Hemlocks and the Woolly Adelgid

A presentation by Maximus Thaler, Carlos Medina and Signe Porteshawver

Invasive Species ‡ Non native species that adversely affect a foreign habitat ‡ Causes? ± Defense free space ± Enemy free space .

Woolly Adelgid ‡ Tsuga canadensis Hemlock Tree .Subject Species ‡ Adelges tsugae.

Life Cycle .

Scope of Research Increasing Scope ‡ Bio mechanics focus how does the adelgid affect water flow? ‡ Plant focus how does the trees condition (stress levels) affect infection? ‡ Forest focus how will the adelgid infestation affect the whole forest? .

canadensis in the canopy community? .Research Questions 1 Are light stressed plants more susceptible to infestation by A. tsugae? 2 Does A. tsugae infestation affect plant physiology with respect to flow rate of water? 3 What plant species could potentially replace T.

tsugae counted in 5cm segment Photo provided by Colleen Butler . chosen randomly ‡ Numbers of alive and dead A. shaded trees ‡ 3 branches per cardinal direction.Q1 Are light stressed plants more susceptible to infestation by A. tsugae? ‡ Open vs.

Q2 Does A. tsugae infestation affect plant physiology with respect to flow rate of water? Hydraulic Conductance Setup Courtesy of Bio51 Blackboard Page .

tsugae infestation affect plant physiology with respect to flow rate of water? Pressurized H2O Branch Segment Scale Photos taken by Carlos Medina .Pressure Source Q2 Does A.

Orians Photo provided by Colleen Butler Photo provided by Colleen Butler .Q3 What plant species could potentially replace T. canadensis in the canopy community? ‡ 100-m2 sampling plots set up (7.14m) as suggested by Brower et al.07m x 14. ‡ Species within plot determined using key provided by Prof.

canadensis depends on branch radius Figure 2: The effect of branch radius on specific conductivity (flow rate/pressure) of T. measured in the laboratory at Tufts University 17 November 2010. . canadensis branches (n=10).Water flow rate through T.

measured in the laboratory at Tufts University 17 November 2010.Water flow rate is not affected by adelgid infection Figure 3: Linear regression of specific conductivity (water flow/pressure) of T. . canadensis branches infected (n=5) and not infected (n=5) by A. tsugae.

. tsugae sistens found on plant segments in shaded (n=72) and open (n=72) light environments at the Fells forest reserve on 3 November 2010. cadanensis plants than on trees in open light environments Figure 1: Average total number of A. tsugae on shaded T.Higher density of A.

Betula n=4. Tsuga n=5.Pinus may come to dominate in the Fells forest Figure 4: Average relative density of understory tree genera in 100 square meter sampling areas (n=6) on 3 November 2010 at the Fells forest reserve. Error bars represent one standard deviation from the mean. Figure 5: Average relative density of canopy tree genera in 100 square meter sampling areas (n=6) on 3 November 2010 at the Fells forest reserve. . Betula n=15. Pinus n=7. Error bars represent one standard deviation from the mean. Pinus n=30. Acer n=13. Prunus n=2. Tsuga n=12. Quercus n=6.

.Hypotheses revisited ‡ H1: A. canadensis will alter future community structure. ‡ H3: Changing abundance of T. suggesting it may come to dominate. tsugae will reduce the ability of T. canadensis to transport water. ± Hypothesis not supported: Rate of water flow depended only upon the radius of the branch. ± Hypothesis supported: Pinus is more common in understory than in canopy. ± Hypothesis supported: Plants in shaded environment exhibited higher densities of adelgid sistens than plants in the open ‡ H2: A. tsugae will be more abundant on lightstressed plants.

prenhall.html .cw/index.com/esm_freeman_biosci_1/7 /1953/500185.Future research ‡To better understand why A. tsugae A better grasp on physiology can serve as the foundation of solutions to these problems. http://wps. tsugae can spread so rapidly ‡To develop a treatment plan for saving infected trees as well as determining which trees are most susceptible ‡To develop a prevention plan to stop the spread of A.

Acknowledgements ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Tufts University Biology Department Professor Orians Colleen Butler Friends of the Fells .

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