-II Semester (PGDM-IB)


IITTM M.B.A.-II Semester (PGDM-IB)

Unit I

Communication Fundamentals

What is Communication?

families. or flip on the TV for proof.COMMUNICATION We live in a world of communication: a world in which people react violently or peacefully to a statement. and peace settles over a torn and battered nation. companies. and fifteen minutes later. and individuals in today’s world constantly act and react as a result of communication. A world leader directs a statement of hostility to another (communication). and tanks begin to roll! A president or prime minister steps down (communication). or a concept. snap on the radio. Pick up the newspaper. Nations. an action. rioting and bloodshed take place six thousand miles away. A representative speaks in the United Nations (communication). Sigband and Bateman 1981 .


but I was thinking about something else and didn’t realize you had waved to me until after I turned the corner. “Am I that boring?” (D) _______You wave at a friend. (C) _______You yawn. (B) _______You yawn. Does communication take place in all of them? (A) _______You yawn.WHAT IS COMMUNICATION? Can we ever agree on the true nature of communication? Here are some descriptions of human behavior. but he doesn’t see you. and your friend later realizes that you were tired even though she didn’t pay any attention to it at the time. “I’m sorry I didn’t wave back. and your friend says. but no one sees it.” What is communication? . (E) _______Your friend later says.

Adapted from Littlejohn 2002: p.(F) _______You wave to a friend. and although you know he is talking to you. (I) _______You give a speech to a group that is eager to hear what you have to say. and she waves back. 8 What is communication? . (H) _______Your dad lectures you for having a messy room. but it gets lost in the mail. (G) _______You send a letter to a friend. you really aren’t paying much attention.

or suggestions. written – Verbal vs. organizational .non-verbal – Interpersonal vs.Communication • Communication is the transferring and understanding meanings • The best idea. or plans cannot take form without communications • Communication can take many forms: – Oral vs.

. Communication is complete when feedback is received.COMMUNICATION Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages. message is understood. the receiver assigned the same meaning to the message as you intended. and action taken.

and stakeholders (various groups you interact with) . NGO(nongovernmental organizations).Achieving success in today’s workplace depends on effective communication among employees and their managers as well as with people outside the organisation such as customers. government. suppliers.

• Team-based Organizations:Organizations use teams and collaborative work groups to make fast decisions required to succeed in a global and competitive market place. • Market Globalization: Increasing tendency of the world to act as one market driven by technological advances in telecommunication • Workforce Diversity: Workforce is made up of people with diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds.and reach of communication. e-mail. intranet. e-commerce) increase the speed. frequency. voice mail. . extranet. faxes.Communication challenges in today’s workplace • Advances in technology: Use of new technological tools (internet.

communication can be: • between individuals • between individuals and organisations • within a business • between a business and an external organisation .Communication: The Role of ICT In business.

These are some of the types of network: chain circle wheel all-channel • • • • .Communication Communication takes place within networks.

Communication • A chain network e.g formal contact .

g.Communication • A circle network e. between people at the same level .

Communication • A wheel network e. sales teams report to head office .g.

brainstorming .Communication • An all-channel network e.g.

Communication in the business world is very different today compared to twenty years ago, because of: • Information and Communication Technology (ICT)

Examples of ICT Use
• • • • • Mobile telephones Video and tele-conferencing Lap-top computers E-mail Multi-media communications

Communication Failure
No matter what medium of communication is used, it can fail if: jargon is used inappropriately badly written messages are transmitted the message goes to the wrong receiver information overload takes place the communication channel breaks down

• • • • •

Communication Failure In the UK until recently. firms wanting to move into e-commerce have been: • prevented due to slow connection speeds • affected by lack of broadband services Go to the Activity for more on this. .

Communication in Business .

changed behaviour or changed practice • Formal Communication – established and agreed procedures • Informal Communication – channels not formally recognised – ‘the grapevine’ .Communication • Transferring information from one part of the business to another that leads to some outcome.

Communication Finance Dept Change in payment systems E-mail Sender or Instigator Channel Medium Feedback Receiver .

Communication • Methods: – – – – – – – – Verbal – face to face Written Electronic Visual Audio Group meetings Notice boards Text! .

Communication • Medium: – Letters – Memo – Report – Notice board – Faxes – Telephone – E-mail – Face to face – Body language – Video/video conferencing – Internet .

speed of transfer – Cost of the medium .Communication • Choice of Medium affected by: – – – – – Need for record Direction of the information flow Number of people to be reached Confidentiality Nature of the information – length. complexity.


The Communication Process Encoding Message Channel Message Decoding Sender Noise Receiver Feedback .

COMMUNICATION PROCESS The six steps of communication process: 1) The sender has an idea 2) The sender encodes the idea 3) The sender transmits the message 4) The receiver gets the message 5) The receiver decodes the message 6) The receiver sends feedback .

Process cont. . Express the idea.) 1.(Comm.The sender has an idea You have an idea/information and want to share it.

The sender encodes the idea When you put your idea into a message form that your receiver will understand. your audience.) 2. . and your personal style or mood. gesture). organization.Process cont. facial expression. and style. You decide on the message’s form (words.(Comm.all of which depends on your idea. length. you are encoding it. tone.

The sender transmits the message To physically transmit your message to your receiver. you select a communication channel (spoken or written) and a medium (telephone. . Process cont. face-to-face exchange). memo. report. and the media available to you. letter. your audience’s location. fax. your need for speed.(Comm.) 3. e-mail. formality required. This choice depends on your message.

Process cont. If you send a letter.The receiver gets the message For communication to occur your receiver must first get the message.) 4.(Comm. your receiver has to read it before understanding it. your receiver has to hear you and has to pay attention. . If you are giving a speech.

) 5. . Process cont.(Comm.The receiver decodes the message Your receiver must decode (absorb and understand) your message. The decoded message must then be stored in the receiver’s mind.

) 6.(Comm. Process cont. This response (feedback) enables you to evaluate the effectiveness of your message.The receiver sends feedback After decoding the message. the receiver may respond in some way and signal that response to you. .

.Example Write out the steps of communication process and use these steps to communicate to Mr. Akshay that his application for the position of Project Manager has been accepted by the company.

Communication Channels Written Communication Verbal Communication The Grapevine Nonverbal Cues Electronic Media .

. State all the barriers that you can think of that impact on your day-to-day communication.Identifying barriers Communication is about overcoming barriers.

Common barriers to communication: Apparent ‘cause’ Physiological Psychological Cultural Political Economic Technological Physical Practical Example Message in an internal report not received due to blindness. Message from external stakeholder ignored due to ‘groupthink’ Message from organisation misinterpreted by members of a particular group Message from internal stakeholder not sent because individual is marginalised Message not available to a public sector organisation due to lack of resources Message not delivered due to technical failure Message cannot be heard and visual aids cannot be seen by some members of the audience Common barriers to communication: probing for ‘causes’ .

Communication Barriers Filtering Selective Perception Apprehension Language Emotions Information Overload .

Communication Barriers 1)Perceptual and Language Differences 2)Restrictive Environments 3)Deceptive Communication Tactics 4)Distractions .

As a receiver. .Comm. you’re inclined to distort the information rather than rearrange your pattern. Selective perception: As a sender you choose the details that seem important to you.a process known as selective perception. you try to fit new details into your existing pattern. if a detail doesn’t quite fit. Barriers 1) Perceptual and LanguageDifferences: Perception is people’s individual interpretation of the sensory world around them.

1)Perceptual and Language Differences: Language: is an arbitrary (random) code that depends on shared definition . Barriers cont.Comm.

Comm. Barriers cont.

2)Restrictive Environments Restrictive environment is when information flow is limited, blocked by an authoritarian style of management.

Comm. Barriers cont.

3)Deceptive Communication Tactics Deceptive comm. (exaggerating benefits,quoting inaccurate statistics, hiding negative or positive information, displaying graphic data unfairly, leaving out crucial info.) manipulates receivers, blocks comm. and leads to failure.

Comm. Barriers cont.

• Physical Distractions: Background noise, bad connection on phone, poor accoustics, illegible copy, uncomfortable chair, poor lighting, health problems, poor air conditioning

Barriers cont. hostile.Comm. you have hard time shaping your message objectively. or fearful. 4)Distractions • Emotional Distraction: When you are upset. .

• Information Overload: Too much information make it difficult to discriminate. Technology demands instant answers. Barriers cont. sort out what is useful/not useful information. . 4)Distractions cont. e-mail.Comm. voice mail. • Round the clock accessibility: To be accessible immediately wherever whenever. Professionals are constantly tied to work by cell phones.

Physiological Barriers • Physiological barriers to communication are those that result from the performance characteristics and limitations of the human body and the human mind. .

Perception – object recognition Perception – object recognition .

What’s your perception? .

Optical illusion (1) .

Melbourne. Australia.Optical illusion (2) Port 1010 building in the Docklands region of Melbourne. Australia. 1010 LaTrobe Street. Docklands. 3008 . VIC.

Human memory processes Human memory processes: a three-stage model .

Human Memory • The sensory memory acts as a kind of temporary collectionpoint for incoming stimuli of all kinds. this limit is often identified as 6–7 separate pieces of information. • Consider the three out of ten best slogans of all time according to Inc. magazine: .

even though their organisation is acting in ways they consider to be unethical. or behaviours to individuals associated with another group. Ethical barriers to communication.Social. values. cultural and ethical barriers • Social barriers to communication include the social psychological phenomenon of conformity. values and behaviours of an individual begin to follow those of the wider group. • • . Cultural barriers to communication. these occur when individuals working in an organisation find it difficult to voice dissent. which often arise where individuals in one social group have developed different norms. a process in which the norms.

. • They can be seen as both shaping and being shaped by our established patterns of communication. all share a tendency to develop distinctive cultures. occupations. teams and other social groupings. organisations. • Nations.Cultural barriers • Cultures shape the way we think and behave.

The iceberg metaphor for culture Figure 2.indoindians.5 The iceberg metaphor for culture Source: http://www.htm .com/lifestyle/culture.

” Where are they? What is above the woman's head? • • . Africa. a Scottish missionary working in Malawi.Culture and environment Robert Laws. What you see will largely depend on where you live in the world. in the late 1800s: “The influence of culture and environment can have an effect on our visual perception.

• ‘moral deafness’. failing to speak up about issues that are known to be wrong.Barriers to ethical behaviour Three communication-related barriers to ethical behaviour in business organisations are: • ‘moral silence’. (Bird 2002) . failure to hear or attend to moral concerns raised by others. failure to recognise the moral implications of actions. • ‘moral blindness’.

In fact. but shifts in the global marketplace have forced some changes in the company. but a small layoff will certainly start next month. Your first draft is as follows: “this first layoff is part of a continuing series of staff reductions anticipated over the next several years.” . You are in charge of writing a letter on this issue. the company plans to reduce staffing by as much as 50% over the next 3 to 5 years. The size and timing of future layoffs have not been decided.Ethical choice (1) Your company has been a major employer in the local community for years.

” Do you think this suggested wording is ethical? .Ethical choice (2) Your first draft is as follows: “this first layoff is part of a continuing series of staff reductions anticipated over the next several years.” Your boss is concerned about the negative tone of the language and suggests the following sentence: “this layoff is a part of the company’s ongoing efforts to continually align its resources with global market conditions.

“Unless business conditions change.” (Too Negative) “This layoff is a part of the company’s ongoing efforts to continually align its resources with global market conditions. we anticipate further reductions in the future. but we are currently unable to identify the timing or extent of such reductions.” • • .Ethical choice (3) • “This first layoff is part of a continuing series of staff reductions anticipated over the next several years.” (Unethical) The company should be as specific as possible without causing itself unnecessary damage.

Workers Artificial. Sales representative Workforce.Overcoming Bias in Language Example Unacceptable Preferable Salesperson. Manufactured Gender bias Salesman Manpower Man-made Ethnic bias Jim Wong is an Jim Wong is very tall unusually tall Asian Workers with physical disabilities face many barriers on the job Disability bias Crippled workers face many barriers on the job .

Overcoming the barriers    Taking the receiver more seriously Thinking more clearly about the message Delivering messages skilfully  Focusing on the receiver  Using multiple channels and encoding  Securing appropriate feedback .

Guidelines for overcoming communication barriers: 1)Adopt an audience-centered approach 2)Foster open-communication climate 3)Commit to ethical communication 4)Create efficient messages .

Overcoming communication barriers 1)Adopt an audience-centered approach:Make your message meaningful for those who will receive it. . 2)Foster Open-Communication Climate:Get everyone participate share their ideas and feelings freely with everyone else.

Ethical people are trustworthy. Ethical communication includes true accurate information. fair. .Overcoming communication barriers cont. 3)Commit to ethical communication Ethics are principles of conduct that govern a person or a group. not deceptive. respecting the rights of others.

Overcoming communication barriers cont. 4)Create efficient messages: Minimize physical distractions Minimize emotional distractions .

Overcoming Communication Barriers • Constrain emotions • Watch nonverbal cues • Use feedback • Simplify language • Listen actively .

IITTM M.B.-II Semester (PGDM-IB) Unit I Types of Communication .A.

Upward communication and Downward communication 4. Internal communication and External communication 3.Types of Communication 1. Grapevine . Lateral communication 6. Formal communication and Informal communication 5. Mass communication 8. Interactive communication 7. Personal communication and Business communication 2.

Communication in organizational settings Internal • Formal communication network • Informal communication network External • Formal communication network • Informal communication network .

Internal Communication The exchange of information and ideas within an organisation .

.Internal Communication cont. up. and across an organisation’s formal hierarchy. Formal Communication Network: Information may travel down.

Internal Communication cont. Informal Communication Network: People have casual conversations with friends in the office about anything (personal and business matters) .

External Communication External communication carries information into and out of the organization. .

videotape) Marketing or public relations team’s job is to create and manage the flow of formal messages to outsiders. fax. internet. phone. website. . Formal Communication Network: (letter.External Communication cont.

Informal Communication Network: (Networking) Informal contacts with outsiders are important for learning about customer needs.External Communication cont. .

Effective Business Communication • • • • • Provide practical information Give facts rather than impressions Clarify and condense information State precise responsibilities Persuade others and offer recommendations .

Oral communication Written communication Non-Verbal communication Visual communication Audio-Visual communication Silence . 5. 6. 3. 2. 4.Forms of Communication 1.

A.IITTM M.B.-II Semester (PGDM-IB) Unit I Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication .

Defining Verbal & Non-Verbal Before we turn our attention to a detailed explanation of non-verbal communication (NVC). we need to be very clear about our understanding of the term ‘verbal’ Quick discussion – what do you think ‘verbal’ means? .

Verbal Communication • We often use the term ‘verbal’ to mean ‘spoken’ eg. “I gave her a verbal warning” • In Communication & Culture. we use the word ‘verbal’ in a slightly different and more technical way .

Definition of Verbal Verbal = communicating with words and language (as opposed to images. actions or behaviour) Verbal communication is restricted to language .

‘Design Features’ of Language • Language enables us to communicate about events beyond our immediate sensory experience • The capacity of language is infinite .

70 % is non-verbal – non-verbal communication involves gestures. eye contact … – our non-verbal behaviour is mostly subconscious . facial expressions.Introduction to non-verbal communication – in communication with others only 30 % of the communication is verbal.

For our purposes we will use a more restricted definition: “Bodily communication.Definition of NVC “All communication other than that involving words and language” • This is fine but could include everything from animal communication to films to gardening. other than words and language” .

Comparing verbal and non-verbal communication • both are symbolic. . our voice etc. communicate meaning and are patterned • all societies have different non-verbal languages • the non-verbal communication is more than just body language. the use of time and personal space.

Different categories (or types) of NVC 2. we need to establish some general points about NVC and its relationship to language and culture . The functions (or uses) of NVC Before we do this.Forms 1.

we do not. Language & Culture • When travelling. make the assumption that everyone will understand our first and preferred language • Most of us accept we must either learn a new language or rely entirely on verbal signals for communication • We assume we will have no difficulty in decoding nonverbal clues • We need to be aware of the enormous range and diversity of non-verbal behaviour . on the whole.Relationship between NVC.

What emotions do these facial expressions portray? .

care is needed in the interpretation of non-verbal clues • Jumping to conclusions about meanings of non-verbal clues can be dangerous .NVC. Language & Culture • Even in the secure territory of your own familiar culture.

whilst paying due regard to the influence of context and culture and context • Your own culture and context has an impact on the deciphering of NVC • Interpretations are both relative and subjective .Your Approach to NVC • You should suggest possible meanings and interpretations when analysing NVC.

yawning. ‘Ahhh’. IT INCLUDES: The way we speak (also known as prosodic features) Volume. intonation. ‘Ummm’ Unfilled pauses . articulation. speed of delivery. rhythm The sounds we make other than language Laughter. coughing Filled pauses such as ‘Mmmm’.Categorisation of NVC – Paralanguage PARALANGUAGE CONSISTS OF THE NON-VERBAL ELEMENTS THAT ACCOMPANY SPEECH. sighing. pitch. screeching. crying.

And there is no equivalent in English to the use of strongly nasalised speech to convey a range of emotional nuances in Portuguese” (Crystal. but in Finnish. 1987) . David Crystal points out some cultural differences: A ‘creaky’ or ‘gravely’ tone of voice is often used in English to convey unimportance or disparagement. it is a normal feature of many voice qualities.Categorisation of NVC Paralanguage There are clear variations both within and between cultures in the use of paralinguistic features.

especially for those young people who were sent to ‘finishing school’ as a preparation for ‘polite society.Accent & Paralanguage Elocution lessons were once very popular amongst the middle classes. .

glasses. piercing. hairstyle. facial hair. accessories such as bags • You only have to think of the huge industries associated with the above examples to recognise the cultural significance of physical appearance . make-up. jewellery. tattoos.Categorisation of NVC – Physical Appearance • Clothing. body adornment.

Categorisation of NVC – Physical Appearance • Includes the things with which we cover or adorn our bodies. but also the shape and size of our bodies • It is the body’s capacity to communicate aspects of an individual’s identity which makes us so aware of our physical appearance .

Categorisation of NVC – Physical Appearance • Self expression is a fairly recent development in historical terms • Many societies had (and some still do have) highly regulated codes of dress. often linked to rank and status .

such as Elizabeth I. used Sumptuary Laws and Statutes of Apparel to control what people could wear eg.Tudor monarchs. . only royalty were permitted to wear ermine trims while fox and otter trims were restricted to members of the nobility.

Categorisation of NVC – Physical Appearance • Self expression in contemporary culture is also limited by requirements to wear uniforms or to observe dress codes • Not necessarily restricted to schools and public services • Many corporations and organisations expect employees to communicate a corporate rather than an individual identity .


Further Categories of NVC Activity Body movement (kinesics) Closeness (proxemics) Touching (haptics) Eye movement (occulesics) Smells (olfactics) .

Kinesics • Gesture. posture.Body Movement . head nodding. facial expression. orientation • Emblems – gestures with specific cultural meanings attached • Illustrators reinforce words of speakers • Adapters are unconscious gestures to relieve stress or boredom • Posture is heavily laden with value judgements .

Proxemics • Study of how we use space and distance • Includes seating arrangements.Closeness . ‘invasion of personal space’ and ‘comfort zones’ • Use of objects as ‘markers’ to indicate ownership of space . queuing and territoriality • Ideas of ‘personal space’.

Touching . shaking hands.Haptics • Physical contact such as holding. stroking. hitting. kissing. guiding • Linked to proxemics • Touch is very important in our early development • Many rules and taboos regulating physical contact .

Eye Movement . changes in pupil size • We are hypersensitive to information imparted by eyes • Can be argued eyes reveal the truthfulness of what is being said .Occulesics • Eye movement. length and direction of gaze.

Olfactics • Humans do not have a particularly welldeveloped sense of smell compared with other species • Perfumes and deodorants send powerful messages.Smell . as can the natural body odours we try to suppress • A rapidly growing industry has developed around the use of smells .

these signs and codes to not always pull in the same direction .Complex Messages • Rare for these non-verbal codes to operate in isolation from one another. or separately from language • We create and perceive messages using signs from a range of verbal and non-verbal codes • To make this even more complex.

Communicative Competence This idea refers to our ability to use language not just accurately but appropriately.Compensate for possible misinterpretations in communication with others .Recognise the subtle interplay of verbal and non-verbal elements in communication . A competent communicator will: .Recognise and use different verbal and non-verbal styles as they are suited to different social situations .

The Functions of NVC • Communicating feelings. emotions and attitudes • Replacing and regulating language • Other Functions .

glances. changes in orientation allow others to know what sort of relationship we want to have • We use NVC to establish a mutually acceptable level of intimacy .Communicating Feelings. Emotions and Attitudes • NVC has a particularly important role in establishing and maintaining relationships. otherwise known as an affective function • We rely more heavily on NVC in this area of personal communication • Looks.

emotion and attitude • Puts a lot of power in the hands of a skilled communicator • Interpersonal attitudes can also be indicated by body closeness and orientation .• Non-verbal leakage – messages ‘slipping out’ in spite of our attempts to control them – ensures that high credibility is given to non-verbal cues in the area of feeling.


badges and behavioural codes such as saluting • In other organisations the non-verbal rules of the pecking order may not be so overt.Communicating Power & Status • Within organisations such as the army. positions within the hierarchy are clearly signalled by uniforms. but they are just as carefully observed .

Peter Collett’s Handshake Theory • • • • • • • • The Bonecrusher The Limp Handshake The Firm Handshake The Limpet Handshake The Clammy Handshake The Reinforced Handshake The Relocated Handshake The Upper Handshake .

This often happens with people who are selfimportant or who have to shake hands with a lot of people…Women who want to cultivate an impression of languid femininity often present a rather limp hand to the person they’re greeting. but in their case it’s to emphasise their strength. but this is not necessarily so. Strong people often do the same. in more senses than one. It doesn’t exert any pressure on the other person’s hand and it doesn’t contribute to the mutual production of the handshake. A person who offers a limp handshake is someone who. Like their hand. It’s said that Mike Tyson offers a relaxed. almost tender hand when he greets people outside the boxing ring – the complete opposite to what happens inside the ring. they remain passive and detached – they’re simply not focused on the person they’re greeting. 2003) . as Collett’s more detailed explanation reveals: “A limp handshake occurs when someone offers a hand that is totally relaxed.The Limp Handshake may seem the most likely to offer evidence of submissiveness. doesn’t connect with the other person.” (Collett.

I really enjoyed the party last night.Replacing & Regulating Language • The role of NVC in inflecting the meaning of a sentence can be explored by ‘performing’ the following sentence in different ways Well. .

tone and emphasis • Throw in other non-verbal cues such as eyebrow lifting or illustrators such as the use of the index and first finger of both hands to indicate inverted commas around a word • Number of potential meanings rapidly increases . such as pitch.Replacing & Regulating Language • Paralinguistic features.

Replacing & Regulating Language • Non-verbal cues also make a significant contribution of conversation management • Rules of turn taking allow us to have coherent discussions without constantly talking over the top of each other • Paralanguage. gaze. eye contact and head movement all play a part • It’s a set of rules that takes some time to grasp • Women typically have a more cooperative conversational style whereas men tend to provide less non-verbal feedback .

self expression .group membership .Other Functions • Many other uses to which we put our nonverbal codes including: .persuasion and rhetoric .indicating role .

Activity 1
Write and stage a brief scenario to show NVC at work in one of the following areas: - Power/status - Emotion/feeling - Attitude/Identity

Activity 2
Watch a scene from a television drama with the sound turned down, paying particular attention to non-verbal clues. Watch again with sound. How much of a contribution has the performance of non-verbal codes made to the meaning of the scene and the identity of the characters?

Activity 3
Look at the following situations. In each case try to identify a verbal form, a verbal function, a non-verbal form and a non-verbal function that could be associated with the situation. A JUDGE addressing a member of the jury who is not paying attention An upset and lost child approaches YOU in a busy supermarket YOU want to get past the doorman and into a crowded pub A MOTHER wants her teenage daughter to come home before 9 p.m.

Comparing verbal and non-verbal communication • non-verbal communication is learnt through relations with others • non-verbal behaviours can reinforce. substitute for or contradict verbal behaviour • we often trust our non-verbal behaviour to reveal our true feelings .

The universal use of non-verbal communication • there is some universality in non-verbal communication. disgust. fear. sadness. especially in facial expressions • six basic emotions are communicated by facial expressions in much the same way in most societies: – happiness. anger and surprise • but what causes the non-verbal behaviours can vary • there are also variations in the rules for non-verbal behaviour .

Non-verbal codes • PROXEMICS how people use personal space. hand gestures. facial expressions and eye contact • CHRONEMICS the use of time – M-time (Monochronic) and P-time (Polychronic) . to keep someone at the right distance – contact cultures and non-contact cultures • KINESIC BEHAVIOUR body posture.

accent. loudness.Non-verbal codes • SILENCE the use of silence in conversations • HAPTICS the use of touching – high-touch cultures and low-touch cultures • VOCAL CUES rate. articulation. objects. . decorations etc. pitch. • ARTEFACTS things. tone. pronunciation etc.

IITTM M.A.B.-II Semester (PGDM-IB) Unit II Oral Communication .

. • Oral communication also saves money. whether the receiver will acquiesce or protest. or whether the receiver has clearly under stood his meaning or is feeling perplexed or baffled. and he can mould and adjust his message accordingly. • The speaker can get an effective and immediate feedback if the speech or oral statement given makes a favorable impressing on the receiver or antagonizing him. it is advisable to transmit a message orally to save time. • Speech is a powerful means of persuasion and control and the executives often prefer to transmit messages orally.INTRODUCTION • In most of the cases where immediate action is to be taken.

CHARACTERISTICS OF FACE TO FACE EXCHANGE • Face to Face to communication may seem to be similar to Oral communication however. • A conversation in a telephone is oral but it cannot be called a face to face communication. • In some cases face to face communication is not a oral communication . there are certain situations which distinguishes the two.


• When people take pleasure in talking then tend to over communicate. so an effective statement is made only if the message delivered is arranged in a logical sequence. Conviction comes from careful planning and thinking. • Jumbled ideas create confusion.ORAL STATEMENT • An important prerequisite of effective oral communication is that words should be pronounced clearly and correctly. . Saying “Can you come to office early tomorrow?” is not as good as “Can you come to office half an hour early than the usual time?” • Lack of Conviction causes lack of confidence. • Precision makes oral communication very effective.

The speakers should cutivate a pleasing tone and speak clearly and distinctly. To avoid this it is important to carefully select the words to be used. “Basically.• The major problem with communication is the assumption that it has been accomplished. In a oral communication it is advisable to choose words familiar to the listener rather than words the speaker is familiar about.. • Some speakers create a style to impress the audience which will make it even worse. These phrases are used unconsciously & conscious effort is to be taken to avoid it. The most effective speech is that which is correct and at the same time natural an unaffected. These words interrupt the flow of speech. .. “Do you follow?”. • Speaker should avoid hackneyed phrases and clichés like “What I mean is?”.”.

. It needs to be handled carefully.DELIVERING A ORAL STATEMENT • There may be lot cases where it is required to give a oral instruction to other employees.

• Organize the instruction that is to be given which would make sense to the listeners. Do not over talk or over load with a lot of information confusing the listeners. . • If necessary practice you oral statement in writing. • Repeat if there are any complicated instructions or make it interactive so it reaches well. • Allow the listeners to clarify themselves if not clear. • Select the appropriate time to deliver the statement in such a way that neither you nor the listeners are in a hurry and you have plenty of time to explain it in detail if demanded. • Do not provide any irrelevant or distracting details. Start giving the instruction from the basic details or an overview of the subject.• Do not assume that the listener would have prior knowledge about the subject. • Use simple and clear language along with a pleasing tone. • Watch for the expressions and gestures of the listeners which is a immediate feedback and alter the style accordingly.

PUBLIC SPEAKING • • • • • • • • • • • ESSETIALS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING CHARACTERISTICS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING Body language Speak with conviction Maintain eye contact Pause Humor Audio-visual aids Handouts STOP Written Copy .

skilful development of the theme. and effective use of Plain English. Your speech should be prepared. for the particular audience and setting in which it is to be delivered. sincerity in presentation of material. and varied if necessary.PREPARED AND EXTEMPORE SPEECH • • • • • • • • • • • • Adjudicators look for knowledge of the subject matter. Length of Speech Topic Speech Writing and Preparation Writing DELIVERING THE SPEECH Make Contact! Voice Accent Pronunciation Gesture and Movement Notes and Prompt Cards .

If not you may have to do your research in the library / internet. Prepare your response and get someone to give his or her opinion on how it comes across. . or if you are unable to keep the appointment. As soon as you are invited to an interview.PREPARING FOR INTERVIEW 1. 3. 4. its products and it services. confirm with the company that you can attend. Find out as much as you can about the company. Prepare your interview techniques. arrange with them a mutually convenient time and date. If it is a local company this may be quite easy. Read through a copy of your application to the company to refresh your memory. Ask only 1 or 2 or 3 maximum 5. List questions you may wish to ask about the company/job but never ask about money directly. 2. Rehearse positive language and think of any awkward questions that may be asked.

The nature of oral presentations • Why some speakers perform badly? – Misconception of the nature of oral communication – Not connected to linguistic problems • Oral communication is different from written communication – Receiver has no control on information flow [silence] – No feedback monitoring successful comprehension – Real danger of loosing contact with the audience • Oral communication is a complement to written communication .

contributed talk in a conference.Focusing on a 15 min. .

prepare • Check your colours carefully if you don’t want bad surprises • Check carefully that your presentation works correctly in the conference computer (use pack & go/package for CD) • Keep a backup • Check that figures display correctly at the projector resolution • Dressing – Always dress a little better than the audience . prepare.Before the beginning • Do your paperwork well before... • In doubt: prepare.

unworried and friendly • even if you are close to panic (body communication & pointers) – Look to the audience in silence.The beginning • It’s normal to be a somewhat nervous/tense. building eye contact. look relaxed. then talk to them – The audience is curious and friendly towards you – Can they hear you? . but so is the audience… • The talk is for the audience – Stand out in front of the audience without any physical barrier – Face the audience.

capitalization. speed. Speech & Writing/Printing: a comparison • Speech : pitch. pauses. fonts . body movements.DEVELOPING ORAL SKILLS • 1. volume. margins. tone. facial expressions • Writing/Printing: punctuation. spacing.

fate /eɪ/. Pronunciation of Words: (a) vowel and consonant sounds • (comparison of sounds with letters a-z). about /ə/ Or the letters “th” in “thin” /ɵ/ & “then” /ð/. The letter “a” in : fat /æ/. father /a:/. communi’cation . Also notice (b) word-stress: ‘language.DEVELOPING ORAL SKILLS (continued) • 2.

Pronunciation of Sentences: intonation and rhythm INTONATION: rising / (yes /) falling \ (yes \) combination \/ (yes \/) .DEVELOPING ORAL SKILLS (continued) 3.

Rhythm 4. Voice modulation: volume & pitch variation (avoiding “monotonous speech) . Intonation 5. Clarity of articulation 7.Sounds and sound combinations 2. Stress 3.Attributes of good oral communication • • • • • • • 1. Speed: pausing 6.

Principles for Designing Listening and Speaking Techniques
(Brown, 1994)

• Techniques should cover the spectrum of learner needs from language based focus on accuracy to message-based focus on interaction, meaning and fluency

Listening Strategies
• Looking for key words • looking for nonverbal cues to meaning • predicting a speaker’s purpose by the context of the spoken discourse • associating information with one’s existing cognitive

Speaking Strategies

• Asking for clarification • Asking someone to repeat something • Using fillers and conversation maintenance cues • Getting someone’s attention

• Using paraphrases for structures one can’t produce • Appealing for assistance • Using formulaic expressions • Using mime and one-verbal expression .

1991) • Monologue (planned and unplanned) – storytelling – news broadcast – readings (short stories. poems. etc.) • Dialogue (Interpersonal and Transactional) .TYPES OF SPOKEN LANGUAGE (Nunan.

Types of Dialogues • Scripted Dialogue • Semi-Scripted • Using Picture Cues to present scenario for dialog • Discourse Chain .

Using Picture Cues .

Son Tell mother you will go buy what she needs .Discourse Chain Mother send your son to the store Store Keeper Greet the store keeper. Tell her/him what you want to buy. Tell what you have and how much Pay her and say goodbye. ask how much.