Chapter 12 Wide Area Network Services

Part III: Wide Area Networks and Internetworking Technologies

Topics Addressed in Chapter 12
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ WAN services fundamental concepts Packet distribution networks Frame relay networks Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) T-1 services SONET services ISDN Wireless WAN services Choosing among WAN services
Stamper and Case 12 - 2

Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc.

WAN Services Fundamentals
‡ There are two major categories of WAN connections:
± Circuit-switched networks ± Packet-switched networks

‡ Switching is fundamental to both approaches
± Switching technologies establish paths across networks from senders to receivers ± Switching allows connections to be established and maintained between senders and receivers so that they can exchange messages and information
Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc. Stamper and Case 12 - 3

Circuit-Switched Networks
‡ In circuit-switched networks, a switched dedicated circuit is created to connect two (or more) parties
± To users, it is as if a direct physical point-to-point path is established between sender and receiver ± Multiple-switches may be involved is establishing a switched connection (see Figure 12-1)

‡ There are three phases to circuit-switched communications:
± Creation of the temporary circuit ± Information transmission ± Circuit termination

‡ Because there is a limit to the number of switched connections that can be established at a particular point in time, circuit-switched network users may not be able to initiate communication sessions during peak usage times
Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education, Inc. Stamper and Case 12 - 4

Figure 12-1 Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education. Inc. Stamper and Case 12 .5 .

Inc. or frames ‡ Packet assembler/disassemblers (PADs) are responsible for assembling outgoing data into packets for transmission over the packet-switching network as well as for unpacking incoming packets so that data can be delivered to intended recipients Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education. data units.6 . cells. data is packetized prior to transmission ± Each packet is a group of bits organized in a predetermined structure ± Each packet contains data bits as well as additional overhead information to ensure error-free transmission to intended recipients ± Packets may be called blocks. datagrams.Packet-Switched Networks ‡ In packet-switched networks (see Figure 12-2). Stamper and Case 12 .

Inc. Stamper and Case 12 .Figure 12-2 Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education.7 .

Stamper and Case 12 .25 packet-switching networks Major overhead fields include: ± Flag: used to delimit the beginning and end of a packet ± Address: specifies the address of the intended packet recipient ± Control: transports packet sequence numbers and retransmission requests ± Frame check: used for error checking. Inc.8 . CRC-16 or a 16bit checksum may be used with HDLC frames Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education.Packet Formats ‡ Figure 12-3 illustrates the format of HDLC packets used in X.

Inc. Stamper and Case 12 .Figure 12-3 Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education.9 .

this contributes to longer packet processing times at packet switches ± The inclusion of overhead data in packets means that data transmission efficiency and throughput is lower than that in circuit-switched networks Stamper and Case 12 .10 ‡ Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education. Advantages include: ± A single-link between packet-switching nodes can be simultaneously shared by multiple senders and receivers. . Inc. senders are not denied access to the network during peak usage periods ± Packet-priority systems can be established ± Subscribers to packet-switching services are often charged on the volume of data (number of packets) transmitted rather than connection time Disadvantages include: ± Variable transmission delays caused by packet processing and packet queues at packet switches ± Some packet-switching networks support variable packet sizes.Packet-Switching Advantages and Disadvantages ‡ Relative to circuit-switching. packet-switching has a number of advantages and disadvantages.

even those associated with a single file. are routed independently ‡ Two packets (datagrams) from the same source can have two different temporary circuits established to the same recipient ‡ This type of circuit allocation is called connectionless because a dedicated connection is not established and because the packets that make up a single file do not follow each other over the same circuit from sender to receiver ± Virtual circuit approach: this is similar to establishing a dedicated circuit in a circuit-switched network. ‡ This type of packet-switching is called connection-oriented ‡ It is not identical to circuit-switched connections because the route segments in virtual circuits are shared. .11 Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education. Inc.Switching Alternatives in PacketSwitched Networks ‡ Two fundamental approaches are used to route packets from senders to receivers: ± Datagram approach: individual packets. not dedicated Stamper and Case 12 . Packets that comprise a single file (or message) follow the same route in sequence from sender to receiver.

each packet includes a logical channel number when created by the PAD ‡ There are two major types of virtual circuits: ± Switched virtual circuits (SVCs): which are similar to temporary circuitswitched connections ± Permanent virtual circuits (PVCs): which is similar to a leased. ‡ Virtual circuit details are stored in virtual circuit tables at packet switches ‡ The paths followed by packets in virtual circuits are called logical channels. these are used to identify the best path to the destination across the network. circuitswitched connection ‡ Once a PVC is allocated.12 . no call setup or call clearing is needed.Virtual Circuits ‡ Call setup packets are used to establish virtual circuits. Stamper and Case 12 . the logical circuit is permanently stored in virtual circuit tables Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education. Inc.

and store-and-forward capabilities ‡ X.S. error recovery.S.25 designation stems from ITU¶s recommendation X. Stamper and Case 12 .25 Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education. ARPAnet (and today¶s Internet) are grounded in PDN and packet-switching concepts ‡ A PDN is sometimes called an X.25 network or public data network. message priorities. frame relay services are more common than X.. ± The X.13 . Inc. network management. ± In the U.25 PDNs are more widely available outside the U.25 which defines the interface between DTE and DCE for public data networks (see Figure 12-4) ± The term value-added network (VAN) is often used in conjunction with PDNs because network proprietors offer additional services beyond mere data transmission including virtual circuits.Packet Distribution Networks (PDNs) ‡ PDN concepts were first introduced in 1964.

14 . Inc. Stamper and Case 12 .Figure 12-4 Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education.

25 protocol stack corresponds to OSI¶s network layer ± HDLC (High-Level Data Link Control) and LAPB (Link Access Protocol²Balanced) are X.PDNs and the OSI Reference Model ‡ Only three layers of the OSI reference model are described for PDNs (see Figure 12-5) because a PDN is only responsible for message delivery: ± Packet Layer Protocol (PLP) in the X. RS232 serves as the physical layer protocol for communications between terminals and packetswitching nodes Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education. LAPB plays a key role in error recovery ± X.15 . Stamper and Case 12 .25 data link layer protocols.21 is the physical layer standard for X.25 networks. Inc.

Stamper and Case 12 . Inc.Figure 12-5 Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education.16 .

25 PDN Standards ‡ X.75: defines the interface between different public packetswitching networks.28: governs asynchronous dial-up access to PDNs ‡ X.29: governs synchronous dial-up access to PDNs ‡ X.17 .21: specifies the interface between user terminal equipment and PDN packet-switching nodes ‡ X.121: defines a global addressing scheme for PDNs ‡ Several of these are illustrated in Figure 12-7 Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education. both domestic and international ‡ X.3: specifies packet assembly/disassembly processes ‡ X.Important X.25: defines interface between DTE and DCE in public data networks ‡ X. Inc. Stamper and Case 12 .

Figure 12-7 Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education. Inc.18 . Stamper and Case 12 .

Stamper and Case 12 . an ACK is sent to the previous hop ‡ If errors are detected. Inc.PDN Error Correction Processes ‡ PDNs employ node-to-node (aka hop-to-hop or point-topoint) error detection and correction (see Figure 12-8) ‡ Each packet is checked for errors at each packet switch before being forwarded to the next hop on its path ‡ If no errors are detected. packets are stored at switching nodes until positive acknowledgements are received Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education.19 . a NAK is sent to the previous hop which triggers retransmission of the packet ‡ This process means that PDNs are store-and-forward networks.

Stamper and Case 12 . Inc.Figure 12-8 Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education.20 .

less error-prone. frame relay networks point-to-point error detection and end-to-end error correction (see Figure 12-10) ± Frames with errors are discarded by frame relay switches. Inc.25. especially those in urban areas.Frame Relay Networks ‡ Frame relay is an outgrowth of X. ‡ To improve throughput over X.21 . and more reliable digital circuits to connect switching nodes. Stamper and Case 12 . support frame-relay-based Internet access ‡ Higher transmission speeds make frame relay more attractive than X.25 networks and to take advantage of higher-speed.25 for interconnecting geographically distributed LANs Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education.25 networks ‡ It is designed to eliminate much of the transmission overhead associated with X. missing frames cause recipients to request retransmission ‡ Many ISPs.

22 .Figure 12-10 Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education. Stamper and Case 12 . Inc.

25 PADs are responsible for building outgoing frames and unpacking incoming frames ± Frame relay switches which are responsible for accepting frames. and transmitting them to their next hops in the network ‡ Both switched and permanent virtual circuits are supported in frame relay networks ± Frame relay circuits.Frame Relay Technologies ‡ Key technologies in frame relay networks are illustrated in Figure 12-9. Stamper and Case 12 . Frame relay switches are typcially connected by DS-1 (T-1) or DS-3 (T-3) circuits. Inc. These include: ± Frame assembler/dissembler devices (FRADs) which like X.23 . checking them for errors. The Frame Relay Form (FRF) has addressed connections up to 622 mbps (OC-12) Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education.

Inc.Figure 12-9 Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education. Stamper and Case 12 .24 .

Stamper and Case 12 . FCEN. and DE fields are used to address network congestion during peak usage periods Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education. Inc. some may include up to 8.25 .000 characters ‡ Figure 12-11 shows a LAPD (Link access Procedure²D channel) frame relay ‡ The address field carries the recipient¶s network address as well as a data link connection identifier (DLCI) that serves the same purpose as a virtual circuit identifier in X.Frame Formats ‡ Frames are formatted by FRAD devices or software ‡ Variable length frames may be supported.25 (see Figure 12-12) ‡ The BCEN.

26 . Stamper and Case 12 .Figure 12-11 Figure 12-12 Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education. Inc.

27 ‡ ‡ Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education. These are bundles of virtual channels with the same end-points that are switched as a set. Each channel can carry a different type of data Stamper and Case 12 . ± By 2002. low-delay. full-duplex variable-rate transmission is possible over the connections Virtual paths are also supported. . packet-switching and multiplexing technology that can handle many types of network traffic and WAN services ATM represents a step in the evolution of frame relay by using frames (called cells) that do not vary in size ± The use of small fixed-size packets translates into easier switching and faster transmission rates. ATM transfer rates of 38.Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) ‡ ‡ ATM is a high-bandwidth.813 gbps had been achieved over OC768 circuits Virtual channels are used in ATM to establish logical connections between senders and receivers (see Figure 12-13) ± Once setup up. Inc.

Inc.28 .Figure 12-16 Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education. Stamper and Case 12 .

Inc.29 .Figure 12-13 Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education. Stamper and Case 12 .

ATM Cell Formats ‡ Two cell formats have been specified for ATM (see Figure 12-14): ± User-network interface (UNI): UNI cells carry data between the user and the ATM network ± Network-network interface (NNI): NNI cells carry network control information between ATM switches ‡ NNI also enables network control information to be exchanged between different ATM networks Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education. Inc. Stamper and Case 12 .30 .

Inc.31 . Stamper and Case 12 .Figure 12-14 Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education.

ATM Protocol Stack ‡ Link other packet-switching networks. Inc.) for framing and error correction out over the wire. and 3 of the OSI reference model (see Figure 12-15) ‡ Two ATM layers correspond to OSI¶s data link layer: ± User inputs (such as voice. Stamper and Case 12 . 2. these are responsible for segmenting and reassembling different types of user inputs. the ATM protocol stack corresponds to the layers 1. ATM typically uses SONET (OC-3.32 . etc. ATM switches convert cells to SONET frames and frames to cells at the port Business Data Communications (6e) interface Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education. OC-12. Five different quality of service levels are identified ± The ATM layer is responsible for final cell formatting. and video) are processed into 53octet cells at the ATM adaptation layer (AAL) before being passed to ATM switches for delivery to recipients ‡ There are multiple AAL sub-layers (see Table 12-1). data.

33 . Stamper and Case 12 .Figure 12-15 Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education. Inc.

34 . Stamper and Case 12 .Table 12-1 Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education. Inc.

‡ Each T-1 line has a bandwidth of 1.S.T-1 Services ‡ T-1 lines are among the most widely used leased digital circuits in the U. Inc. Stamper and Case 12 . 8000 frames per second can be transmitted (8000 x 193 bits = 1.54 mbps and can be subdivided into twenty-four 64 kbps channels ± Channels are differentiated via a TDM adaptation called periodic framing ± Each T-1 frame consists of 192 data bits (8-bits per channel X 24 channels and a framing bit (193 bits total)---see Figure 12-17.54 mbps) ± The 24 channels can be reallocated to users when there are fewer than 24 simultaneous users ± Reallocation of a single T-1 line among two or more subscribers is known as fractional T-1 (FT-1) Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education.35 .

Figure 12-17 Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education. Inc. Stamper and Case 12 .36 .

T-1 Service Access Technologies ‡ Businesses use a variety of services to access T-1 services (see Figure 12-18).37 . These include: ± T-1 CSU/DSUs ± T-1 multiplexors ± T-1 channel banks ± T-1 switches Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education. Stamper and Case 12 . Inc.

Inc.38 . Stamper and Case 12 .Figure 12-18 Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education.

SONET Services ‡ Synchronous optical network (SONET) is an optical transmission interface/specification for high-speed digital transmission over optical fiber ‡ SONET specifications define a hierarchy of standardized data transfer rates over optical media. Inc. for example. cross-connect switches. DS-1.39 . An abbreviated set is provided in Table 12-2 ± Each level is capable of carrying multiple lower-speed signals. and DS-2 ‡ SONET service access technologies include add-drop multiplexors. An STS-1 channel. and broadband bandwidth managers Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education. is capable of carrying multiple DS-1 (T-1) signals ‡ STS-1 frames are the fundamental data transmission format in SONET (see Figure 12-19) ± Each consists of 810 octets that can logically be depicted as a matrix of 9 rows with 90 octets in each row ± 87 octets in each row carry data and can be flexibly allocated to lower bandwidth channels such as DS-0. Stamper and Case 12 .

40 . Stamper and Case 12 .Table 12-2 Figure 12-19 Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education. Inc.

ISDN ‡ Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is widely used by business to provide digital WAN services among geographically dispersed operating locations ‡ ISDN switches are the core of the ISDN network (see Figure 12-20) ‡ Two major categories of ISDN are: ± Narrowband ISDN. This is essentially a circuit-switched digital network service that allows temporary connections to be dynamically created and terminated among ISDN subscribers. Two narrowband service levels exist: ‡ Basic rate interface (BRI) that supports two 64 kbps bearer channels and one 16 kbps data channel (2B+D) ‡ Primary rate interface (PRI) with 23 64 bps bearer channels and a 64 bps data channel (23B+D) ± Broadband ISDN (B-ISDN) which may be described as ATM over SONET Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education. Inc.41 . Stamper and Case 12 .

Stamper and Case 12 .Figure 12-20 Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education.42 . Inc.

Wireless WAN Services ‡ Increasingly.43 . Stamper and Case 12 . Inc. organizations are turning to wireless WAN services to satisfy their data communication needs including: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Circuit-switched cellular systems (see Figure 12-21) Cellular digital packet data (CDPD) ARDIS (Advanced Radio Data Information Service) Mobitex Metricom (see Figure 12-22) Personal communication services (PCS) Broadband wireless services (such as wireless T-1 service) Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education.

Figure 12-21 Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education. Stamper and Case 12 . Inc.44 .

Stamper and Case 12 . Inc.45 .Figure 12-22 Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education.

Inc. frame relay. and T-1 services to access the Internet via ISPs ± Businesses are also seeking ways to bypass traditional WAN services to route voice. security. expandability. Stamper and Case 12 . data. and video over the Internet Business Data Communications (6e) Copyright © 2003 by Pearson Education. and support for mobile users ‡ The Internet is also affecting business choices ± Many businesses are leveraging ISDN.46 .Choosing Among WAN Services: Business Considerations ‡ Businesses have many issues to consider when choosing WAN services including: ± Availability ± Data transmission rates ± Costs ‡ Other factors include: reliablity.

Chapter 12 Wide Area Network Services Part III: Wide Area Networks and Internetworking Technologies .

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