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The Simple Present Tense is used : 1. For general statements of fact. It means that fact. something is true in the past, in the present, and in the future. Examples : a. Water consists of hydrogen and oxygen. b. Most animals kill only for food. c. An animal kills only for food d. The world is round. e. Sugar tastes sweet and salt tastes salty.
«..SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE 2. To express habitual or everyday activity. activity. Examples : a. I attend a lecture everyday. everyday. b. He attends a lecture everyday attends c. My classes begin at eight. classes d. He usually wakes up at 6 o¶clock in the morning. e. She always eats a sandwich for lunch.
«..SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE Negative forms of the Simple Present Tense (Subj + do/does + not + verb I) Examples : a. Water does not consist of hydrogen and oxygen. b. Most animals do not kill only for food. c. I do not attend a lecture everyday. d. She does not always eat a sandwich for lunch.
«..SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE Interrogative forms of the Simple Present Tense (Do/Does + subj + verb I) Examples : a. Does water consist of hydrogen and oxygen?. b. Do most animals kill only for food?. c. Do I attend a lecture everyday?. d. Does she always eat a sandwich for lunch?.
SIMPLE PAST TENSE (Subj + Verb II )
The Simple Past Tense indicates that the activity or situation began and ended at a particular time in the past. Examples : a. I walked to school yesterday. b. He lived in Paris three years ago. c. She bought a new car the day before yesterday. d. They visited our laboratory last Monday.
My mother buys bananas every week My mother bought bananas last week
«..SIMPLE PAST TENSE Negative forms of the Simple Past Tense (Subj + did + not + verb I) Examples : a. I did not walk to school yesterday. b. He did not live in Paris three years ago. c. She did not buy a new car the day before yesterday. d. They did not visit our laboratory last Monday.
«..SIMPLE PAST TENSE Interrogative forms of the Simple Past Tense (Did + subj + verb I) Examples : a. Did I walk to school yesterday?. b. Did he live in Paris three years ago?. c. Did she buy a new car the day before yesterday?. d. Did they visit our laboratory last Monday?.
PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE (Subj + to be + verb-ing) verbThe Present Continuous/Progressive Tense expresses an activity that is in progress at the moment of speaking. It began in the recent past, speaking. is continuing at present, and will probably end at some point in the future. Example : a. John is sleeping right now. b. I need an umbrella because it is raining. raining. c. Romi and Rina are talking on the phone.
«..PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE Often the activity is of a general nature: something generally in progress in week, this month, this semester, and this year. Example : a. I am taking five courses this semester. b. She is writing another book this year.
«..PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE
Common Nonprogressive Verbs
Mental state : know, realize, understand, recognize, believe, feel, suppose,think*, imagine, doubt, remember, forget, want, need, prefer,mean. Emotional state : love, like, appreciate, hate, dislike, fear, envy,mind, care. Possession : possess, have*, own, belong. Sense persepssion : taste*, smell*, hear, feel*, see*. Other existing state : seem, look*, appear*, cost, owe, weigh*, be*, exist, consist of, contain, include.
3. 4. 5.
*Verb with an asterisk are also commonly used as progressive verbs, with a difference in meaning, as in the following examples :
«..PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE
NONPROGRESSIVE (existing state) PROGRESSIVE (activity in progress)
I think he is a kind man. He has a car.
I am thinking about this grammar. I am having trouble. She is having a good time. This food tastes good. The chef is tasting the sauce. Don is smelling the roses. This flowers smell good. I see a butterfly. Do you see it? The doctor is seeing a patient. The cat¶s fur feels soft. Sue is feelling the cat¶s fur. She looks cold. I¶ll lend her my coat. I am looking out the window. He appears to be asleep. The actor is appearing on the stage.
PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE (Subj + was/were + verb-ing)
In the Past Continuous/Progressive Tense, there were two actions, both actions occurred at the same time, but one action began earlier and was in progress when the other action occurred. occurred. Example : a. I was walking down the street when it began to rain. b. When I came home, my father was reading a newspaper.
«..PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE Sometimes the Past Continuous/Progressive Tense is used in both parts of a sentence when two actions are in progress sumultaneously. Example : a. While I was studying in the room of our apartment, my roommate was having a party in the other room. b. While my mother was cooking in the kitchen, my father was reading a book in his room.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
8. 9. 10.
Diana «washes«« (wash) her hair every other day. «washes«« Kathy usually sits (usually, sit) in the front row during class, but today she is sitting (sit) in the last row. Please be quit! I am trying««. (try) to concentrate. trying««. (Lock, you, always) ««do you always lock the door to your ««do apartment when you leave? I ««Sent«. (send) a letter to my friend last week. She hasn¶t ««Sent«. waiting««. answered my letter yet. I am still waiting««. (wait, still) for a reply. Every morning, the sun «doesn¶t shine««« (not, shine) in my «doesn¶t shine««« bedroom window and «doesn¶t wake««« (not, wake) me up. «doesn¶t wake««« A: Look! It is snowing«««. (snow) snowing«««. B: It¶s beautiful! This is the first time I¶ve ever seen snow. It snow«« «doesn¶t snow«« (not, snow) in my country. I can¶t afford that ring. It «costs« (cost) too much. «costs« Look! It «begins«. (begin) to rain. Unfortunately, I «don¶t «begins«. have« have« (not, have) my umbrella with me. I don¶t own««(not, own) an umbrella. I wear«..(wear) a own««(not, wear«..(wear) waterproof hat on rainy days.
PRESENT PERFECT TENSE (Subj + have/has + verb III)
The Present Perfect Tense expresses the idea that something happened (or never happened) before now, at an unspecified time in the past. The exact time it happened is not important. If there is a specific mention of time, the Simple Past is used.
Example : a. They have moved into a new apartment. (They moved into a new apartment last year) year) b. I have already seen the Kabayan film. (I already saw the Kabayan film yesterday) yesterday) c. She has ever visited Bali (She visited Bali a month ago). ago).
«..PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
The Present Perfect also expresses the repetition of an activity before now. The now. exact time of each repetition is not important.
Example : a. We have had four tests so far this semester. b. I have written my wife a letter every other day for the last two weeks. c. I have flown on an airplane many times.
«..PRESENT PERFECT TENSE When used with for or since, the Present Perfect since, Tense also expresses a situation that began in the past and continues to the present. present. Example : a. I have been here since seven o¶clock. b. We have been here for two weeks. c. I have had this same pair of shoes for three years. d. I have liked cowboy movies ever since I was a child.
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS (Subj + have/has + been + verb-ing)
This tense is used to indicate the duration of an activity that began in the past and continues to the present. When the tense has this meaning, it is used with time words such as for, since, all morning, all day, all week.
Example : a. I have been sitting here since seven o¶clock. (Right now I am sitting at my desk) b. I have been sitting here for two hours. c. You have been studying for five straight hours. Why don¶t you take a break? d. It has been raining all day. It is still raining right now.
«..PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS With certain verbs (most notably work, live, work, live, teach), teach), there is little or no difference in meaning between the two tenses when since or for is used. Example : a. I have lived here since 1972. I have been living here since 1972. b. He has worked at the same store for 10 years He has been working at the same store for 10 years.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
I have not attended««. (not, attend) any parties since I came here. Ahmad arrived«« (arrive) here three years ago. ago. Dedi «has not left« (leave) for Malaysia since last January 2007. «has left« Dedi «left« (leave) for Malaysia last January 2007. «left« I have known.. (know) Greg Adam for ten years. So far this week, I have had (have) two tests and a quiz. The boys are playing soccer right now. They have been playing (play) for almost two hours. They must be getting tired. Alex is talking on the phone. He has been talking (talk) on the phone for over a half an hour. It has been snowing (snow) all day. I wonder when it will stop. We have had (have) three major snowstorms so far this winter.
PAST PERFECT TENSE (Subj + had + verb III)
The Past Perfect Tense expresses an activity that was completed before another activity or time in the past. past. Example : a. My parents had already eaten by the time I got home. b. Until yesterday, I had never heard about it. c. The thief simply walked in. Someone had forgotten to lock the door. d. Sam had already left when we got there.
««PAST PERFECT TENSE If either before or after is used in the sentence, the past perfect is often not necessary because the time relationship is already clear. The simple past may be used. Example : a. Sam had left before we got home. Sam left before we got home. b. After the guests had left, I went to bed. left, After the guests left, I went to bed. left,
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS (Subj + had + been + verb-ing)
The Past Perfect Continuous emphasizes the duration of an activity that was in progress before another activity or time in the past. past. Example : a. The police had been looking for the criminal for two years before they caught him. b. The patient had been waiting in the emergency room for almost an hour before a doctor finally treated her. c. He finally came at six o¶clock. I had been waiting for him since four-thirty. four-
Subj + have/has + verb III
I am here I have been here since 7 o¶clock He is here He has been here since 6 oclock I have a new book I have had a new book since yesterday He has a new pencil He has had a new pencil since last week