears. Empathizing: Empathy is feeling and thinking with another person. empathic listener is able to go into the world of another to see as the other sees.

the person who has had more experience and lived longer stands a better chance of being an effective empathic listener. . bosses can t supervise skillfully. which sometimes means learning more than you really want to know. and individuals can t relate interpersonally without empathy. commanders can t command effectively.` ` ` Obviously. You cannot be an effective empathic listener without becoming involved.

Second. . First. you must learn as much as you can about the other person. you must have the desire to be an empathic listener. Third.` ` ` ` Empathic behavior can be learned. you must accept the other person even if you can t accept some aspects of that person s behavior. And you must remember that empathy is crucial to effective relationship listening.

It is the response of the listener. For example. I would rather listen to gospel. that defines appreciative listening.` ` ` Appreciative listening includes listening to music for enjoyment. . or film. radio. That which provides appreciative listening for one person may provide something else for another. television. to your choices in theater. or the golden oldies. to speakers because you like their style. hard rock music is not a source of appreciative listening for me. country. not the source of the message. jazz.

the style and personality of the presenter. .` The quality of appreciative listening depends in large part on three factors: presentation. to name just a few. perception. that most influences our listening pleasure or displeasure. Presentation:Presentation encompasses many factors: the medium. Perception is an important factor in appreciative listening. the setting. rather than the actual presentation. and previous experience. Sometimes it is our perception of the presentation.

Perception:Perceptions influence all areas of our lives. perceptions also determine what we listen to in the first place. they are crucial determinants as to whether or not we enjoy or appreciate the things we listen to. . Previous experience plays a large role in appreciative listening. however. we enjoy listening to things because we are experts in the area. As we said earlier. Obviously. Certainly. Sometimes. Previous experience:In some cases. listening is selective. expertise or previous experience prevents us from enjoying a presentation because we are too sensitive to imperfections.

and spiritual needs require us to place a premium on critical listening and the thinking that accompanies it. and our own financial. the media. in the community. in the family there is practically no place you can go where critical listening is unimportant. On the job. The subject of critical listening deserves much more attention There are three things to keep in mind. advocates of policies and procedures. physical. in places of worship. Politicians. intellectual. emotional. .` ` ` ` The ability to listen critically is essential in a democracy. at service clubs. salesmen.

logos. or speaker credibility. .` They are as follows: ethos. or psychological appeals. or logical arguments. and pathos.

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