Technical Seminar



Concepts of Security 

There are three basic ,independent concepts related to security:
1.Identification 2.Authentication 3.Authorization

Requirements of Security systems  The following are the requirements which are to be satisfied by a biometric characteristic:  Universality  Distinctiveness  Permanence  Collectability  Performance  Acceptability  Circumvention .

.Biometric systems  A biometric system is a pattern recognition system which operates by :    Acquiring the biometric data Extracting the feature set Comparing this set with the templates stored in the database.

Modes of Biometric Systems  Biometric systems operate in two modes Verification Identification  The procedure of biometric system is shown in the following diagram .


Modules of Biometric Systems  There are four modules which build a biometric recognition system:  Sensor module  Feature extraction module  Matcher module  System database module .

Different Biometric Data Systems  A Recognition system can be constructed using different types of biometrics.  A Biometric is classified mainly into two types:  Physical biometric biometric  Behavioral .

Commonly used biometrics .


Other Types Of Biometrics  Some other types of biometrics used are:     SIGNATURE GAIT VOICE ODOR .

Face Recognition .

 Extraction: the unique data is obtained from the sample  Comparison: the new sample and the database template are compared  Match/non-match: decision on whether the identification is true/false is made . Stages involved in face recognition are:  Capture: a physical or behavioral sample is captured.

IMPLEMENTATION  The face recognition technology can be recognized from the following stages:    Data acquisition Input processing Face image classification .

Standard Video Camera .

Input processing  The pre-processing module adjusts the surrounding lighting conditions and also locates the eye position. At the end of this stage a feature set corresponding to an individual¶s face is obtained.  .

Face image classification The main component of image classification and decision making is the synergetic computer .


they are: False accept error. This may be due to many reasons.     Threshold value decides the performance of the system. Two types of errors may be seen in biometric systems. .  False reject error.Errors in Biometrics  Difference in the biometric samples of the same person may also occur.

Applications of Biometric Systems  The applications of the biometric systems can be classified into the following categories: 1. Commercial applications Government applications Forensic applications . 3. 2.

ADVANTAGES      Increased Security Eliminate Problems with Passwords Reduced Administrator Costs Efficient Difficult to Disguise .

DISADVANTAGES    Time-Consuming False Readings in cheaper systems Costly .

Limitations in Single mode Biometric Systems       Noise in sensed data Intra class variations Non-universality Inefficient Enrollment of data Easy spoofing for a single mode Less distinctive for a few biometrics .

.  Provides anti-spoofing measures and addresses the non-universality problem.Multimodal Biometric Systems  Increases reliability due to multiple pieces of evidences.

Modes Of Operation  The multimodal biometric systems work in three modes mainly. They are:  Serial  Parallel or Cascaded  Hierarchical .

Levels of Fusion  Multimodal biometric systems integrate the information obtained from different biometric indicators.  This fusion can be done at three stages:    At feature extraction level At matching score level At decision making level .

Configurations Of Multimodal Biometric Systems  Multi modal biometric systems can be operated in five scenarios:      Multiple sensors Multiple units Multiple biometrics Multiple snapshots of the same biometric Multiple representations .


 Biometrics can deliver reliable personal recognition and efficient security.Conclusion  Reliable personal recognition is critical to many business processes.  Properly implemented biometric systems are effective deterrents to perpetrators .

Thank you .

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