The Planning Process

Chapter 3

Planning
‡ Planning is the process of determining the organization s goals and objectives and selecting a course of action to accomplish them within the environment inside and outside the organization.

Brainstorming ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Criticism is prohibited Freewheeling is encouraged and welcomed Quantity is wanted Combination and improvement sought .

Brainstorming Activities ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Castles in the sand Communication gaps Detective work Make it worse Playmates Pretend .

Needs Assessment ‡ Collecting Data ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Demographic data User participation patterns Attitudes of employees Barriers to participation Predictions of future participation Appraisal of existing facilities and programs Health hazard appraisal Areas of improvement ‡ Analysis of Data ‡ Implications Drawn from the Data .

implications. and recommendations .Needs Assessment Report Components ‡ Title page ‡ Executive summary ‡ Introduction to the needs assessment study purpose ‡ Overview of methods and procedures ‡ Results ‡ Conclusions.

Reasons for Planning ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Helps enterprise succeed Provides direction and sense of purpose Helps manager cope with change Contributes to the performance of other managerial functions .

Steps in the Planning Process ‡ Identifying internal and external connections and relationships ± Development of a SWOT analysis chart ‡ Strengths ‡ Weaknesses ‡ Opportunities ‡ Threats ‡ Establishing objectives ‡ Developing premises ‡ Decision-making ‡ Implementing a course of action ‡ Evaluating the plan .

Classification of Plans ‡ Functional plans ± ± ± ± Marketing Production Personnel Financial ‡ Period of time ± Short range ± Long range ‡ Frequency ± Standing versus single-use .

Types of Plans ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Short Range Long Range Standing Single-use ± Budget ± Programs ± Projects ‡ Strategic .

‡ Objectives serve as ± ± ± ± ± Guidelines for action Constraints A source of legitimacy Standards of performance A source of motion .Objectives ‡ Objectives are predetermined and stated in advance. They describe future desired results toward which present efforts are directed.

Pitfalls of Planning ‡ Delegation of planning function away from top management ‡ Top management becomes too involved ‡ Failure to clearly define and develop enterprise goals ‡ Failure to adequately involve major line managers ‡ Failure to actually use plan ‡ Top management makes intuitive decisions that conflict with formal plans ‡ Failure to create a congenial and supportive climate for planning ‡ Assuming that comprehensive planning is something separate ‡ Creating a planning program that lacks flexibility and simplicity ‡ Fails to encourage creativity ‡ Top management fails to review and evaluate long-range plans .

.Benchmarking ‡ Benchmarking is a process used to identify gaps between company A s performance and other industry best practices.

Common Steps in Benchmarking ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Determining what to benchmark Prepare a benchmark Gather data about similar organizations Select benchmark companies Collate all information and visit the companies Analyzed all data gathered and communicate the results .

Manuals for Operations ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Scheduling Fitness Operations Emergency Inservice education Risk management Sales ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Repair and Maintenance Human resources Fund-raising Employee benefits Special events Membership retention Recruitment and motivation of volunteers ‡ Marketing .

Effective Delegation Requires Delegator states a clear objective Delegator determines guidelines for the project Delegator sets the deadline for completion Delegator grants the person the authority to carry out the assignment ‡ Delegator sets the deadline for its completion ‡ Delegator decides best means for final report ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ .

Why Managers Fail to Delegate ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Nobody does it better Guilt Insecurity Lack of trust Takes time .

maintaining status quo ‡ Employees eager to learn ‡ Employees with a we can solve anything attitude ‡ Accountability is based on process and results ‡ Performance management systems are aligned with and support teams ‡ Management is willing to walk and talk ‡ Strong team values are established .Transforming a Group into a Team ‡ Management values individual initiatives ‡ High level of participation v.

Site Selection Steps ‡ Research ± Designers design for people ± Maintenance and operations ± Maintenance ± Operations ± Special programs ± Facilities and their requirements .

Site Selection Steps ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Regional analysis Site analysis (21 considerations) Program Functional analysis Combined site. function and land use Refinement and site plan Overall plan .

Site Selection Steps ‡ Construction documents ‡ Bidding ‡ Construction ‡ Review .

Site Selection Considerations ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Access to site Circulation within site Parking Water Supply Sewage disposal Electrical services Telephone service Other utilities ‡ Environmental concerns ‡ Easements ‡ Zoning ‡ Historical ‡ Record of former use ‡ Climate conditions ‡ Nuisance potentials .

Site Selection Considerations ‡ Natural features ‡ Economic impact study ‡ Natural barriers and visibility ‡ Supporting demographics ‡ Security concerns .

Construction Step ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Preconstruction conference Construction change orders Pre-final inspection Prepare punch list As-built drawings Preparation of operations manual Training on how to operate .

Construction Step ‡ Final inspection ‡ Acceptance as completed project ‡ Maintenance period ‡ Bond period ‡ Bond inspection and final acceptance .

Schematic Design Phase ‡ The architect prepares ± the schedule ± the construction budget requirements ± drawings and other documents illustrating scale ± relationship of project components .

Construction Document Phase ‡ All construction drawings ± ± ± ± ± electrical mechanical structural floor plans landscaping ‡ Specifications manual .

Bidding Process ‡ Bidding ± invitation to bid ± instructions and bid form ± blueprints and specifications ‡ Advertising ‡ Opening and reviewing bids ‡ Award of contract .

and general ‡ Lump sum ‡ Lump sum with alternatives ‡ Unit prices . electrical.Bidding ‡ One contractor ‡ Three contractors ± mechanical.

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